Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "The French blood in America"

See other formats


King  Henry  of  Xavarre 

Queen    Margaret    of    Xav 

John    Calvin 

Admiral   De   Coligny 

The  French  Blood 
In  America 






All  rights  reserved 















FOREWORD          .          .          .          .         .         .         .11 

INTRODUCTION    .          .          .          .          .         .         .15 



THE  FRENCH  SPIRIT       ......       25 

THE  HUGUENOTS  IN  FRANCE  .          .          .          .38 

THE  FRENCH  EXILES  IN  EUROPE      ....       64 

SUFFERING  FOR  THE  FAITH      .....        74 

LIFE  IN  THE  GALLEYS     .          .  80 





III.       THE  HUGUENOT  COLONY  IN  CANADA       .          .  .112 





THE  OXFORD  SETTLEMENT      .          .          .          .  .134 

GABRIEL  BERNON            .          .          .          .          .  .143 

THE  NARRAGANSETT  SETTLEMENT    .          .          .  .151 

THE  FRENCH  CHURCH  IN  BOSTON     .          .          .  .157 

PAUL  REVERE        .          .          .          .          .          .  .168 

THE  FANEUIL  FAMILY    .          .          .          .          .  .173 


IX.  A  DESCRIPTION  OF  EARLY  BOSTON  .          .          .  .192 
FRENCH  SETTLEMENT  IN  MAINE        .          .          .  .196 





















SOME  PROMINENT  NAMES         ..... 



JOHN  AND  STEPHEN  GANG                  .... 



NEW  PALTZ           . 














SOUTH  CAROLINA            ...... 



FRANCIS  MARION,           ...... 



THE  HUGUENOTS  IN  VIRGINIA           .... 












TION     ........ 



















ACTER  ........ 







INDEX         ........ 



Facing  page 

CALVIN,  COLIGNY,  HENRY  AND  MARGARET  OF  NAVARRE    .      .      .  Title 






THE  FANEUIL  MANSION  ON  TREMONT  STREET,  BOSTON      .      .      .  180 












ROYAL 314 



LAFAYETTE  AT  MOUNT  VERNON  WITH  WASHINGTON      .      .      .      .380 









THE  purpose  of  this  work  is  to  trace  the  pres 
ence  and  influence  of  the  French  Protestant 
blood  in  America,  and  to  show  how  important  a 
part  it  has  had  in  the  making  of  our  Eepublic.  In  re 
cent  times  no  little  attention  has  been  given  to  the  sub 
ject  of  the  Huguenots  in  America  and  their  descendants. 
Credit  for  this  is  due  chiefly  to  Dr.  Henry  M.  Baird, 
whose  history  of  the  Huguenots  is  an  authority  on  both 
sides  of  the  Atlantic.  His  exhaustive  work  deals  with 
France  for  the  most  part ;  and  his  brother,  Dr.  Charles 
W.  Baird,  has  undertaken  to  write  in  detail  that  part  of 
the  history  which  belongs  to  America.  His  task  has  not 
been  completed,  and  his  work  is  too  elaborate  and  in 
volved  to  secure  general  reading.  Various  local  mono 
graphs  have  been  published,  giving  the  history  of  some 
settlement  or  famous  family,  and  a  number  of  romances 
have  dealt  with  the  theme.  But  there  is  no  single  vol 
ume  which  presents  readably  a  comprehensive  view  of 
the  Huguenots  in  France  and  their  descendants  in  this 
country  ;  which  reveals  and  estimates  at  its  true  value 
the  Huguenot  influence  as  a  factor  in  American  religious, 
social,  and  commercial  life. 

The  story  of  the  courageous  men  and  women  who,  for 
the  sake  of  conscience  and  religious  liberty,  endured  per 
secution  and  exile,  and  found  graves  or  made  for  them 
selves  homes  in  the  New  World,  forms  one  of  the  most 
pathetic  and  at  the  same  time  fascinating  and  inspiring 
chapters  of  human  experience.  Inspiring,  because  in 
these  trying  experiences  there  was  exhibited  a  nobility  of 
character,  a  strength  of  soul,  a  superb  quality  of  manhood 
and  womanhood,  that  lends  new  dignity  to  human  nature. 
Of  this  record  every  descendant  of  the  Huguenots  may 



well  be  proud.  With  this  history  every  American 
should  be  familiar.  It  is  time  that  America's  indebted 
ness  to  the  French  Protestants  should  be  recognized. 

To  understand  the  French  Protestants  in  America  it  is 
necessary  first  to  know  them  in  France.  The  first  part, 
therefore,  is  devoted  to  the  rise  of  religious  reform  in 
France  and  the  two  centuries  of  war  and  persecution 
which  killed  off  or  drove  out  of  France  her  best  class  of 
citizens,  permanently  weakened  her  as  a  nation,  and 
paved  the  way  for  the  French  Eevolution.  The  second 
part  gives  account  of  the  various  disastrous  attempts  to 
found  Huguenot  colonies  in  North  America ;  and  the 
third  takes  up  the  story  with  the  beginnings  at  Plymouth, 
New  Amsterdam,  and  Virginia,  and  traces  it  to  the  pres 
ent  time.  The  fourth  part  groups  various  matters  of  in 
terest  germane  to  the  subject. 

This  story  has  in  it  the  elements  of  human  interest  that 
appeal  to  all  classes  and  ages.  It  is  the  author's  con 
viction  that  the  French  who  of  late  years  have  been 
pouring  into  New  England  and  other  sections  of  the 
United  States  may  be  greatly  stimulated  by  the  example 
of  their  fellow  countrymen  of  an  earlier  day,  and  be  led 
to  prize  more  highly  the  opportunities  opened  to  them 
and  their  children  through  American  citizenship.  It 
was  the  distinction  and  one  source  of  the  wide  spread  in 
fluence  of  the  early  French  settlers  that  they  assimilated 
thoroughly  and  rapidly,  as  a  rule,  becoming  American 
instead  of  striving  to  perpetuate  race  prejudice  and  pe 
culiarity.  In  this  way  they  undoubtedly  lost  recognition, 
but  gained  power  as  makers  of  the  State.  This  lesson 
should  not  be  lost  on  the  French  Canadians  of  to-day, 
who  are  sometimes  wrongly  advised  to  hold  themselves 
aloof  as  a  distinctive  class. 

While  this  work  is  intended  for  popular  reading,  great 
care  has  been  taken  to  make  it  accurate  and  fair.  Its 
facts  have  been  gathered  from  every  available  source, 
and  it  would  be  impossible  to  give  credit  in  detail.  To 


those  who  have  extended  courtesies  in  the  obtaining  of 
material,  and  aid  in  other  ways,  the  author  expresses  his 
grateful  appreciation.  He  acknowledges  special  obliga 
tions  to  Professor  Howard  B.  Grose,  for  services  both  in 
research  and  in  preparing  the  volume  for  the  press. 

The  author's  earnest  desire  is  that  this  work  may  be  a 
means  to  promote  patriotism,  quicken  appreciation  of 
civil  and  religious  liberty,  and  heighten  in  the  Americans 
of  to-day  a  sense  of  their  responsibility  to  preserve  those 
rights  and  blessings  which,  as  this  record  reveals,  it  cost 
the  Huguenots  so  dearly  to  claim  and  defend  in  France, 
and  which  they  helped  the  English  Protestants  to  estab 
lish  firmly  on  our  shores.  As  it  was  in  the  seventeenth 
century  the  mission  of  Protestant  Christianity  to  found, 
so  is  it  its  mission  in  this  twentieth  century  still  further 
to  develop  and  perpetuate,  a  free  Eepublic  in  America ; 
and  in  this  glorious  mission  the  French  Protestants  have 
their  full  share. 

L.  J.  F. 

Boston,  January,  1906. 



ANY  surprises  are  in  store  for  the  reader  who  surprises  of 

Later  History 

comes  to  these  pages  possessed  merely  of  the 

ordinary  knowledge  as  to  who  the  Huguenots 
in  America  are  and  what  they  have  done.  More  than 
one  Puritan  and  Pilgrim  tradition  has  had  to  be  given  up 
in  the  light  of  later  historical  research.  But  as  the  true 
character  of  the  people  is  disclosed,  there  will  be  no  be 
grudging  of  the  full  meed  of  praise  belonging  to  those 
French  Protestants  who,  when  driven  from  France,  found 
in  our  land  a  home  and  that  religious  liberty  denied  them 
in  their  own,  and  in  return  gave  of  their  best  to  their 
adopted  country. 

The  whole  number  of  the  Huguenot  emigrants  to 
America  was  relatively  small.  Numerically,  they  occu 
pied  a  position  of  comparative  insignificance  among  the 
founders  of  the  Eepublic.  But,  as  John  Fiske  says,  "In 
determining  the  character  of  a  community  one  hundred 
selected  men  and  women  are  more  potent  than  a  thousand 
men  and  women  taken  at  random."  And  the  Huguenot 
refugees  were  "  selected,"  if  ever  a  body  of  men  and 
women  had  the  right  to  be  so  called.  For  two  hundred 
years  France  had  been  like  a  vast  furnace  ;  the  fires  of 
persecution  had  been  refining  and  testing  until  only  the 
pure  gold  was  left.  For  two  hundred  years  the  persecu 
tion  which  had  sought  to  destroy,  had  been  cultivating, 
instead,  those  heroic  virtues  which  enabled  the  small 
band  of  Huguenot  refugees  to  America  to  write  their 
names  so  large  upon  the  honour  roll  of  the  Eepublic. 




Liberty  and 

in  England 

Truly,  the  Huguenot  emigrants  were  a  selected  people — 
selected  for  their  love  of  liberty,  their  love  of  human 
rights,  their  devotion  to  principle,  their  unswerving  loy 
alty  to  conscience.  Free  America,  Protestant  America, 
owes  a  vast  debt  to  these  Protestants  of  France. 


Before  giving  a  brief  resume'  of  the  services  which  the 
Huguenots  rendered  directly,  let  us  consider  for  a  mo 
ment  the  services  they  rendered  indirectly,  to  the  Amer 
ican  Republic,  through  England.  Guided  by  Divine 
Providence,  the  persecuted  Protestants  of  France  proved 
themselves  a  power  in  shaping  the  larger  destinies  of  the 
Eepublic.  Heading  history  in  the  light  of  to-day  we  can 
see  that  they  helped  to  lay  those  foundations  upon  which 
the  people  of  the  New  World  have  reared  their  structure 
of  Protestant  republicanism.  The  American  Eepublic 
had  its  beginnings  under  England  ;  the  hardy  adolescence 
of  the  colonies  was  passed  under  the  shadow  of  English 
political  and  religious  institutions.  American  liberties 
grew  out  of  Protestantism,  and  America  was  Protestant 
because  England  was  Protestant.  Now  the  Huguenot 
refugees  helped  to  make  England  Protestant,  and  thus 
indirectly  they  helped  to  make  America  free. 

In  the  struggle  between  William  of  Orange  and  James 
II,  when  the  fate  of  English  Protestantism  hung  trem 
bling  in  the  balance,  it  was  the  Huguenot  refugees  who 
turned  the  scales.  They  formed  the  backbone  of  the 
staunch  little  army  that  followed  William  into  England. 
"  Amid  the  chilling  delays  on  the  part  of  the  English 
people, ' '  wrote  Michelet,  * '  the  army  of  William  remained 
firm,  and  it  was  the  Calvinistic  element  in  it,  the  Calvin- 
istic  Huguenots,  that  made  it  firm."  They  formed  the 
unflinching  nucleus  around  which  the  Protestant  forces 
of  England  finally  rallied  to  drive  James  out  of  the  king 
dom,  thus  removing  the  royal  power  from  the  grasp  of 
Kome.  uBut  the  struggle  was  not  over,"  says  Gregg. 


"  Louis  XIV  of  France  was  mortified  to  think  that  his 
own  refugees  were  the  soul  of  this  defeat.  He  determined 
to  retrieve  it.  He  fitted  up  an  army  and  put  James  at 
the  head  of  it.  This  army  invaded  Britain.  It  landed 
in  the  north  of  Ireland.  There  another  battle  was 
fought,  the  battle  of  the  Boyne,  and  James  was  again 
and  finally  defeated.  Who  won  that  battle,  the  famous 
battle  of  the  Boyne,  which  carried  in  it  so  much  of  the  Battle  of 
future  and  gave  to  Protestantism  the  possession  of  the  s^h?mbe?g 
British  throne?  A  Huguenot.  It  was  the  Huguenot 
Schomberg  who  commanded  the  Protestant  forces  that 
day,  and  although  he  fell  in  the  battle,  he  left  the  king 
dom  in  the  hands  of  William  III.  Thus  it  pleased  the 
God  of  battles  to  use  the  persecuted  and  dispersed  and 
down-trodden  French  refugees  to  turn  the  helm  of  the 
mightiest  matters  of  destiny  and  to  share  in  the  glory  of 
His  providence  over  nations  and  over  the  march  of 


England  is  now  ready  to  bring  its  Protestantism  with  protestantism 
its  republican  principles  over  to  the  New  World.  This  Romanism 
it  does.  And  here  it  has  another  battle  with  Eomanism. 
It  has  to  meet  the  same  foe  that  it  met  by  the  Eiver 
Boyne,  namely,  the  foe  that  persecuted  the  Huguenots. 
Rome  determined  to  have  this  New  World,  and  so 
through  Spain  took  possession  of  South  America,  and 
through  France  took  possession  of  North  America.  As 
far  back  as  the  landing  of  the  Pilgrim  fathers  at  Plym 
outh  Eock,  Cardinal  Eichelieu  founded  New  France  in 
North  America.  He  made  this  law:  "  Everybody  set 
tling  in  New  France  must  be  a  Catholic."  None  of  the 
hated  Huguenots  was  to  be  allowed  to  enter.  This  was 
done  to  checkmate  Protestant  England.  The  English 
and  French  met  at  Quebec  and  fought  out  the  question, 
To  whom  shall  America  belong  ?  In  the  great  battle  of 
Quebec  Montcalm  led  the  French,  General  Wolfe  led  the 



The  decisive 

and  Assimila 

English.  Montcalm  fought  for  the  old  regime,  Wolfe 
for  the  House  of  Commons ;  Montcalm  fought  for  alle 
giance  to  king  and  priest,  Wolfe  for  the  habeas  corpus 
and  free  inquiry  ;  Montealm  fought  for  the  past,  Wolfe 
for  the  future ;  Montcalm  fought  for  Louis  XV,  Wolfe 
for  George  Washington  and  Abraham  Lincoln.  Al 
though  both  men  were  killed  in  that  battle,  Montcalm 
lost  and  Wolfe  won.  With  the  triumph  of  Wolfe  com 
menced  the  history  of  the  United  States. 

" France  should  have  won  that  battle;  she  should 
have  held  America  for  Eome.  She  had  the  advantage. 
She  had  Quebec  as  her  Gibraltar  and  she  had  a  chain  of 
forts  from  Quebec  through  the  heart  of  the  country  down 
through  the  Mississippi  valley  to  the  very  city  of  New 
Orleans.  She  had  also  allies  in  many  tribes  of  Indians 
whom  she  converted  to  Catholicism.  She  might  have 
won  that  battle,  IF — and  the  Huguenots  were  in  that  if— 
if  she  had  only  used  the  forces  against  England  which 
she  used  in  persecuting  and  driving  out  the  Huguenots 
from  the  home  land.  One  historian  says  that  l  the  per 
secution  of  the  Huguenots  in  France  called  from  America, 
the  important  centre  of  conflict,  the  forces  that  would  in 
evitably  have  torn  from  the  American  Protestants  the 
fair  heritage  they  now  have.'  " 


The  exact  value  of  the  contribution  of  the  French 
Protestants  to  the  building  of  the  Eepublic  no  human 
wisdom  can  estimate,  so  early,  so  continuous,  so  complete 
was  the  assimilation  of  this  people  into  the  English 
colonial  life.  Intermarriage  began  before  the  Pilgrim  or 
Puritan  or  Huguenot  came  to  America,  and  it  continued 
all  through  colonial  years.  The  French  refugees  entered 
with  earnestness  and  vigour  into  all  the  hopes  and  plans 
of  the  new  nation.  They  gave  property  and  life  in  be 
half  of  the  principles  they  had  so  eagerly  championed  in 
France.  They  faced  danger  and  had  their  full  share  of 


suffering  in  the  struggle  for  independence.  A  consider 
able  number  of  those  of  direct  Huguenot  descent  were 
men  of  large  influence  whose  ability  was  widely  and 
cheerfully  recognized,  and  whose  names  were  enshrined 
in  the  grateful  affections  of  the  people.  Of  these  refugees 
as  a  whole  body  Henry  Cabot  Lodge  speaks  as  follows  : 
' 1 1  believe  that,  in  proportion  to  their  numbers,  the 
Huguenots  produced  and  gave  to  the  American  Republic 
more  men  of  ability  than  any  other  race." 

This  statement  may,  at  first,  be  met  with  incredulity, 
but  a  little  investigation  of  the  facts  will  soon  convince 
one  of  its  correctness.  Faneuil  Hall,  "  cradle  of  liberty/7 
is  an  index  to  the  part  which  Huguenots  have  played  in 
American  life.  Its  four  walls  have  heard  the  advocacy 
of  every  great  cause  pertaining  to  the  upbuilding  of 
America.  Standing  in  Boston,  the  old  city  of  the  Amer 
ican  Revolution,  it  is  a  constant  rebuke  to  all  that  is  low 
and  degrading  in  national  life,  and  a  constant  inspira 
tion  to  every  brilliant  conception  in  the  American  mind 
that  makes  for  patriotism.  The  name  of  Faneuil 
awakens  many  precious  memories ;  thoughts  of  Hugue 
not  patriots  crowd  thick  and  fast.  There  was  Paul 
Revere,  a  leader  of  the  Boston  Tea  Party  and  the  hero  of 
the  famous  " midnight  ride7'  ;  Richard  Dana,  the  peo 
ple's  champion  in  their  fight  against  the  Stamp  Act ; 
James  Bowdoin,  who  proved  himself  a  thorn  in  the  flesh  Eminent 
of  the  royal  governors;  General  Francis  Marion,  "  Swamp  £mer£a 
Fox'7  ;  Gabriel  Manigault,  whose  generosity  saved  the 
colonial  government  from  bankruptcy;  and  a  host  of 
others.  A  Huguenot  was  the  first  president  of  the 
Colonial  Congress,  and  out  of  the  seven  presidents  of 
that  body  no  less  than  three  were  Huguenots — Henry 
Laurens,  John  Jay,  andElias  Boudinot. 

No  name  in  American  history  has  greater  prominence 
and  honour  than  the  name  of  John  Jay,  the  first  chief 
justice  of  the  nation,  and  president  of  the  Continental 
Congress,  president  of  the  American  Bible  Society,  presi- 



dent  of  the  earliest  society  for  the  emancipation  of  the 
slaves,  and  signer  of  the  treaty  of  peace  which  brought 
the  Revolutionary  War  to  a  successful  close.  Close  be 
side  Jay  stands  Alexander  Hamilton,  a  Huguenot  on  his 
mother's  side.  With  his  genius  for  organization,  his 
ability  as  a  financier,  and  his  abundant  patriotism,  he 
carved  a  niche  for  himself  on  a  level  with  the  greatest 
statesmen  of  his  day.  In  the  history  of  the  American 
navy  appears  no  more  heroic  spirit  than  that  of  Stephen 
Decatur.  In  the  Mexican  and  Civil  Wars  the  Huguenot 
blood  was  represented  by  Admiral  Dupont,  General 
John  C.  Fremont,  and  General  John  F.  Eeynolds,  and  in 
the  Spanish  War  by  Admirals  George  Dewey  and  Win- 
field  Scott  Schley. 

Descendants  of  the  Huguenots  have  been  prominent  in 
other  walks  of  life.  Among  statesmen  may  be  mentioned 
Presidents  Tyler,  Garfield  and  Eoosevelt ;  John  Sevier, 
"the  commonwealth  builder'7  ;  Thomas  Francis  Bayard, 
and  a  host  of  others.  In  law  and  medicine  their  names 
are  of  frequent  occurrence.  Stephen  Girard,  Christopher 
Roberts,  Matthew  Vassar,  James  Bowdoin  and  Thomas 
Hopkinson  Gallaudet  stand  out  as  philanthropists  and 
promoters  of  education.  The  names  of  Maury,  Dana 
and  Le  Conte  stand  high  in  the  list  of  American  scien 
tists.  Such  men  as  William  Heathcote  De  Lancey,  Hosea 
Ballou  and  William  Hague  were  leaders  in  the  church. 
While  in  literature  are  to  be  counted  such  names  as 
Philip  Freneau,  Henry  D.  Thoreau,  Henry  W.  Long 
fellow,  and  John  G.  Whittier. 

Of  the  Huguenots  it  has  been  well  said  :  "  There  have 
been  few  people  on  earth  so  upright  and  single  minded, 
so  faithful  in  the  discharge  of  their  duties  towards  God 
and  man,  so  elevated  in  aim,  so  dignified  in  character. 
The  enlightened,  independent,  firm,  God-fearing  spirit  of 
the  French  Protestants  has  blended  its  influence  with 
that  of  the  Puritan  to  form  our  national  character  and  to 
establish  those  civil  and  religious  institutions  by  which 


we  are  distinguished  and  blessed  above  all  peoples."  So 
skilled  were  they  in  the  arts,  such  a  spirit  of  economy 
and  thrift  characterized  them,  such  loyalty  had  they  to 
the  principles  of  our  national  life,  such  sane  and  tolerant 
views  in  religious  matters,  such  uprightness  and  excel 
lence  and  nobility  of  character,  such  high  and  command 
ing  genius  in  statesmanship,  that  their  presence,  even 
though  they  formed  but  a  small  body  as  to  numbers  and 
were  so  assimilated  as  to  sink  their  identity  in  the  com 
mon  body,  exerted  a  moulding  and  ennobling  influence 
upon  the  entire  fabric  of  our  national  life.  Deserving  of 
high  honour  are  Puritan  and  Pilgrim.  Let  orator  and 
historian  continue  to  sound  their  praises.  But  side  by 
side  with  them,  sharers  in  their  sufferings,  partakers  of 
their  perils,  distinguished  helpers  in  their  great  labours, 
stimulating  and  inspiring,  stood  a  smaller  company 
whose  life  and  deeds  and  spirit  were  also  important 
factors  in  giving  this  land  those  institutions  of  civil  and 
religious  liberty  by  means  of  which  she  is  steadily  ful 
filling  her  high  mission  and  successfully  working  out  her 
great  destiny. 




JOAN  OF  ARC  stands  foremost  among  the  renowned  Joan of Are 
and  remarkable  figures  of  history.  Every  French 
man  is  proud  of  her  name  and  fame.  Wherever  pa 
triotism,  valour,  consecration  and  faith  are  honoured,  the 
Maid  of  Orleans  finds  veneration.  It  is  fitting  that  she 
should  have  first  place  in  this  work,  which  undertakes  to 
trace  the  French  blood  in  America  and  tell  of  its  achieve 
ments  as  represented  by  the  Protestant  element  that  came 
from  the  Old  World  to  the  New.  To  understand  the  na 
ture  of  this  element  it  is  necessary  to  go  back  to  the 
mother  country  and  learn  what  it  was  there  ;  to  trace  the 
beginning  and  rise  of  the  independent  reform  spirit  in 
religion  which  led  to  the  Huguenot  faith,  persecutions 
and  exile. 

In  this  study  one  is  led  back  further  than  Luther  and  The  Fore. 
Calvin,  the  great  Protestant  Reformers  whose  names 
overshadow  all  others.  The  forerunner  of  the  Protes 
tants  is  found  in  Joan  of  Arc.  She  was  a  martyr  to  her 
faith,  as  dauntless  as  any  that  ever  died  rather  than  deny 
and  recant  religious  belief.  She  refused  to  consider  her 
self  unchurched,  in  spite  of  ecclesiastical  oppression  and 
cruelty,  which  relentlessly  encompassed  her  death  at  the 
stake ;  so  that  she  may  fairly  be  called  an  unconscious 
Protestant — a  true  leader  upholding  the  right  of  the  in 
dividual  conscience  in  matters  of  religion.  The  same 
spirit  was  in  Joan  of  Arc  that  moved  Calvin  and  Coligny 
and  the  tens  of  thousands  of  brave  and  noble  French 
who  were  willing  to  suffer,  to  leave  homes  and  posses 
sions,  to  endure  exile,  but  would  not  surrender  their 
rights  of  conscience  and  their  religious  liberty. 




A  Turning 
Point  for 
1429  A.  D. 

A  Strange 

Visions  and 


Early  in  the  fifteenth  century  clouds  and  darkness  had 
settled  over  France.  A  critical  point  had  been  reached 
in  the  nation's  life.  War  was  in  progress  with  England, 
and  the  fortunes  of  France  were  low.  English  conquest 
seemed  certain.  An  incompetent  king,  Charles  VII, 
was  disliked  by  the  nobility  and  distrusted  by  the  peo 
ple.  Paris  had  fallen  into  the  enemy's  hands,  and  an 
English  army  was  besieging  Orleans.  It  was  "one  of 
the  turning  points  in  the  history  of  nations." 

At  this  junction  there  came  to  the  French  commander 
a  volunteer,  declaring  that  she  had  a  commission  from 
God  to  restore  to  the  king  of  France  his  kingdom. 
Never  in  the  records  of  history  was  there  a  more  singular 
volunteer  or  declaration.  For  this  new  ally,  this  "war 
rior"  from  Lorraine,  intent  on  such  mighty  mission,  was 
a  country  girl,  modest  and  retiring  by  nature,  simple- 
hearted  and  deeply  religious,  who  had  spun  and  knitted 
with  her  mother  at  home,  and  helped  her  brothers  tend 
the  peaceful  herds  among  her  native  hills.  Joan  of  Arc 
was  born  in  1412  in  the  village  of  Domremy,  in  the 
northeastern  part  of  France,  on  the  borders  of  Lorraine 
and  Champagne.  From  her  early  years  she  had  displayed 
an  unusual  Christian  fervour,  which  led  to  her  being  re 
garded  as  peculiar,  though  she  was  most  exemplary  in 
conduct,  pure  and  artless.  She  began  to  hear  voices,  as 
she  called  them,  by  the  time  she  was  thirteen.  In  the 
quiet  home  life,  out  in  the  fields  or  at  her  weaving,  she 
experienced  moments  of  religious  exaltation.  At  such 
times  she  saw  visions  and  dreamed  dreams,  and  heard  the 
solemn  voices  bidding  her  "go  forth  to  the  help  of  the 
King  of  France."  She  became  so  filled  with  the  idea 
that  she  was  divinely  called  to  deliver  her  country  from 
the  English  foe  that  she  could  not  resist  the  impulse  to 
act.  Simple  girl  that  she  was,  in  1429,  when  she  was  but 
seventeen,  Joan  was  inspired  with  the  belief  that  if  she 
could  get  command  of  the  French  army,  God  and  sue- 


cess  would  go  with  her,  and  the  English  be  driven  from 
Orleans  and  France.  Persevering  and  dauntless,  urged 
on  by  the  voices  sounding  in  her  ears,  she  overcame 
seemingly  insurmountable  obstacles,  until  at  length  she 
reached  audience  with  the  French  officer  in  command. 
No  wonder  he  thought  her  mad,  the  victim  of  religious 
delusion.  The  real  wonder  is  that  he,  commander  of 
men,  soldier  and  not  sentimentalist,  was  at  last  so  stirred 
by  her  spirit  and  story,  and  by  something  in  her  person 
ality  which  he  could  not  fathom,  that  he  decided  to  send 
her  with  armed  escort  to  the  King. 

This  was  the  direct  result  of  Joan's  visions.     St.  Mich 
ael  appeared  to  her  in  a  flood  of  light  and  told  her 
to  go  to  the  help  of  the  King,  and  restore  to  him  his 
realm.     This  she  must  do,  since  it  was  God's  will.     She  Overcoming 
had  not  only  to  persuade  the  commander  but  to  meet  Bitter 


opposition  on  all  sides.  Her  father,  when  he  heard  of 
her  audacious  purpose,  threatened  to  drown  her,  but 
without  effect.  Her  appeals  for  aid  to  reach  the  King 
were  again  and  again  refused  with  contempt.  But  she 
persisted.  "I  must  go  to  the  King,  even  if  I  wear  my 
limbs  to  the  very  knees.  I  had  far  rather  rest  and  spin 
by  my  mother's  side,  for  this  is  no  work  of  my  choosing  ; 
but  I  must  go  and  do  it." 

They  asked,  thinking  to  confuse  her,  "Who  is  your 
Lord  ? "  "  He  is  God, ' '  was  her  reply.  The  theologians 
proved  to  their  own  satisfaction  from  their  books  that 
they  ought  not  to  believe  her,  but  they  could  not  move 
her.  u  There  is  more  in  God's  books  than  in  yours,"  she 
said.  And  by  and  by  the  French  officer  was  sufficiently 
impressed  to  give  her  at  least  her  coveted  chance  to  make 
her  strange  story  known  to  the  King. 

So  at  last  she  was  ushered  into  the  presence  of  the  as  Maid  and 
yet  uncrowned  monarch,  and  a  strange  scene  it  was.    Monarch 
This  country  girl,  never  before  away  from  her  simple 
home  surroundings,  appeared  not  the  least  daunted  by 
the  ordeal  of  a  court  presentation.     She  had  a  mission, 



A  Bold 




and  was  so  intent  upon  that  as  to  give  little  heed  to  aught 
else.  With  the  simplicity  of  a  true  greatness,  she  knelt 
before  her  sovereign  and  said  modestly,  yet  with  utmost 
assurance,  1 1  Gentle  Dauphin,  my  name  is  Joan  the  Maid. 
The  heavenly  King  sends  me  to  declare  that  you  shall  be 
anointed  and  crowned  in  the  town  of  Eheims,  and  you 
shall  be  lieutenant  of  the  heavenly  King,  who  is  the 
King  of  France." 

Imagine  the  scene  and  the  sensation  this  created.  The 
impression  was  profound.  The  King  did  not  readily 
come  to  this  conclusion,  however.  Her  proposition  to 
have  troops  placed  under  her  command,  that  she  might 
lead  them  to  Orleans  and  raise  the  siege,  was  plainly 
absurd.  Her  persistency  in  it,  and  her  calm  assurance 
in  her  success,  convinced  him  that  she  was  possessed  by 
a  devil.  She  admitted  that  she  was  only  a  pooi*  shepherd 
girl,  not  a  soldier.  "I  am  a  poor  maid,"  she  said  frankly. 
u  I  know  not  how  to  ride  to  the  wars,  or  to  lead  men  to 
arms. ' ' 

The  King  was  moved.  He  was  in  too  dire  straits  to 
turn  aside  lightly  any  offer  of  help.  This  one  seemed 
childish,  yet  there  was  something  in  the  character  and 
confidence  of  the  Maid  that  gained  friends  for  her,  and 
her  case  was  turned  over  to  the  parliament  and  university 
authorities  at  Poitiers. 

Having  made  this  point,  Joan  said :  "  I  know  well 
that  I  shall  have  hard  work  to  do  at  Poitiers,  but  my 
Master  will  aid  me.  Let  me  go,  then,  in  God's  name." 
The  learned  doctors  were  amazed  at  the  simplicity  and 
force  of  her  answers.  Asked  what  signs  she  had,  she 
replied:  "Give  me  some  men  at  arms  and  lead  me  to 
Orleans,  and  I  will  then  show  you  signs.  The  sign  I  am 
to  give  you  is  to  raise  the  siege  of  Orleans."  The  doc 
tors  decided  in  her  favour,  and  the  King  placed  her  in 
command  of  the  army. 

Nothing  was  wanting  to  make  the  scene  dramatic. 
Arrayed  in  white  armour  on  a  black  horse,  with  a  small 


axe  in  her  hand,  the  maid  of  Orleans  rode  forth,  attended 
by  two  pages,  two  heralds,  a  chaplain,  valets,  and  special 
guards.  An  army  of  ten  thousand  followed  her  from 
Chinon.  They  were  rough  men,  but  her  influence  over 
them  was  remarkably  restraining.  Her  common  sense 
was  as  strong  as  her  imagination.  She  seemed  super 
natural  to  the  soldiers,  as  she  led  them  forward  against 
the  English  who  held  Orleans  in  siege.  Her  enthusiasm 
and  fearlessness  were  electrifying.  She  displayed  skill  in 
the  management  of  forces,  including  artillery,  that  as 
tonished  experienced  generals.  Under  such  leadership 
the  French  were  irresistible,  and  the  maid's  prediction 
that  she  would  deliver  Orleans  and  restore  to  the  King  of 
France  his  kingdom  was  fulfilled. 


The  coronation  of  the  Dauphin  at  Eheims  soon  took 
place.  Then  Joan  considered  her  mission  ended  and  Fulfilled 
asked  leave  to  go  home,  saying,  "O  gentle  King,  the 
pleasure  of  God  is  done."  But  the  archbishop  urged 
her  to  remain.  "  Would  it  were  the  King's  pleasure," 
she  said,  "that  I  might  go  and  keep  sheep  once  more 
with  my  sisters  and  brothers ;  they  would  be  so  glad  to 
see  me  again."  She  was  not  permitted  to  leave,  and 
engaged  afterwards  in  several  battles  and  sieges,  but  her 
conviction  was  that  the  chief  mission  was  performed. 
At  the  coronation  she  had  occupied  the  highest  place. 
She  was  hailed  as  the  saviour  of  her  country.  Briefly 
she  enjoyed  the  high  honour  rightly  hers,  and  then  began 
the  tragedy  which  was  to  be  a  lasting  infamy  to  France. 
She  was  betrayed  into  the  hands  of  the  English,  who  shameful 
looked  upon  her  as  a  sorcerer.  She  was  brought  to  Eouen  Betrayal 
in  chains,  cast  into  a  cell,  and  fastened  by  a  large  iron 
chain  to  a  beam.  So  afraid  were  her  captors  that  she 
would  elude  them  by  miracle  that  they  caused  this  help 
less  girl  to  sleep  with  double  chains  round  her  limbs  so 


that  she  could  not  stir,  while  three  armed  men  guarded 
her  by  day  and  night. 

A.  Form  At  length  she  was  brought  to  trial.  The  bishop  of 

Beauvais  presided,  and  all  the  judges  were  ecclesiastics. 
The  trial  lasted  for  about  a  year.  Every  effort  was  made 
to  entangle  the  maid,  but  she  met  her  judges  successfully 
at  every  point.  They  asked  :  "Do  you  believe  you  are 
in  a  state  of  peace  ? ' '  She  replied  :  "  If  I  am  not  God 
will  put  me  in  it."  They  argued  that  God  had  forsaken 
her  as  her  capture  proved.  She  replied,  "Since  it  has 
pleased  God  that  I  should  be  taken,  it  is  for  the  best." 
They  demanded  :  "Will  you  submit  to  the  Church  Mili 
tant?"  "I  have  come  to  the  King  of  France,"  replied 
Joan,  "by  commission  from  the  Church  Triumphant 
above;  to  that  church  I  submit."  She  closed  with  in 
tense  feeling  ;  "I  had  far  rather  die  than  renounce  what 
I  have  done  by  my  Lord's  commands."  They  deprived 
her  of  mass.  She  said  weeping  :  "The  Lord  can  make 
me  hear  it  without  your  aid."  The  judges  asked  her: 

Protest  "Do  your  voices  forbid  you  to  submit  to  the  church  and 

the  pope?"  When  she  saw  the  judges  all  against  her 
she  said:  "I  hold  to  my  Judge,  the  King  of  heaven 
and  earth.  God  has  always  been  my  Lord  in  what  I 
have  done.  The  devil  has  never  had  any  power  over  me." 

Travesty  Nothing  was  too  base  to  attempt  in  order  to  secure  a 

justice  conviction.  A  vile  priest  was  engaged  to  secure  Joan's 

confidence  in  the  hope  that  she  might  make  admissions 
that  could  be  used  against  her  as  evidence.  The  King  she 
had  placed  upon  the  throne  left  her  unaided.  What  were 
the  charges  brought  against  her  t  Principally  these  : 
That  she  had  in  a  wicked  manner,  and  contrary  to  the 
divine  law,  dressed  herself  in  men's  clothes,  and  com 
mitted  murders  with  weapons  of  war  ;  that  she  had  repre 
sented  herself  to  the  simple  people  as  a  messenger  of  God, 
initiated  in  the  secrets  of  Providence  ;  and  that  she  was 
suspected  of  many  other  dangerous  errors  and  culpable 
acts  against  the  divine  majesty.  Was  there  ever  a  greater 


travesty  on  justice  !  Of  course  her  conviction  was  a  fore 
gone  conclusion.  On  such  flimsy  charges  the  doctors  of 
the  University  of  Paris  declared  gravely  : 

She  has  offended  beyond  measure  the  honour  of  God,  abjured  the   Charges 
faith  in  a  manner  not  to  be  expressed,  and  extraordinarily  defiled  the    slander" 
church.     By  her  idolatry,  false  doctrine  and  other  innumerable  crimes 
have  invaded  the  soil  of  France  ;  never,  in  the  memory  of  man,  would 
so  great  hurt  have  been  given  to  our  holy  religion,  and  such  damage 
to  the  kingdom,  as  if  they  were  to  let  her  escape  without  satisfying 
the  ends  of  justice.     But  were  they  to  deliver  up  the  maid,  they  would 
obtain  the  grace  and  love  of  God,  and  at  the  same  time  augment 
the  glory  of  the  faith  and  splendour  of  their  noble  and  illustrious 


The  venerable  doctors  of  the  University,  with  the 
Bishop  Beauvais,  visited  her  from  time  to  time  to  ex 
amine  her,  and  to  torture  her  with  their  questions.  On 
one  occasion  they  exhorted  her  to  make  her  submission  ; 
they  quoted  Scripture,  but  without  success. 

As  they  were  leaving  the  prison  one  hissed  to  Joan :  Joan's 
"  If  you  refuse  to  submit  to  the  church,  the  church  will  Position 
abandon  you  as  if  you  were  a  Saracen.'7  To  this  she 
replied  :  "I  am  a  good  Christian — a  Christian  born  and 
baptized — and  a  Christian  I  shall  die. ' '  Before  the  bishop 
left  his  victim  he  made  another  attempt  to  make  her  sub 
mit,  presenting  a  bait  that  he  thought  would  be  sure  to 
catch  her,  namely,  permission  to  receive  the  eucharist. 
Said  he:  "As  you  desire  the  eucharist,  will  you,  if 
you  are  allowed  to  do  so,  submit  yourself  to  the 
church?"  To  this  Joan  replied:  "As  to  that  sub 
mission  I  can  give  no  other  answer  than  I  have  already 
given  you.  I  love  God.  Him  I  serve  as  a  good  Chris 
tian  should.  Were  I  able  I  would  help  the  church  with 
all  my  strength." 

Some  of  the  judges  requested  that  in  a  more  public  Public 
place  than  in  her  prison,  Joan  should  be  again  admonished 
relating  to  the  crimes  of  which  she  was^accused  j  and  the 



Threat  of 




bishop  accordingly  summoned  a  public  meeting  of  the 
judges  to  be  held  in  the  chamber  near  the  Great  Hall. 
On  that  occasion  sixty-two  judges  were  present.  A  cele 
brated  doctor  of  theology,  a  man  of  great  eloquence,  pre 
sented  the  case  and  sought  to  break  down  Joan's  will. 
The  bishop  admonished  her  that  if  she  did  not  obey  the 
advice  given  she  would  jeopardize  her  body  and  soul. 
He  said  all  faithful  Christians  must  conform  to  the  church, 
and  after  arguing  at  length  closed  by  saying  that  by  not 
conforming  to  the  holy  church  she  placed  herself  in  the 
power  of  the  church  to  condemn  and  burn  her  as  a 
heretic.  She  .boldly  answered  :  "I  will  not  say  aught 
else  than  I  have  already  spoken,  and  were  I  even  to  see 
the  fire  I  should  say  the  same." 

Then  threat  of  bodily  torture  was  tried.  Joan  was 
taken  into  the  inquisitorial  chamber,  where  ranged  round 
the  circular  walls  were  the  instruments  of  torture.  The 
bishop  of  Cauchon,  after  an  exhortation,  said :  i  i  Now, 
Joan,  if  you  refuse  to  speak  the  truth,  you  will  be  put  to 
the  torture.  You  see  before  you  the  instruments  pre 
pared,  and  by  them  stand  the  executioners  ready  to  do 
their  office  at  our  command.  You  will  be  tortured  in 
order  that  you  may  be  led  into  the  way  of  truth,  and  for 
the  salvation  of  body  and  soul,  which  you  by  your  lies 
have  exposed  to  so  great  a  peril. ' '  Here  was  the  severest 
test  she  had  been  exposed  to.  But  her  course  rose  to  the 
moral  sublimity  of  the  Christian  martyr.  She  said : 
"  Even  if  you  tear  me  limb  from  limb,  and  even  if  you 
kill  me,  I  will  not  tell  you  anything  further.  And  even 
were  I  forced  to  do  so,  I  should  afterwards  declare  that 
it  was  only  because  of  the  torture  that  I  had  spoken 

An  elaborate  sentence  by  her  judges  was  pronounced 
against  her.  This  is  part  of  it : 

Apostate  after  having  cut  her  hair  short,  which  was  given  her  by 
God  to  hide  her  head  with,  and  also  having  abandoned  the  dress  of  a 
woman  for  that  of  man  ;  vicious  and  a  soothsayer,  for  saying  without 


showing  miracles,  that  she  is  sent  by  God,  as  was  Moses  and  John  the 
Baptist  ;  rebel  to  the  holy  faith  by  remaining  under  the  anathema 
framed  by  the  canons  of  the  church,  and  by  not  receiving  the  sacra 
ments  of  the  church  at  the  season  set  apart  by  the  church,  in  order  not 
to  have  to  cease  wearing  the  dress  of  a  man  ;  blasphemous  in  saying 
that  she  knows  she  will  be  received  into  paradise.  Therefore,  if  after 
having  been  charitably  warned  she  refuses  to  re-enter  the  Catholic 
faith,  and  thereby  give  satisfaction,  she  shall  be  given  over  to  the  sec 
ular  judges  and  meet  with  the  punishment  due  to  her  crimes. 

The  sentence  was  pronounced  that  Joan  of  Arc  be  put 
to  death  by  fire,  as  a  heretic.     Her  judges  declared  : 

By  our  present  sentence,  which,  seated  in  tribunal,  we  utter  and    Decree 
pronounce  in  this  writing,  we  denounce  thee  as  a  rotten  member,  and    Death 

thou  mayest  not  vitiate  others,  as  cast  out  from  the  unity  of  the 
church,  separate  from  the  body,  abandoned  to  the  secular  power  as, 
indeed,  by  these  presents,  we  do  cast  thee  off,  separate  and  abandon 
thee  ;  —  praying  this  same  secular  power,  so  far  as  concerns  death  and 
the  mutilation  of  the  limbs,  to  moderate  its  judgment  towards  thee, 
and,  if  true  signs  of  penitence  should  appear  in  thee,  to  permit  that 
Sacrament  of  penance  be  administered  to  thee. 

When  the  maid  heard  the  sentence  from  the  bishop, 
she  exclaimed,  "  Alas,  am  I  to  be  treated  so  horribly  and  D°^ier's 
cruelly  ?  Must  my  body,  pure  as  from  birth,  and  never 
contaminated,  be  this  day  consumed  and  reduced  to  ashes  f 
I  would  rather  be  beheaded  seven  times  over  than  on  this 
wise.  Oh  !  I  make  my  appeal  to  God,  the  great  Judge  of 
the  wrongs  and  grievances  done  to  me.  Bishop,  I  die 
through  you." 

On  the  24th  of  May,  1431,  two  lofty  scaffolds  were 
erected,  on  which  were  to  be  seated  cardinals,  doctors, 
inquisitors  and  bishops,  to  feast  their  eyes  in  seeing  the 
burning  of  Joan  of  Arc.  On  the  other  scaffold  was  to  be 
placed  the  victim,  with  the  fuel  somewhat  below,  so  the 
flames  would  rise  and  envelop  her. 

The  execution  was  ordered  to  be  carried  into  effect.   The 


She  was  covered  with  a  long  white  garment  such  as  crim 
inals  and  victims  of  the  Inquisition  were  generally  arrayed 



of  the 

in.  On  her  head  was  placed  a  mitre-shaped  paper  cap, 
on  which  were  inscribed  "  apostate,  idolatress."  She 
was  placed  in  a  cart  on  which  two  priests  mounted  with 
her,  accompanied  by  eight  hundred  troops  marching 
along  the  road.  A  discourse  was  delivered  by  a  monk  by 
the  name  of  Midi.  After  the  sermon  the  preacher  added  : 
"Joan,  the  church,  wishing  to  prevent  infliction,  casts 
you  out  of  her.  She  no  longer  protects  you,  depart  in 
peace. "  The  bishop  of  Beauvais,  the  vile  wretch  who 
presided  at  her  trial,  was  present  still  to  torment  her,  and 
said  :  "  We  reject  you,  we  cast  you  off,  we  abandon  you 
according  to  the  usual  formula  of  the  Inquisition."  She 
ascended  the  platform  and  a  chain  was  placed  around  her 
to  fasten  her  to  the  stake.  She  exclaimed  :  t  i  Oh,  Rouen, 
must  I  die  here  ?  I  have  great  fear  lest  you  will  suffer 
for  my  death."  The  fire  was  kindled.  She  saw  it  and 
shrieked.  While  the  flames  began  to  roll  around  her  she 
cried  out  for  water,  and  cried  on  God,  and  then  said  : 
"My  voices  have  not  deceived  me."  Her  last  words 
were  "Jesus — Jesus  !  "  Then  her  head  fell  on  her  breast 
and  her  pure  spirit  went  to  paradise.  Many  were  melted 
to  tears,  and  even  the  rude  soldiers  cried  :  l  i  We  are  lost ; 
we  have  burned  a  saint.  Would  God,  my  soul  were  where 
hers  is  now." 

Estimates  of 



The  eminent  English  historian,  Richard  Henry  Green, 
says  :  "  The  one  pure  figure  which  rises  out  of  the  greed 
and  lust,  the  selfishness  and  unbelief  of  the  time,  is  the 
figure  of  Joan  of  Arc." 

In  one  of  his  most  powerful  essays  DeQuincy  deals  with 
this  subject.  This  is  his  conclusion  from  the  facts: 
1  i  Never  from  the  foundation  of  the  earth  was  there  such 
a  trial  as  this,  if  it  were  laid  open  in  all  its  beauty  of  de 
fense,  and  all  its  hellishness  of  attack.  Oh,  child  of 
France  !  shepherdess  !  peasant  girl  trodden  under  foot  by 
all  around  thee  j  how  I  honour  thy  flashing  intellect,  as 


God's  lightning  to  its  mark,  that  ran  before  France  and 
laggard  Europe  by  many  a  century,  confounding  the  mal 
ice  of  the  ensnarer,  and  making  dumb  the  oracles  of  false 

To  these  estimates  we  add  that  of  Mark  Twain,  who  has 
made  one  of  the  most  discriminating  studies  of  the  Maid 
of  Orleans,  and  given  his  mature  conclusions  in  a  recent 
article  entitled  "  Saint  Joan  of  Arc."  After  a  masterly 
review  of  her  military  career — "the  briefest  epoch-mak 
ing  military  career  known  to  history,"  lasting  only  a  year 
and  a  month — he  says  : 

"That  this  untrained  young  creature's  genius  for  war  A  Genius 
was  wonderful,  and  her  generalship  worthy  to  rank  with 
the  ripe  products  of  a  tried  and  trained  military  expe 
rience,  we  have  the  sworn  testimony  of  two  of  her  veteran 
subordinates — one,  the  Due  d' Alen£on,  the  other  the  great 
est  of  the  French  generals  of  the  time,  Dunois,  Bastard 
of  Orleans  ;  that  her  genius  was  as  great — possibly  even 
greater— in  the  subtle  warfare  of  the  forum,  we  have  for 
witness  the  records  of  the  Eouen  Trials,  that  protracted 
exhibition  of  intellectual  fence  maintained  with  credit 
against  the  master-minds  of  France  ;  that  her  moral  great 
ness  was  peer  to  her  intellect  we  call  the  Eouen  Trials 
again  to  witness,  with  their  testimony  to  a  fortitude  which 
patiently  and  steadfastly  endured  during  twelve  weeks 
the  wasting  forces  of  captivity,  chains,  loneliness,  sick 
ness,  darkness,  hunger,  thirst,  cold,  shame,  insult,  abuse, 
broken  sleep,  treachery,  ingratitude,  exhausting  sieges  of 
cross-examination,  the  threat  of  torture,  with  the  rack 
before  her  and  the  executioner  standing  ready  :  yet  never 
surrendering,  never  asking  quarter,  the  frail  wreck  of  her 
as  unconquerable  the  last  day  as  was  her  invincible  spirit 
the  first, 

"From  the  verdict  (of  Eehabilitation,  twenty-five  years  The  wondor 
after  she  had  been  condemned  and  burned  by  the  Church  c  Fthe  Ages 
as  a  witch  and  familiar  of  evil  spirits)  she  rises  stainlessly 
pure  in  mind  and  heart,  in  speech  and  deed  and  spirit, 


and  will  so  endure  to  the  end  of  time.  She  is  the  Won 
der  of  the  Ages.  All  the  rules  fail  in  this  girl's  case.  In 
the  world's  history  she  stands  alone — quite  alone.  .  .  . 
There  is  no  one  to  compare  her  with,  none  to  measure  her 
by.  .  .  .  There  is  no  blemish  in  that  rounded  and 
beautiful  character.  .  .  .  Taking  into  account  all  the 
circumstances — her  origin,  youth,  sex,  illiteracy,  early 
environment,  and  the  obstructing  conditions  under  which 
she  exploited  her  high  gifts  and  made  her  conquests  in 
the  field  and  before  the  courts  that  tried  her  for  her  life, 
— she  is  easily  and  by  far  the  most  extraordinary  person 
the  human  race  has  ever  produced. " 

Reversing  the  Twenty  years  after  the  martyrdom  it  was  concluded  to 
attempt  to  revise  the  process.  The  then  reigning  pope 
pronounced  the  charges  against  Joan  to  be  utterly  false. 
He  appointed  the  Archbishop  of  Eheims  and  two  prelates 
to  inquire  into  the  trial,  aided  by  an  inquisitor  to  attend 
to  that  work.  The  decision  of  the  prelates  was  that  her 
visions  came  from  God.  They  pronounced  her  trial  at 
Eouen  to  have  been  wicked,  and  that  she  was  free  from 
any  blame.  The  church  had  decided  against  the  maid, 
and  now  it  concluded  to  turn  around.  Thus  the  investi 
gation  resulted  in  the  declaration  of  her  innocence,  or  re 
habilitation.  In  1431  she  was  pronounced  to  be  in  league 
with  the  devil,  a  heretic,  an  idolatress,  and  was  burned  at 
the  stake.  In  1456  the  French  clergy,  with  the  sanction 
of  the  pope,  declared  the  memory  of  Joan  of  Arc  free  from 
all  taint  of  heresy  and  idolatry.  And  now,  by  that  same 
church,  which  would  claim  so  illustrious  a  personage  as 
its  own,  Joan  has  been  canonized  as  a  saint. 

It  is  in  view  of  all  the  facts  that  Joan  of  Arc  is  called 
a  genuine  Protestant  martyr,  although  the  term  Protestant 
had  not  then  come  into  use.  She  embodied  the  Protestant 
principle,  as  did  Huss  and  Savonarola  and  Wycliff.  As 
an  American  writer  says  : 

i°uathearnd  "  Joan  of  ^rc  was  thus  in  the  s31116  position  before  this 

tribunal  that  Luther  was  before  the  Diet  of  Worms.     Her 



language  and  his  were  identical,  except  that  he  spoke  of 
the  Word  of  God  in  Scripture,  where  she  spoke  of  the 
Voice  of  God  in  her  soul.  Both  wished  to  obey  the 
church.  This  was  God,  speaking  to  the  soul  or  speaking 
in  the  Scripture.  The  time  came  to  Joan  when  the  church 
said  :  l  Deny  the  Voices  of  God  in  your  heart.'  The  time 
came  to  Luther  when  the  church  said  :  '  Deny  the  Word 
of  God  in  the  Bible.'  Then  both  became  virtually  Prot 
estants,  and  obeyed  the  higher  law  as  against  the  lower 
one.  The  girl  of  Domremy  was  a  Protestant  before  the 
Beformation."  And  her  spirit  was  to  live  again  in  the 

5 !0j6flf  Oceans 




Origin  of  the 





i HE  term  "  Huguenot,'7  as  it  is  applied  in  history, 
and  as  it  is  to  be  understood  throughout  this 
book,  means  a  member  of  the  Protestant  evan 
gelical  party  in  France.  It  is  therefore  equivalent  to  the 
expression  used  in  the  Edict  of  Nantes  and  other  royal 
edicts,  " member  of  the  Pretended  Reformed  Religion." 
The  Huguenot  Church  was  the  Reformed  Church  of 

The  origin  of  the  word  has  been  lost  in  obscurity,  but 
many  theories  have  been  advanced  as  to  its  derivation ; 
among  which  are  the  following  : 

1.  Hugon's  tower  at  Tours,  a  place  where  the  early 
Protestants  secretly  assembled  for  religious  worship. 

2.  Heghenen,  or  huguenen,  a  Flemish  word  equivalent 
to  Puritans. 

3.  Says  Yerdier,  in  his  Prosopographic,  ' l  Les  Hugue 
nots  ont  etc  ainsi  appelez  de  Jean  Hus,  duquel  Us  out  suivi 
la  doctrine  ;  comme  qui  dirait  les  Guenons  de  If  us. ' '     (The 
Huguenots  were  so  called  from  John  Huss,  whose  doctrine 
they  followed ;  as  one  would  say,  the  disciples  of  Huss.) 

4.  Rues  quenauSj  which  signifies  in  the  Swiss  patois,  a 
seditious  people. 

5.  Benoit  observes  that  some  supposed  the  term  had 
originated  from  an  incorrect  pronunciation  of  the  word 

6.  The  most  generally  received  etymology  is  traced  to 
the  word  Eignot,  derived  from  the  German  Eid-genossen — 
federati,  confederates  or  allied.     There  was  a  party  thus 
designated  at  Geneva. 



7.  The  word  Huguenot  was  not  applied  to  the  Re 
formed  Church  of  France  as  a  distinctive  epithet  until 
about  1560.  Then  the  term  was  applied  to  the  whole 
political  party  which  supported  the  claims  of  Henry  of 
Navarre  to  the  crown.  It  was  intended  as  a  reproach, 
and  soon  became  synonymous  with  Reformer.  Cardinal 
Richelieu  captured  the  city  of  Rochelle,  the  stronghold 
of  the  Protestants,  and  by  1628  had  broken  up  the 
political  organization  of  the  Huguenots,  leaving  only  the 
religious  organization  as  the  bond  of  union  for  the  Re 
formed  in  religion.  In  1660  the  religious  organization 
was  also  practically  wiped  out  of  existence  by  the 
Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes.  But  the  name  and 
the  Reformed  religion  have  both  survived  in  France, 
while  the  descendants  of  the  Reformers  have  spread  their 
influence  around  the  globe. 


Early  in  the  sixteenth  century  the  corruptions  and  corruption  in 
abuses  of  the  Roman   Catholic   Church  in  France  be-   theChurch 
came  so  wide  spread  that  thinking  men  could  no  longer 
remain  blind  to  them,  but  were  forced  to  recognize  that 
ignorance,  superstition  and  immorality  prevailed  through 
out  the  whole  organization. 

The  immorality  of  the  clergy  was  notorious.  So  bad 
were  the  lives  of  most  of  the  ecclesiastics  that  the  ex 
pressions  "Idle  as  a  priest "  and  "Lewd  and  greedy  as 
a  monk"  became  popular  proverbs.  From  bishop  to 
friar  the  spiritual  leaders  of  the  people  were  debauched 
and  corrupt.  The  great  dignitaries  of  the  church  gave  immorality 
themselves  up  to  a  life  of  pleasure  on  a  magnificent 
scale  ;  no  courtier  could  outrival  them  in  their  luxurious 
dissipation,  their  banquets,  drinking  bouts,  games  and 
revels.  The  only  care  of  the  priests  was  to  extort  as 
much  money  out  of  the  people  as  they  could  possibly 
squeeze,  and  they  saw  to  it  that  none  of  their  wealth  was 
wasted  in  helping  the  poor  and  distressed.  Like  their 


superiors  they  were  devoted  body  and  soul  to  a  ceaseless 
round  of  sensual  pleasures.  The  monastic  orders  were 
no  better,  and  filth  and  gluttony  rioted  among  them. 
In  speaking  of  them,  a  contemporary  Eomish  writer 
says:  "Generally  the  monks  elected  the  most  jovial 
companion,  him  who  was  the  most  fond  of  women,  dogs, 
and  birds,  the  deepest  drinker — in  short,  the  most  dis 
sipated  ;  and  this  in  order  that,  when  they  had  made 
him  abbot  or  prior,  they  might  be  permitted  to  indulge 
in  similar  debauch  and  pleasure. " 

The  ignorance  of  the  clergy  in  spiritual  matters  was 
equalled  only  by  their  debauchery.  A  few  scraps  of 
Vulgate  Latin  with  which  to  conduct  the  mass,  a  slender 
stock  of  "Aves"  and  "  Paters,"  sufficed  for  the  rank 
and  file  of  the  priesthood.  Of  the  Bible  they  literally 
knew  nothing  at  all.  But  this  cannot  be  wondered  at 
when  even  the  professed  teachers  of  theology  showed  a 
marvellous  ignorance  of  the  Holy  Scriptures.  Eobert 
Etienne,  a  famous  scholar  and  printer  who  was  born  in 
1503,  wrote  as  follows  concerning  the  Biblical  knowledge 
of  the  theologians  of  the  Sorbonne  :  "  In  those  times,  as 
I  can  affirm  with  truth,  when  I  asked  them  in  what  part  of 
The  New  the  £j"ew  Testament  some  matter  was  written,  they  used 


unknown  to  answer  that  they  had  read  it  in  Saint  Jerome  or  in  the 
Decretals,  but  that  they  did  not  know  what  the  New 
Testament  was,  not  being  aware  that  it  was  customary 
to  print  it  after  the  Old.  What  I  am  going  to  state  will 
appear  almost  a  prodigy,  and  yet  there  is  nothing  more 
true  nor  better  proven :  Not  long  since,  a  member  of 
their  college  used  daily  to  say,  I  am  amazed  that  these 
young  people  keep  bringing  up  the  New  Testament  to 
us.  I  was  more  than  fifty  years  old  before  I  knew  any 
thing  about  the  New  Testament !  " 

If  the  theologians  had  such  a  slight  acquaintance 
with  the  teachings  of  Christ  the  people  could  well  be  for 
given  for  not  having  any  knowledge  at  all  of  Him. 
There  was  no  translation  of  the  Bible  into  French,  and 


as  the  popular  education  of  that  day  did  not  include 
Greek  or  Hebrew,  the  Gospels  remained  safely  hidden 
from  the  French  people. 

Superstition  flourished  in  the  soil  prepared  by  im-  superstition 
morality  and  ignorance.  The  worship  of  a  living  God  Limit°u 
was  swallowed  up  in  reverence  for  the  relics  of  saints 
and  for  pictures  and  statues  of  them.  There  seemed  to 
be  no  limit  to  the  popular  credulity,  and  the  grossest  de 
ceptions  aroused  no  suspicions  among  the  faithful.  In 
one  church  the  hair  of  the  Virgin  was  to  be  seen,  in  an 
other  the  people  were  accustomed  to  worship  the  sword 
of  the  archangel  Michael,  in  still  another  the  veritable 
stones  with  which  St.  Stephen  was  killed  were  carefully 
preserved.  Indeed  there  were  enough  of  these  stones  in 
the  churches  of  France  to  furnish  sufficient  material  for 
a  respectable  wall,  just  as  there  were  so  many  crowns  of 
thorns  as  to  lead  one  to  believe  that  a  whole  hedge  must 
have  been  used  in  the  making  of  them.  St.  Dionysius' 
body  lay  in  state  at  Eatisbon  as  well  as  at  Saint  Denis, 
but  he  was  no  more  fortunate  in  this  respect  than  the 
other  saints,  most  of  whom  could  boast  of  having  two  or 
three  bodies;  and  much  less  so  than  the  apostles,  who 
were  all  credited  with  having  at  least  four  bodies  apiece, 
besides  numerous  and  seemingly  unnecessary  duplicate 
finger  and  toe  joints.  The  extreme  to  which  this  wor 
ship  of  relics  was  carried  may  be  seen  from  the  following 
partial  list  of  the  treasures  of  the  Sainte  Chapelle  in 
Paris :  the  crown  of  thorns,  Aaron's  rod  that  budded, 
the  great  crown  of  St.  Louis,  the  head  of  the  holy  lance, 
one  of  the  nails  used  in  our  Lord's  crucifixion,  the  tables 
of  stone,  some  of  the  blood  of  Christ,  the  purple  robe, 
and  the  milk  of  the  Holy  Virgin. 

But  the  superstitions  fostered  by  the  church  were  not 
confined  to  a  belief  in  marvellous  relics.     The  people  popular 
were  stimulated  to  fresh  zeal  and  increased  contributions 
by  means  of  miracles  which  caused  great  amazement 
everywhere  except  in  the  minds  of  the  ingenious  priests 



The  First 




who  got  them  up.  A  fair  example  of  these  l  i  miracles ' ' 
is  that  of  the  well-known  '  <  ghost  of  Orleans. ' '  A  wealthy 
lady,  having  died,  was  buried  without  the  usual  gifts  for 
the  welfare  of  her  soul  being  made  to  the  church.  The 
Franciscans  of  that  city  accordingly  hit  upon  a  scheme 
to  make  use  of  her  for  purpose  of  warning  to  others  who 
might  also  be  tempted  to  forget  the  church  in  their  wills. 
A  series  of  distinct  tappings  was  heard  to  issue  from  her 
tomb,  and  these  were  explained  to  the  awe- struck  people 
as  signs  of  her  approaching  doom  and  of  her  desire  to 
have  her  heresy -polluted  body  removed  from  consecrated 
ground.  Unfortunately  for  their  plans,  one  of  their 
number  was  discovered  hidden  above  the  ceiling  whence 
the  mysterious  sounds  had  come.  But  for  every  one  of 
these  impostures  which  was  exposed  there  were  a  hun 
dred  which  were  widely  credited  as  veritable  miracles. 


Guillaume  Bri£onnet,  Bishop  of  Meaux,  was  among 
the  number  who  realized  how  urgent  was  the  need  of  re 
forming  the  church.  Eesolving  to  commence  the  work 
of  reformation  in  his  own  diocese,  he  invited  to  Meaux  a 
small  handful  of  able  and  earnest  men  whom  he  knew  to 
be  advocates  of  a  purer  and  more  spiritual  Christianity. 
Among  them  was  the  famous  scholar  Jacques  LeFevre, 
of  Staples,  and  his  no  less  famous  pupil,  Guillaume 
Farel,  whose  staunch  heart  put  courage  and  good  cheer 
into  his  comrades.  The  teacher  had  prophetic  insight. 
Before  the  close  of  the  fifteenth  century,  the  amiable 
Professor  LeFevre  said  one  day  to  Farel,  l  i  My  dear 
William,  God  will  renew  the  world  ;  and  you  will  see 
it."  Dissatisfied  with  his  own  attainments  in  religion, 
and  with  the  standard  of  knowledge  and  piety  around 
him,  this  great  scholar  had  begun  to  drink  from  the 
pure  fountain  of  the  Gospel  of  Christ  in  the  original 
language,  and  was  giving  out  liberal  draughts  to  those  at 
tending  upon  his  lectures. 


The  Bible  was  the  cause  of  the  Beformation  in  France, 
as  in  all  lands.  In  the  fifteenth  century  an  eager  demand 
had  sprung  up  in  France  for  the  Scriptures,  editions  of 
which  had  been  printed  in  Antwerp,  some  versions  in 
French  for  the  Walloons.  The  translation  that  super-  Effect  of  the 
seded  all  others  in  French  was  made  by  LeFevre,  who 
may  on  this  account  be  ranked  as  the  first  of  the  Hugue 
nots.  The  effects  were  the  same  wherever  the  Book 
appeared.  It  was  the  accidental  sight  of  a  copy  of  one 
of  Gutenberg's  Bibles  in  the  library  of  the  Erfurt  con 
vent  that  transformed  local  monk  Luther  into  the  Protes 
tant  World  Eeformer.  So  in  France,  the  reading  of  the 
Bible  by  the  people  was  followed  by  an  immediate  reac 
tion  against  the  superstition,  indifferentism  and  impiety 
which  generally  prevailed.  There  was  a  sudden  awaken 
ing  to  a  new  religious  life.  The  sentiment  of  right  was 
created,  and  a  new  sense  of  manhood  was  born. 

Under  the  protection  of  Margaret  of  Angouleme,  wife 
of  the  King  of  Navarre  and  only  sister  to  Francis  I,  King 
of  France,  the  reformation  at  Meaux  proceeded  with  great 
rapidity.  The  gospel  was  preached  from  the  pulpits,  and 
copies  of  the  Bible  were  spread  broadcast  among  the 
people.  In  the  pure  light  of  God's  Word  the  gross 
superstitions  of  the  Eomish  church  faded  as  mists  before 
the  sun,  and  the  inhabitants  of  Meaux  soon  came  to  value 
spiritual  truths  above  saintly  relics  and  waxen  images. 

But  all  this  did  not  escape  the  jealous  eyes  of  the  ££^recrhofthe 
church  which  based  its  wealth  and  power  on  the  igno 
rance  of  the  people.  Strong  pressure  from  Eome  was 
brought  to  bear  on  the  King,  and  in  spite  of  the  efforts 
of  Margaret,  who  was  distinguished  by  her  humanity 
towards  the  Protestants  from  first  to  last,  the  work  of 
stamping  out  the  heresy  was  begun.  Briconnet,  in  order 
to  save  his  life,  was  forced  to  aid  in  the  work  of  blotting 
out  the  reforms  he  had  himself  helped  to  institute.  One 
by  one  the  reformers  were  compelled  to  leave  Meaux  and 
take  up  their  work  more  quietly  in  other  places.  But 



Leclerc  the 
First  Martyr 


the  poor  people  of  the  town  remained  behind,  and  the 
tenacity  with  which  they  clung  to  the  "new  doctrines" 
showed  how  crying  had  been  their  need  of  a  message  of 

Jean  Leclerc,  a  wool -carder,  was  the  first  upon  whom 
the  church  vented  its  fury.  Accused  of  irreverence,  he 
was  taken  to  Paris  for  trial  and  was  condemned  to  be 
whipped  through  the  streets  of  that  city  for  three  suc 
cessive  days,  then  to  go  through  a  like  punishment  at 
Meaux,  after  which  he  was  to  be  branded  on  the  forehead 
with  a  hot  iron  and  banished  from  the  kingdom.  As  the 
iron  was  being  applied  to  his  brow  his  aged  mother  cried 
out  in  her  anguish,  "  Vive  J6su  Christ  et  ses  enseignes  ! " 
(Live  Jesus  Christ  and  His  witnesses  !)  Leclerc  then  made 
his  way  to  Metz  and  there  took  up  his  trade  again. 
Undaunted  by  his  terrible  experience  he  continued  to 
communicate  his  knowledge  of  the  Gospels  to  all  with 
whom  he  came  in  contact.  He  was  seized  a  second  time 
and  was  condemned  for  heresy.  His  nose,  arms  and 
breast  were  torn  by  pincers,  and  his  right  hand  cut  off  at 
the  wrist.  A  hoop  of  red-hot  iron  was  then  pressed  upon 
his  head.  So  far,  no  words  had  escaped  his  lips,  but  as 
the  metal  slowly  ate  its  way  into  his  skull  he  began 
calmly  to  repeat  the  words  of  the  Psalmist,  "  Their  idols 
are  silver  and  gold,  the  work  of  men's  hands."  At  this, 
dreading  the  effect  of  his  words  upon  the  people,  his 
persecutors  quickly  stifled  his  voice  by  throwing  him  into 
the  fire. 

Other  martyrs  followed  Leclerc  into  the  flames  in  rapid 
succession.  The  faithful  citizens  of  Meaux  who  held  the 
reformed  doctrines  were  liable  at  any  time  to  the  most 
bitter  persecutions.  If  one  of  their  number  gave  the 
priests  the  slightest  pretext  to  act  upon,  he  was  pro 
claimed  a  heretic  and  given  to  the  proper  authorities, 
from  whose  hands  he  received  punishment  of  the  most  in 
human  kind.  To  aid  in  the  work  of  extermination,  spies 
were  employed  who  were  allowed  to  confiscate  the  prop- 


erty  of  any  one  against  whom  they  could  bring  evidence 
of  heresy.  But  these  efforts  of  the  church  failed  to  achieve 
any  lasting  results,  and  tended  to  spread  the  work  of  ref 
ormation  by  driving  the  reformers  into  various  parts  of 
France.  Before  a  great  while  the  faith  which  these  early 
martyrs  had  sealed  with  their  blood  was  deeply  rooted  in 
many  sections  of  the  country,  making  headway  even  in 

As  the  Huguenots  increased  in  numbers  the  severity 
of  the  authorities  grew  more  merciless  and  frightful. 
The  most  stringent  laws  were  enacted  and  the  sweet  air 
of  France  reeked  with  the  smoke  from  hundreds  of  holo 
causts.  Not  content  with  burning  a  heretic  here  and 
there,  those  in  power  commenced  the  persecution  of 
entire  communities.  The  expedition  against  the  Vaudois 
was  one  of  the  most  dreadful  of  these  wholesale  butcheries. 

The  Vaudois  lived  in  the  valley  of  the  Durance,  a  few 
miles  east  of  Avignon.  They  were  known  far  and  near 
for  peaceable  folk  who  strove  to  be  honest  in  their  deal-  1540 
ings  with  men  and  to  lead  just  and  upright  lives.  But  in 
the  minds  of  their  bigoted  enemies  these  facts  did  not 
outweigh  their  hatred,  for  the  simple  reason  that  the 
Vaudois  were  accustomed  to  read  their  Bibles  and  to 
worship  God  after  the  fashion  of  the  earliest  Christians. 
For  a  long  time  they  had  been  the  butt  of  various  perse 
cutions  and  had  still  remained  steadfast  in  their  faith,  so 
it  was  finally  decided  to  make  them  such  a  signal  example 
as  would  frighten  the  very  stoutest  Huguenot  heart.  In 
1540  the  Parliament  of  Provence  decreed  that  fifteen  men 
from  the  village  of  Merindol  who  had  failed  to  come  to 
court  to  answer  to  a  charge  of  heresy  were  to  be  burned 
alive.  If  not  "  apprehended  in  person,  they  will  be 
burned  in  effigy,  their  wives  and  children  proscribed, 
and  their  possessions  confiscated."  Further  than  this, 
the  decree  ordered  that  all  the  houses  in  the  village 
should  be  burned  and  that  every  trace  of  human  habita 
tion  should  be  removed. 



Brutality  and 



and  Murder 

Several  months  passed  before  the  execution  of  the 
order,  and  the  Vaudois  came  to  believe  that  the  storm 
had  passed  safely  over  their  heads.  But  on  the  16th  of 
April  an  army  was  hastily  gathered  together  and  the 
carnage  began.  The  villages  of  Cabrierett,  Peypin, 
La  Motte  and  Saint- Martin  were  the  first  to  be  burned. 
At  the  approach  of  the  troops  some  of  the  inhabitants 
fled  to  Merindol,  while  others  sought  escape  in  the 
neighbouring  woods.  The  women,  children  and  old  men 
were  hidden  away  in  a  forest  retreat  in  the  hope  that  if 
discovered  their  evident  weakness  would  prove  their  best 
means  of  safety.  But  this  hope  was  futile.  The  hiding- 
place  was  discovered  and  a  massacre  ensued.  Gray- 
haired  men  were  put  to  death  by  the  sword  and  the 
women  were  subjected  to  the  brutal  lust  of  the  soldiery, 
or  if  with  child  their  breasts  were  mutilated  and  they 
were  left  to  die  with  their  unborn  offspring. 

Two  days  later  the  army  arrived  at  Merindol,  but  the 
villagers  had  received  warning  of  its  approach  and  had 
taken  to  flight.  A  young  man  was  the  only  person  found 
within  the  limits  of  the  town  and  upon  him  was  vented 
the  rage  of  his  captors.  As  he  was  dying  he  cried  out, 
* '  Lord  God,  these  men  are  snatching  from  me  a  life  full  of 
wretchedness  and  misery,  but  Thou  wilt  give  me  eternal 
life  through  Jesus  Thy  Son."  The  soldiers  then  took  up 
the  work  of  destroying  the  town.  Two  hundred  houses 
were  burned  and  levelled  to  the  ground,  and  the  dwelling 
place  of  thrift  and  simple  happiness  was  turned  into  a 
scene  of  utter  desolation.  Many  of  the  fleeing  Vaudois 
were  overtaken  and  put  to  death  or  sent  in  chains  to  the 
galleys  to  serve  with  thieves  and  murderers.  A  party  of 
some  twenty-five  of  the  fugitives  was  found  hiding  in  a 
cavern,  and  with  laughter  and  brutal  jests  a  fire  was 
kindled  at  the  mouth  of  the  cave  to  stifle  the  helpless 
victims  like  rats  in  a  hole. 

A  large  number  of  the  Vaudois  had  taken  refuge  in  the 
town  of  Cabri^res,  resolved  to  defend  their  wives  and 


children  to  their  last  drop  of  blood.  The  army  halted 
before  their  weak  intreuchments,  hesitating  to  attack  the 
desperate  defenders.  Word  was  sent  to  the  Vaudois  that 
by  voluntarily  surrendering  themselves  they  would  avoid 
needless  bloodshed  and  their  lives  and  property  be  spared. 
Beguiled  by  these  promises  they  laid  down  their  arms. 
They  had  no  sooner  done  so  than  their  persecutors  fell 
upon  the  defenseless  town  like  a  pack  of  wolves.  The 
greater  part  of  the  garrison  was  murdered  in  cold  blood, 
while  upwards  of  eight  hundred  women  and  children  who 
had  crowded  into  the  sacred  precincts  of  the  church  were 
there  put  to  the  sword.  Among  the  defenders  of  the 
town  was  a  band  of  forty  heroic  women,  for  whom  the 
crowning  act  of  cruelty  was  reserved.  They  were  locked 
into  a  barn  and  a  torch  was  then  applied  to  the  flimsy 
structure.  One  soldier,  moved  to  pity  by  the  shrieks  of 
the  frenzied  victims,  opened  a  way  of  escape,  but  his 
comrades  who  were  enjoying  the  spectacle  barred  the 
exit  with  the  sharp  points  of  their  spikes.  Thus,  in  one 
way  or  another,  over  a  thousand  innocent  persons  were 
killed  and  three  times  that  number  driven  forth  as  home 
less  and  destitute  wanderers.  For  weeks  afterwards  it 
was  no  strange  thing  to  come  across  the  body  of  some 
Vaudois  lying  by  the  roadside,  overcome  by  hunger  and 
thirst,  or  to  hear  the  wailing  of  a  child  that  mourned 
beside  its  mother  who  had  fallen  dead  of  exposure  and 
fatigue.  No  charity  could  be  shown  these  helpless  peo 
ple,  for  whoever  gave  them  food,  drink  or  shelter  did  so 
under  penalty  of  hanging  for  it. 

Such  was  the  fate  that  befell  a  people  whose  only  fault 
was  that  they  were  Protestants ;   a  people  concerning  A  High 
whom    Governor    de    Bellamy  reported    to    the   King,   ' 
"They  differ  from  our  communion  in  many  respects,  but 
they  are  a  simple,   irreproachable  people,  benevolent, 
temperate,  humane,  and  of  unshaken  loyalty.     Agricul 
ture  is  their  sole  occupation ;  they  have  no  legal  con 
tentions,  no  lawsuits,  or  party  strife.     Hospitality  is  one 


of  their  principal  virtues,  and  they  have  no  beggars 
amongst  them.  They  have  neither  locks  nor  bolts  upon 
their  doors.  No  one  is  tempted  to  steal,  for  his  wants  are 
freely  supplied  by  asking.'7 

"  They  are  heretics,"  said  the  King  sternly. 

"I  acknowledge,  sire,"  said  de  Bellamy,  "that  they 
rarely  enter  our  churches ;  if  they  do,  they  pray  with 
eyes  fixed  on  the  ground.  They  pay  no  homage  to  saints 
or  images  ;  they  do  not  use  holy  water,  nor  do  they  ac 
knowledge  the  benefit  to  be  derived  from  pilgrimages,  or 
say  mass,  either  for  the  living  or  the  dead." 

"  And  it  is  for  such  men  as  these  you  ask  clemency  ! 
For  your  sake,  they  shall  receive  a  pardon,  if  they  re 
nounce  their  heresies  within  three  months,  and  seek  a 
reconciliation  with  the  mother  church.  Think  you  that 
I  burn  heretics  in  France,  in  order  that  they  may  be 
nourished  in  the  Alps  ?  ' '  That  was  the  spirit  bred  in 
the  monarch  by  the  Eoman  ecclesiastics  who  surrounded 
him  and  flattered  him  as  the  defender  of  the  most  holy 


For  thirty  years  the  Protestant  party  had  been  grow- 
Growth  under  ing  stronger  in  spite  of  the  terrible  persecutions  it  re 
ceived,  until  in  1555  a  Huguenot  church  was  established 
in  Paris,  the  very  centre  of  French  Eoman  Catholicism. 
The  example  of  Paris  was  followed  rapidly  by  other 
cities  j  so  rapidly,  indeed,  that  six  years  later  there  were 
two  thousand  one  hundred  and  fifty  churches  in  France 
from  whose  pulpits  the  Word  of  God  was  preached.  The 
growth  of  the  Huguenot  movement  was  phenomenal  dur 
ing  these  same  six  years,  and  its  doctrines  were  embraced 
by  all  classes  of  the  population  alike. 

Lower  The  lower  nobility,  the  provincial  gentry,  were  chiefly 

Pr°obteitant        Protestant.     Benoit  says,   "The  country  churches  were 

almost  entirely  composed  of  noblesse,"  and  that  "in 

some,  one  could  count  from  eighty  to  a  hundred  families 


of  gentlemen."  On  the  dissolution  of  a  church  their 
houses  often  formed  a  centre  for  the  scattered  congre 
gation.  To  "  seize  the  nobility"  was  the  King's  first 
order  to  the  dragoons,  showing  his  estimate  of  their  in 
fluence  and  power. 
Powerful  nobles,  like  the  great  Prince  of  Conde"  and  the  £onde  and 


illustrious  Admiral  Coliguy,  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
Eeformed  Church  and  demanded  liberty  of  worship  for  its 
adherents.  Finally,  in  1561,  it  became  evident  that  the 
old  state  of  affairs  could  not  go  on  ;  the  Huguenot  leaders 
brought  great  pressure  to  bear  on  the  throne,  and  after 
many  vexing  delays  the  famous  "  Edict  of  January"  was 
issued,  giving  to  the  Huguenots  the  right  to  worship  un 
molested  by  rabble  or  clergy.  The  schools  and  hospitals 
were  thrown  open  to  all,  and  the  Huguenots  were  per 
mitted  to  hold  all  offices  of  dignity  and  responsibility. 
It  was  a  great  victory  for  freedom  of  conscience,  and  had 
it  been  faithfully  lived  up  to,  France  would  have  been 
spared  a  series  of  devastating  civil  wars  and  the  loss  of 
so  many  of  her  bravest  and  most  industrious  sons. 

But  it  was  not  the  intention  of  the  Catholic  party  to 
admit  their  fellow-countrymen  to  anything  like  an  equal-  Massacre  of 
ity  of  worship  with  themselves,  and  so  they  proceeded  at 
once  to  break  faith  with  the  Huguenots.  In  vain  were 
all  appeals  to  the  law,  so  that  out  of  self-defense  the 
Huguenots  were  compelled  to  take  up  arms.  They  did 
so,  however,  only  after  the  greatest  provocations  :  as  for 
example,  when  no  punishment  was  meted  out  to  the  mur 
derers  of  over  a  hundred  Huguenots  who  were  peacefully 
worshipping  in  their  tabernacle  at  Vassy.  This  massacre 
of  Vassy  was  a  needless  and  cold-blooded  atrocity,  and  its 
perpetrators  were  known  ;  but  in  spite  of  these  facts  and 
in  defiance  of  the  u  Edict  of  January,"  the  murderers 
were  allowed  to  go  unscathed.  Such  outrages  and  such  source  of  civil 
breaches  of  faith  made  a  resort  to  arms  imperative  and  War 
gave  rise  to  a  series  of  civil  wars  that  turned  France  into 
a  bloody  battle-ground  for  over  thirty  years,  and  inau- 


gurated  a  long  train  of  persecutions,  broken  promises, 
and  repressive  acts  of  legislation,  which  culminated  in 
the  revocation  of  the  "  Edict  of  Nantes,"  in  1685.  It 
would  be  out  of  place  in  this  brief  sketch  to  go  into  the 
history  of  these  wars  and  the  troubles  which  followed 
them.  A  short  account  of  the  massacre  of  St.  Barthol 
omew's  Day  will  be  sufficient  to  show  the  treachery  and 
ferocity  with  which  the  Huguenots  were  treated. 

jn  ^he  month  of  August,  1572,  Henry  of  Navarre,  the 
August  24, 1572  uominal  head  of  the  Huguenot  party,  together  with  Ad 
miral  Coligny  and  the  Prince  of  Conde  with  eight  hundred 
gentlemen,  entered  Paris  to  celebrate  the  nuptials  of 
Henry  and  Margaret  of  Yalois,  sister  of  Charles  IX. 
They  came  as  the  king's  guests  and  were  under  the  pro 
tection  of  the  "  Edict  of  Saint  Germain,"  in  which  the 
throne  reiterated  the  promises  of  religious  toleration  made 
in  the  previous  "  Edict  of  January."  The  wedding  was 
celebrated  on  the  seventeenth  with  great  magnificence,  and 
the  remainder  of  the  week  was  devoted  to  various  holiday 
sports  and  games.  These  festivities  were,  however,  but 
a  mask  to  cover  the  real  intentions  of  the  Eoman  Cath 
olics  and  to  throw  the  Huguenot  gentlemen  off  their 
guard.  On  the  eve  of  St.  Bartholomew's  Day  the  plans 
for  an  appalling  massacre  had  been  perfected,  and  the 
unsuspecting  victims  were  already  marked  out  for 
slaughter.  The  gates  of  Paris  were  locked  so  that  none 
might  escape,  every  house  in  which  a  Protestant  lodged 
was  marked  with  a  piece  of  chalk,  and  soldiers  were  in 
readiness  to  begin  their  bloody  work  as  soon  as  the  great 
bell  in  the  tower  of  the  "Palais  de  Justice"  should  ring 
forth  the  appointed  signal. 


Murder  of  The  massacre  was  begun  by  the  murder  of  Coligny,  who 

was  confined  to  his  house  by  a  wound  he  had  received  a 
few  days  before.  Early  in  the  morning  he  was  awakened 
by  an  uproar  in  the  street,  followed  by  a  loud  demand  for 


admittance  in  the  name  of  the  king.  His  servant,  La 
Bonne,  opened  the  door  and  was  immediately  struck 
down  with  a  dagger  by  Cosseins,  a  captain  of  the  guard. 
A  motley  band  of  troopers  then  pressed  into  the  house 
over  the  fallen  body,  and  easily  overcame  the  resistance 
which  Coligny 's  five  Swiss  guards  were  able  to  offer, 
though  they  contested  bravely  every  inch  of  the  passage 
to  the  Admiral's  room.  Meanwhile,  Coligny,  under 
standing  what  the  clashing  of  arms  signified,  rose  from 
his  bed  despite  his  wound,  and  prepared  to  meet  his  as 
sassins  like  the  honourable  soldier  that  he  was.  To  the 
little  group  of  faithful  friends  and  followers  who  were 
gathered  about  him  he  said,  in  a  voice  unmoved  by  fear, 
' i  For  a  long  time  I  have  kept  myself  in  readiness  for 
death.  As  for  you,  save  yourselves,  if  you  can.  It  were  A  Noble 
in  vain  for  you  to  attempt  to  save  my  life.  I  commend  daunted  n 
my  soul  to  the  mercy  of  God. ' '  Obedient  to  his  request, 
all  his  followers  excepting  Nicholas  Muss  fled  to  the  roof 
and  made  their  escape  in  the  darkness.  When  the  sol 
diers  broke  into  the  room  they  found  Coligny  awaiting 
them  with  the  greatest  composure,  quite  undaunted  in  the 
face  of  certain  death.  < l  Aren'  t  you  the  Admiral  t ' 7  cried 
one  of  the  troopers.  "Yes,"  replied  Coligny.  "I  am  Ruffian 
he.  But  you  are  too  young  a  soldier  to  speak  thus  to  so  * 
old  a  captain,  if  for  no  other  reason  than  respect  for  my 
age."  With  a  curse  the  soldier  struck  him  with  his 
sword,  and  the  old  warrior  was  quickly  put  to  death. 
His  body  was  then  thrown  out  of  the  window  into  the 
court  below,  where  the  Duke  of  Guise  was  waiting  the 
news  of  his  death.  Taking  out  his  handkerchief  the  Duke 
wiped  the  blood  from  Coligny's  face  and  cried,  "I  recog 
nize  him,  'tis  the  Admiral ! "  After  grinding  his  heel 
into  the  face  of  the  fallen  leader  he  shouted,  "  Come,  sol 
diers,  we  have  begun  well ;  let  us  go  on  to  the  others  ! " 

The  head  was  then  cut  off  and  carried  to  the  Louvre  for  A  Martyr 
Charles  and  his  mother  to  feast  their  eyes  upon.     After  Statesman 
they  had  satisfied  their  hatred  they  ordered  it  embalmed 



and  sent  to  Pope  Gregory  at  Rome  as  a  token  of  the  zeal 
with  which  religious  freedom  was  being  thwarted  in 
France.  The  headless  corpse  was  shamefully  mutilated 
and  with  every  show  of  ribald  scorn  it  was  dragged 
through  the  streets  of  Paris  for  the  space  of  three  days  by 
a  crowd  of  gamins.  And  so,  in  the  fifty-sixth  year  of  his 
life,  passed  away  one  of  the  greatest  characters  which 
France  has  ever  produced.  None  of  the  ignominy  which 
was  heaped  upon  him  could  serve  to  cast  the  slightest 
stain  on  his  loyalty,  purity,  and  uprightness  of  life.  As 
a  soldier  he  showed  indomitable  pluck  in  the  face  of  de 
feats  which  would  have  disheartened  many  a  courageous 
man  ;  he  was  a  master  of  strategy  without  a  superior  in 
that  age  of  generals,  a  leader  who  never  failed  to  inspire 
the  confidence  of  his  troops  ;  with  only  the  slenderest  re 
sources  behind  him  his  qualities  of  generalship  enabled 
him  to  wage  war  for  many  years  against  a  powerful  enemy 
who  vastly  outnumbered  him.  As  a  statesman  he  sought 
to  save  France  from  the  ruin  into  which  her  dissolute 
sovereign  was  leading  her,  and  was  justly  regarded  as 
wise  and  far-sighted.  But  it  is  as  a  Christian  gentleman 
that  Gaspard  de  Coliguy  deserves  most  to  be  remembered. 
In  that  dissolute  age  he  set  a  shining  example  to  the  other 
great  nobles  of  his  rank.  Every  act  of  his  life  felt  the 
influence  of  his  manly  and  straightforward  piety. 
"Whether  at  home,  in  his  castle  of  Chatillon-sur-Loing,  or 
in  the  rude  camps  of  the  field,  he  sought  to  emulate  the 
example  of  his  Master.  It  was  his  constant  glory  and  de 
light  to  be  a  Christian. 


Following  the  death  of  Coligny  came  the  wholesale 
massacre  of  the  Protestants.  For  three  days  and  nights 
the  carnage  went  on.  Nothing  availed  to  save  the 
wretched  victims  :  neither  youth,  age,  nor  sex  prevented 
the  swords  of  the  Roman  Catholic  bigots  from  striking 
home.  Venerable  men  were  struck  down  in  their  feeble- 


ness,  babes  were  torn  from  their  mother's  breasts  and 
spitted  on  the  ends  of  pikes,  women  were  treated  to 
every  bestial  indignity,  so  that  the  blow  which  ended 
their  suffering  seemed  like  an  act  of  mercy.  So  sudden 
was  the  attack  and  so  scattered  were  the  Huguenots  that 
resistance  was  out  of  the  question  except  in  a  rare  in 
stance  or  two  where  some  doughty  gentleman  found  time 
to  buckle  on  his  breastplate  and  grasp  his  sword.  The 
Lieutenant  de  la  Mareschausse*e  was  one  of  these.  With 
the  aid  of  a  solitary  companion  he  defended  his  house 
against  the  onslaughts  of  the  butchers  for  the  whole  of 
that  day.  Spurred  on  by  the  thought  of  the  fate  await 
ing  his  wife  and  invalid  daughter  he  fought  like  a  mad 
man  until  sheer  exhaustion  enabled  his  enemies  to 
despatch  him.  To  vent  their  spite  the  soldiers  dragged 
his  sick  daughter  naked  through  the  streets  until  she 
died  of  their  maltreatment. 

Altogether,  probably  between  five  and  six  thousand 
persons  were  slain  within  the  walls  of  Paris,  though 
some  authorities  place  the  number  as  high  as  eight  or  ten 
thousand.  Most  of  these  bodies  were  dumped  into  the 
Seine,  so  that  the  river  fairly  flowed  with  blood  for  days 
afterwards.  So  numerous  were  the  corpses  floating  in 
the  stream  that  the  lagging  current  was  unable  to  carry 
them  all  away,  and  for  miles  below  the  city  the  shores 
were  covered  with  putrefying  remains.  It  is  only  fair  to 
France  to  say  that  the  blame  for  these  atrocities  of 
St.  Bartholomew's  Day  falls  heaviest  on  the  Church  of 
Borne,  which  for  years  had  taught  the  doctrine  that  it 
was  no  sin  to  kill  those  who  held  other  forms  of  belief ; 
which  had  gone  even  further  and  stated  that  to  do  so  was 
an  act  of  signal  piety.  Indeed,  when  the  news  of  the  *°™*'s  Re" 
massacre  reached  Eome  it  was  received  with  the  greatest 
rejoicing,  a  jubilee  was  celebrated,  and  for  three  nights 
the  city  was  brilliantly  illuminated.  King  Charles  who, 
under  his  mother's  instigation,  ordered  the  massacre  that 



Henry  of 

Edict  of 

Louis  XIV 

Revocation  of 
the  Edict 

shocked  the  world,  died  at  twenty -five,  the  prey  of  terror 
and  mental  agony. 


When  Henry  of  Navarre  was  made  king  of  France  he 
found  it  politically  necessary  to  abjure  his  Huguenot  faith 
and  turn  Catholic.  But  he  never  forgot  his  old  allegiance 
to  the  Eeformed  religion,  and  strove  in  every  way  to 
give  his  former  comrades  their  just  rights  as  citizens  of 
France.  On  the  thirteenth  of  April,  1598,  he  set  his 
name  to  "  a  perpetual  and  irrevocable  edict,"  known  as 
the  Edict  of  Nantes,  which  granted  liberty  of  conscience 
to  all  Frenchmen.  It  restored  to  the  Huguenots  their 
full  civil  rights  and  gave  them  the  freedom  to  worship 
God  unmolested  by  priests  or  bigots.  It  was  one  of  the 
most  glorious  steps  towards  human  liberty  that  has  ever 
been  taken,  and  had  its  solemn  promises  been  adhered  to 
l>y  Henry's  royal  successors,  France  would  have  been 
spared  some  of  the  blackest  and  most  unfortunate  pas 
sages  in  her  history. 

But  after  the  death  of  Henry  IV,  the  beneficent 
provisions  of  the  edict  were  one  by  one  rendered  in 
operative,  and  the  old  round  of  petty  and  cruel  persecu 
tions  was  resumed.  We  must  pass  over  these  unhappy 
years  until  we  come  to  the  crowning  act  of  despotism 
which  marked  the  career  of  Eoman  Catholic  intolerance, 
the  Eevocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes.  In  1685  Louis 
XIV  utterly  destroyed  the  few  remaining  liberties  of  his 
Protestant  subjects  by  breaking  the  solemn  promises 
made  to  them  by  Henry  IV.  According  to  the  terms  of 
the  Eevocation  all  Huguenot  churches  were  to  be  torn 
down,  the  gathering  of  Protestants  for  the  purposes  of 
worship  was  forbidden,  even  religious  services  in  the 
home  were  made  punishable  offenses.  Protestant  schools 
were  abolished,  all  children  were  to  be  brought  up  in 
the  Eoman  Catholic  faith  and  were  to  be  baptized  by  the 
parish  priest,  etc.  Most  tyrannical  of  all  the  provisions, 
however,  was  that  which  forbade  any  Huguenot  from 


leaving  the  kingdom  under  penalty  of  serving  a  life  sen 
tence  in  the  galleys.  Thus  by  a  single  stroke  of  the  pen, 
Louis  made  life  for  the  Protestants  unbearable  in  France, 
and  at  the  same  time  made  it  a  crime  for  them  to  seek  an 
asylum  in  other  lauds. 

The  condition  of  the  Huguenots  now  became  truly  Dragooning 
pitiable,  for  not  content  with  robbing  them  of  all  their 
liberties  the  king  desired  their  wholesale  conversion. 
In  the  endeavour  to  accomplish  this  the  most  heartless 
methods  were  resorted  to,  chief  among  them  being  the 
fiendish  process  called  "  dragooning."  A  day  was  ap 
pointed  for  the  conversion  of  a  certain  district,  and  the 
dragoons,  who  were  carefully  selected  from  among  the 
most  ruffianly  swash  bucklers  in  the  French  army,  made 
their  appearance  accordingly  and  took  possession  of 
the  Protestants'  houses.  Their  orders  were  to  make  as 
much  trouble  as  possible,  and  they  obeyed  them  with 
barbarous  exactness ;  converting  a  quiet  home  into  a 
bedlam  and  subjecting  the  family  to  the  grossest  insults 
and  most  outrageous  tortures.  Woe  to  the  unhappy 
wretch  upon  whom  the  troopers  were  quartered.  They 
stabled  their  horses  in  his  parlour,  smashed  his  furniture 
at  will,  destroyed  whatever  they  could  not  eat  or  drink, 
kept  his  family  awake  at  night  by  their  drunken  uproar 
or  by  prodding  them  with  their  swords,  exposed  his  wife 
and  daughters  to  foul  language  and  abuse,  and  taught  his 
sons  the  vices  of  the  soldiery. 

Bather  than  subject  his  loved  ones  to  such  treatment   Recanting  to 
many  a  brave  man,  who  would  cheerfully  have  suffered  Family 
the  rack  or  the  wheel  for  the  sake  of  his  faith,  forced 
himself  to  become  an  unwilling  convert  to  the  "true 
religion."     Those  who  refused  to  submit  after  the  dra 
goons  had  been  in  their  homes  a  few  days  were  beaten 
without  mercy,  or  starved,  or  half- roasted  over  a  fire ; 
mothers  were  bound  securely  and  forced  to  see  their 
young  babes  perish  at  their  feet ;  some  were  hung  in  the 
chimneys  and  piles  of  wet  straw  burned  under  them  until 



Fleeing  Into 

France  Lost 
her  Skilled 
Artisans  and 
Best  Blood 

they  were  nearly  suffocated  ;  others  were  held  under  water 
till  life  was  almost  extinct.  These,  and  other  crimes  too 
horrible  for  mention  here,  were  all  committed  under  the 
mask  of  a  religion  which,  professing  to  teach  the  love  of 
God,  inspired  the  hearts  of  its  followers  with  a  hatred  of 
their  fellow  man. 


From  this  condition  of  affairs  large  numbers  of  the 
Huguenots  sought  relief  by  fleeing  over  the  borders  of 
France  into  Switzerland,  Germany,  Holland  and  England, 
where  they  were  warmly  welcomed,  both  on  account  of 
the  pity  felt  for  their  sufferings,  and  because  they  repre 
sented  the  most  sober,  industrious  and  intelligent  class 
of  the  French  people.  It  is  probable  that  at  least  four 
hundred  thousand  persons  emigrated  within  a  short  time 
after  the  Revocation,  and  some  historians  put  the  figures 
as  high  as  eight  hundred  thousand.  Their  going  struck 
a  sore  blow  to  France,  and  was  the  most  potent  cause  of 
her  loss  of  commercial  supremacy.  For  the  majority 
of  those  who  escaped  were  noblemen  and  gentry,  wealthy 
merchants  and  manufacturers,  bankers,  or  skilled  arti 
sans  ;  and  while  most  of  them  were  forced  to  leave  their 
wealth  behind  them  they  carried  away  what  was  of 
far  more  importance — the  knowledge  of  trades  such  as 
weaving  fine  cloths,  making  silks  and  laces,  hats,  etc., 
which  had  up  to  that  time  been  confined  to  France.  The 
growth  of  England  as  a  great  manufacturing  nation  was 
due  in  no  mean  degree  to  the  efforts  and  the  skill  of  the 
refugees  whom  she  received  so  hospitably.  But  this  emi 
gration  was  not  accomplished  without  the  greatest  hard 
ships.  The  guards  along  the  frontiers  were  increased  and 
every  effort  made  by  the  government  to  prevent  the  out 
flow.  Those  who  were  apprehended  were  certain  to  be 
consigned  to  the  galleys,  but  this  did  not  prevent  the 
bolder  spirits  from  making  an  endeavour  to  reach  free 
dom.  The  greatest  variety  of  strategies  was  resorted  to  : 


some  shipped  themselves  to  England  inside  empty  wine 
casks  ;  noble  ladies  disguised  themselves  as  peasants  and 
drove  herds  of  cattle  across  the  Dutch  frontiers ;  others 
ventured  out  to  sea  in  open  boats  to  board  some  friendly 

One  aristocratic  lady  secured  a  passport  from  a  Swiss 
servant  and  for  weeks  rubbed  her  face  with  nettles  to  pro 
duce  the  blotched  appearance  called  for  in  the  description. 

Roman  Catholics  in  later  times  have  tried  in  every  way  Efforts  to 
possible  to  minimize  the  Massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew,    stal" 
to  deny  that  it  was  a  Church  measure,  and  to  charge  it 
upon  the  Protestants  themselves  as  breakers  of  the  peace. 
Roman  Catholic  historians  have  played  fast  and  loose 
with  the  facts  of  history  regarding  the  entire  period  of 
persecution.     But  the  facts  remain  and  cannot  be  wiped 
out  or  evaded. 

There  is  no  question  that  when  the  Massacre  of  St.  Bar 
tholomew's  day  was  announced  to  the  world,  the  Eomish 
clergy  of  France  rejoiced ;  the  King  was  hailed  as  the 
destroyer  of  heresy ;  and  the  Pope  at  Eome,  as  head  of 
the  Eoman  Catholic  Church  throughout  the  world,  ap 
proved  the  infamous  deed  ;  going  so  far  as  by  a  special 
medal,  representing  the  slaughter  of  the  Huguenots,  to 
make  it  a  notable  event  in  the  history  of  the  church. 
The  Parliament  of  Paris  followed  his  example,  and  on 
their  medal  engraved  the  words,  "  Piety  aroused  Jus 
tice."  But  within  a  hundred  and  fifty  years,  the  great 
Eoman  Catholic  preacher,  Massillon,  when  pronouncing 
the  eulogy  of  Louis  XIV,  and  praising  him  for  the  Eevo- 
cation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes — an  act  not  less  infamous 
than  the  massacre,  thus  speaks  of  the  latter  event : 
"Even  by  the  recollection  and  injustice  of  that  bloody 
day,  which  ought  to  be  effaced  from  our  annals,  which  Bioodof 
piety  and  humanity  will  always  disown,  which  in  the  seSof'the6 
effort  to  crush  heresy,  under  one  of  our  late  kings,  gave  True  Church 
to  it  new  fire  and  fury,  and  fumed,  if  I  may  venture  to 
say  it,  from  its  blood  the  seed  of  new  disciples.'7  Thus 



Palissy  the 
Potter  a 

Born  1510 


Persistence  in 
face  of 

this  French  Eoman  Catholic  turned  away  in  horror  from 
the  inhumanity  of  that  earlier  day,  which  he  would  have 
the  world  forget  if  he  could. 


One  of  the  greatest  craftsmen  France  ever  produced  was 
Bernard  Palissy  the  potter.  It  was  his,  too,  to  suffer  for 
his  Protestant  faith  and  at  last  to  give  his  life  for  it.  He 
was  as  noble  in  character  as  he  was  skilled  in  his  art. 
There  was  much  of  pathos  and  disappointment  in  his  life, 
yet  he  lived  it  grandly,  and  sets  an  inspiring  example  of 
persistence  and  piety.  Think  of  pursuing  an  ideal  of 
beauty  for  a  quarter  of  a  century — working  under  every 
conceivable  hardship  and  difficulty,  yet  never  losing  faith 
in  ultimate  success.  That  was  the  man  who  discovered  a 
secret  of  enamelling  that  is  the  admiration  of  the  world. 
Born  in  1510,  in  the  south  of  France,  where  the  reforma 
tion  most  developed,  he  was  brought  up  to  his  father's 
trade — a  worker  in  glass.  His  parents  were  too  poor  to 
give  him  any  schooling.  "I  had  no  other  books,"  said 
he  in  after  years,  "than  heaven  and  earth,  which  are 
open  to  all."  He  learned  glass-painting,  drawing,  and 
to  read  and  write,  by  his  own  exertions.  He  was  over 
thirty,  married  and  with  a  family  to  support,  when  the 
sight  of  an  elegant  cup,  of  Italian  manufacture,  first  set 
him  to  thinking  about  the  new  art  of  enamelling.  The 
sight  of  a  cup  changed  his  whole  existence.  He 
resolved  to  discover  the  enamel  of  which  it  was  glazed, 
and  persisted  for  months  and  years,  spoiling  furnaces  and 
pots  and  drugs  and  his  wife's  temper,  as  she  could  not  be 
expected  to  sympathize  with  his  enthusiasm  and  extrava 
gance  when  the  children  had  to  go  hungry.  On  he 
worked,  often  in  direst  poverty,  only  to  meet  disappoint 
ment.  Once,  in  a  critical  experiment,  he  burned  up  all 
the  furniture  to  feed  his  furnace — and  still  failed.  His 
wife  and  neighbours  said  he  was  mad,  but  he  kept  on. 
"Hope  continued  to  inspire  me,"  he  says,  "and  I  held 


on  manfully.  Worst  of  all  the  sufferings  I  had  to  endure 
were  the  mockeries  of  my  own  household.  For  years  my 
furnaces  were  without  covering,  and  I  have  been  for  nights 
at  the  mercy  of  the  wind  and  rain.  My  house  proved  no 
refuge  for  me,  I  found  in  my  chamber  a  second  persecu 
tion  worse  than  the  first."  Still  he  went  on.  and  it  was  success  at 


sixteen  years  before  he  reached  success  and  would  call 
himself  potter.  Ever  after  till  death  he  proceeded 
from  one  improvement  to  another,  aiming  at  perfec 

Fame  and  means  were  now  his,  but  another  suffering 
he  had  to  endure.  He  was  bitterly  persecuted  because  he 
was  a  Protestant.  As  he  was  fearless  of  speech,  Palissy 
was  pronounced  a  dangerous  heretic  by  the  priests  ;  his  Persecuted  as 

..    .  Protestant 

workshop  was  smashed  by  the  rabble,  and  he  was  even 

condemned  to  be  burned.     From  this  fate  he  was  saved 

by  a  powerful  noble — not  because  the  nobleman  cared  for 

the  potter  or  his  religion,  but  because  no  other  artist 

living  was  able  to  execute  the  enamelled  pavement  which 

the  nobleman  had  ordered  for  his  magnificent  chateau 

then  in  course  of  erection  near  Paris.     Thus  Palissy' s 

art,  which  cost  him  so  much,  saved  his  life  literally.     The  saved  by  his 

King  also  was  greatly  interested  in  his  work. 

The  persecutors  could  not  let  him  alone.  When  an  old 
man  of  seventy-eight,  owing  to  his  open  warfare  against 
astrology,  witchcraft  and  other  impostures,  he  was  again 
arrested  as  a  heretic,  and  imprisoned  in  the  Bastille.  He 
was  threatened  with  death  unless  he  recanted,  but  proved 
as  persistent  in  holding  to  his  religion  as  he  was  in  hunt-  The  King's 
ing  out  the  secret  of  the  enamel.  King  Henry  IV  went 
to  see  him  in  prison,  to  use  his  personal  influence  to 
induce  the  old  artist  to  recant. 

"  My  good  man,"  said  the  King,  "  you  have  now  served 
my  mother  and  myself  for  forty-five  years.  We  have  put 
up  with  your  adhering  to  your  religion  amidst  fires  and 
massacres  :  now  I  am  so  pressed  by  the  Guise  party  that  I 
am  constrained  to  leave  you  in  the  hands  of  your  ene- 



A  Noble 

A  Martyr  to 
his  Faith 

mies,  and  to-morrow  you  will  be  burned  unless  you  be 
come  con  verted. " 

"Sire,"  answered  the  unconquerable  old  man,  "lam 
ready  to  give  my  life  for  the  glory  of  God.  You  have 
said  many  times  that  you  have  pity  on  me ;  and  now  I 
have  pity  on  you,  who  have  pronounced  the  words,  '  I 
am  constrained.'  It  is  not  spoken  like  the  King;  it  is 
what  you,  and  those  who  constrain  you,  can  never  effect 
upon  me — for  I  know  how  to  die. ' ? 

The  King,  who  admired  the  brave  man  and  ths  great 
artist,  did  not  permit  Palissy  to  be  burned,  but  did  leave 
him  in  prison,  where  he  died — a  real  martyr  to  his  faith 
—less  than  a  year  later.  This  was  the  kind  of  character 
and  of  ability  that  France  lost.  There  was  nothing  left 
to  replace  such  genuine  religion,  nothing  out  of  which  to 
create  such  type  of  citizens,  who  are  the  bulwark  of  the 
state  as  they  are  its  glory.  Palissy  the  potter  deserves 
high  place  on  the  roll  of  honour  of  the  Huguenot 

An  Enemy's 

Louis  XIV  himself  bore  testimony  to  the  high  char 
acter  of  his  Protestant  subjects,  whom  he  declared,  in 
1666  :  "  Being  no  less  faithful  than  the  rest  of  my  people, 
it  behooves  me  to  treat  with  no  less  favour  and  consider 
ation."  But  this  was  the  very  year  in  which  the  "re 
lapsed  heretics"  were  placed  entirely  at  the  mercy  of  the 
Roman  Catholics,  and  subjected  to  all  kinds  of  annoy 
ances  and  persecutions.  As  one  wrote,  "The  members 
of  the  reformed  religion  are  so  cruelly  persecuted  through 
the  whole  kingdom  that,  if  the  work  go  on,  it  is  to  be 
feared  that  nothing  less  than  a  great  massacre  must  be 
looked  for."  Public  worship  was  proscribed  and  even 
the  singing  of  psalms  prohibited  on  the  highways  or  in 
private  houses.  The  Protestants  were  forbidden  to  bury 
their  dead  in  open  day. 

Perhaps  nothing  could  show  the  condition  and  spirit  of 


the  Huguenots  in  France  in  1668  better  than  this  trans-    , 
lation  of  a  letter  written  by  one  of  their  number  : 

These  things  make  us  justly  apprehensive  that  in  the  end  they  will 
break  out  in  acts  of  open  violence  ;  there  being  nothing  which  they  are 
not  in  case  to  undertake  for  accomplishing  of  our  mine.  And  unless 
we  be  willfully  blind,  we  cannot  but  see  that  they  design  to  drive  us 
into  some  insurrection.  (But  thab  we  never  shall  do,  preferring  rather 
to  suffer  the  greatest  extremity  and  our  blood  to  be  shed,  than  in  the 
least  to  violate  the  respect  which  we  owe  to  our  prince.)  And  if  they 
cannot  overcome  our  patience  (as  assuredly  they  never  shall),  then 
their  resolution  is,  By  continual  importunity  to  prevail  with  his 
Majesty  to  drive  us  out  of  the  kingdom.  But  we  hope  that  the  King 
is  so  good  and  just  that  he  will  never  gratifie  them  in  such  a  thing, 
without  a  parallel.  And  if  we  should  be  called  to  such  a  trial,  we  hope 
God  will  give  us  such  strength  and  courage  that  we  may  serve  Him  where- 
ever  His  providence  shall  call  us.  And  this  in  effect  is  the  general  reso 
lution  of  all  the  Protestants  in  the  kingdom. 

That  is  the  kind  of  Christian  spirit  and  character  that, 
banished  from  France,  was  to  enrich  every  European 
country,  and  our  own  America.  "  Patient  as  a  Hugue 
not"  became  a  proverb,  because  the  ministers  were  re 
solved  to  suffer  for  righteousness'  sake  rather  than  again 
make  appeal  to  arms. 

u  One  might  be  tempted  to  suppose,"  says  Poole,  "  that 
not  the  least  reason  for  the  energy  of  the  clergy  in  opposi 
tion  to  the  Huguenots  was  suggested  by  jealousy  of  the 
contrast  between  their  own  scandalous  neglect  and  the 
careful  order  and  nice  discipline  of  the  Protestants."  As 
Gustave  Masson,  the  historian,  says:  " The  Vitality  of 
Protestantism  in  France,  despite  the  severest  persecutions 
that  can  be  imagined,  is  a  circumstance  which,  while  it  can 
not  be  denied,  fills  us  with  hope  for  the  future. ' 7  The  hope 
of  Protestant  France  lies  in  the  noble  words  which  Theodore 
de  Beze  spoke  to  the  King  of  Navarre  :  "Sire,  it  is  the 
part  of  the  Church  of  God  to  endure  blows,  and  not  to 
deal  them :  but  your  Majesty  will  please  to  remember 
that  it  is  an  anvil  which  has  already  worn  out  many  a 






A  Rallying 


Oiie  of  the  most  powerful  influences  of  the  Eeforruation 
in  France,  as  in  Switzerland,  was  Clement  Marot's  Psalms. 
The  young  Clement,  whose  father  was  a  poet,  was  at 
tached  to  the  family  of  the  Duke  D'  Alencon  about  1520. 
He  was  led  to  translate  some  of  the  Psalms  into  French 
verse.  Having  put  them  into  lively  ballad  measure,  he 
printed  about  twenty  translations,  dedicating  them  to  the 
king.  The  sweetness  of  the  poetry  won  a  great  success 
at  the  court,  the  king  was  pleased  with  the  dedication, 
and  the  demand  for  copies  was  large.  The  ecclesiastical 
authorities  censured  the  book,  but  the  king  and  court 
carried  the  day,  and  Marot's  hymns  began  to  be  sung 
everywhere.  At  all  times  and  in  all  places  the  Psalms 
might  be  heard  sung  to  lively  ballad  tunes.  They  took 
for  a  time  the  place  of  national  songs.  Marot  paraphrased 
thirty  more  of  the  Psalms,  and  the  fifty  were  printed  in 
Geneva  in  1543  with  a  preface  by  Calvin,  and  had  a  wide 
circulation.  No  one  then  realized  what  part  these  Psalms 
were  to  play  later,  when  the  persecutions  came.  In  the 
Netherlands  they  were  sung  in  the  field  meetings  of  the 
Eeformed,  and  the  effect  on  the  crowds  was  electric  and 
resistless.  The  different  Psalms  were  fitted  to  tunes  ac 
cording  to  the  popular  taste,  and  were  sometimes  accom 
panied  by  musical  instruments.  Calvin  got  two  excel 
lent  musicians  to  set  the  whole  number  of  Psalms  to  mu 
sic,  and  words  and  music  were  printed  together.  That 
was  the  original  church  hymn  book,  and  oddly  enough 
for  a  time  Eoman  Catholics  as  well  as  Protestants  carried 
and  used  the  book.  The  Psalms  were  sung  in  private  and 
in  company,  and  the  effect  was  marked.  Fearing  that 
the  court  would  become  too  religious,  the  evil-disposed 
tried  to  counteract  their  influence  by  translations  of  Latin 
odes  ;  but  the  influence  of  the  Marot  Psalms  long  contin 
ued  even  in  those  fashionable  circles. 

As  for  the  Protestants,  they  found  their  rallying  cry  in 
these  hymns.  The  adoption  of  them  as  a  part  of  public 



worship  caused  their  rejection  by  the  Eomanists.  On 
the  field  of  battle,  at  the  funeral  pyre  of  the  martyr,  in 
the  prisons,  all  through  the  terrible  period  of  religious 
persecution  and  bloodshed,  the  Psalms  of  Marot  could  be 
heard,  and  were  the  source  of  inspiration  and  courage. 
It  is  well  said  that  the  influence  of  Marot  on  the  language 
and  poetry  of  France  has  been  enduring,  and  the  good 
accomplished  by  introducing  the  singing  of  David's 
Psalms  into  the  Reformed  congregations  and  families  can 
not  be  estimated.  As  Luther's  Hymn,  which  is  a  trans 
lation  of  a  Psalm,  was  the  Protestant  battle  hymn  of 
Germany,  so  the  Marot  Psalms  led  the  French  forward 
in  their  long  struggle  for  religious  liberty  and  human 

~~  Massacre 



*HAT  France  lost  and  what  the  other  countries 
of  Europe  gained  at  her  expense  by  giving 
refuge  to  the  Huguenot  exiles  is  shown  in  de- 
Europe's  Gain  tail  by  Weiss  in  his  History  of  the  French  Protestant  Ref- 
Frlncf's  Foiiy  ugeeSj  and  by  Poole,  an  English  writer,  in  his  Huguenots 
of  the  Dispersion,  a  valuable  essay.     England  was  doubt 
less  the  largest  gainer  in  the  arts  and  manufactures,  yet 
nearly  all  the  countries   of  Northern  Europe  received 
valuable  accessions  in  artisans  and  agriculturists,  some 
reaching  even  into  Russia.     Skilled  trades  were  thus  car 
ried  into  sections  where  they  had  previously  been  un 

s!ioteeri?r?ty  in  -^  almost  every  branch  of  industry  the  French  Prot- 
In~  estants  greatly  surpassed  the  Roman  Catholics.  Why,  is 
an  interesting  question  for  discussion.  Poole  attributes 
it  to  the  free  spirit,  fostered  in  the  consistories  and  syn 
ods  of  the  Protestants  and  in  their  schools  of  learning, 
which  found  an  apt  expression  in  the  zest  and  success 
with  which  they  devoted  themselves  to  the  improvement 
of  manufacture  and  the  extension  of  commerce.  They 
were  mentally  quickened  by  a  religion  which  exercised 
thought  and  reason,  and  their  training  in  the  administra 
tion  of  the  church  fitted  them  for  business  transactions. 
Whatever  the  reason,  the  fact  is  indisputable  as  to  the 
immense  vigour  with  which  the  Huguenots  applied 
themselves  to  trade,  and  the  excellence  which,  thanks  to 
their  tone  of  mind  and  the  superior  length  of  their  work 
ing  year,  they  attained  in  it.  For  holidays,  for  example, 
the  Huguenots  allowed  only  the  Sundays  and  the  two  re- 



ligious  festivals  of  Christmas  and  Easter,  while  the  EomaD 
Catholics  had  double  the  number  iu  order  to  celebrate  the  "" 
saints'  days.  Thus  the  Huguenots  worked  on  310  days 
in  the  year,  the  Roman  Catholics  only  on  260,  which 
made  a  decided  difference,  aside  from  the  superior  qual 
ity  and  speed  of  the  Protestant  workmen. 

Weaving  was  one  of  the  principal  industries  of  France,  Arts  and 
with  over  44,000  persons  engaged  in  it  in  1669;  and  the 
Protestants  had  a  practical  monopoly.  Cloth  in  Cham 
pagne  and  the  southeast,  serges  and  light  stuffs  in  Langue- 
doc,  the  linens  of  Normandy  and  Brittany,  the  silks  and 
velvets  of  Tours  and  Lyons,  glass  in  Ormandy,  paper  in 
Auvergne  and  Augoumois,  the  tan-yards  of  the  Touraine, 
the  furnaces  of  iron,  steel  and  tin  in  the  Sedanais — these 
were  Protestant  industries  whose  products  made  France 
known  in  every  market.  And  it  was  this  splendid  indus 
trial  population  which  the  infatuated  Louis,  at  the  be 
hest  of  his  Roman  Catholic  advisers,  scourged  from  his 

Colbert,  the  great  French  minister  of  finance,  and  the 
only  French  statesman  who  knew  the  value  of  trades,  A  valuable 
recognized  the  worth  of  the  Huguenots.  i  i  This  great  Factor 
man,"  says  Angillon,  "was  too  able  an  administrator 
to  fail  of  being  tolerant.  He  had  learned  that  civil  and 
religious  liberty  was  the  principle  of  work,  of  industry, 
and  of  the  wealth  of  the  nations."  Thus  he  employed 
the  German  Protestant  Herward,  his  comptroller-general 
of  finance,  and  kept  the  Huguenots  in  the  financial  de 
partment  as  long  as  his  influence  prevailed  at  court.  It 
was  not  until  the  profligate  king  had  wearied  of  his  faith 
fulness  and  wise  counsels  that  the  fierce  persecutions  began, 
and  not  until  after  his  death  that  the  Edict  was  revoked 
and  commerce  lost  to  the  France  he  devotedly  loved  and 


Holland  at  first  received  the  intellectual  and  com-   Holland 
mercial  flower  of  the  French  Protestants.     Haarlem  is 




A  French 


A  Dutch 
Estimate  1750 

an  illustration.  The  exiles  reached  there,  as  the  munici 
pal  records  state,  "in  a  sorely  destitute  state,  lacking 
the  means  of  life,  and  in  no  wise  able  to  sustain  their 
families."  But  not  long  did  they  require  town  help  or 
support.  Their  woollen  manufacture  increased  till  the 
town  became  too  small  for  them,  and  they  built  the 
Nieuwe  Stad  (new  city).  Besides  cloth,  druggets,  and 
such  woollen  stuffs,  they  introduced  into  Haarlem  a 
variety  of  silk  product,  velvet,  plush,  and  the  like, 
which,  though  coarser  than  the  original  manufactures 
at  Lyons,  Tours  and  Paris,  were  long  in  great  demand 
abroad  because  cheaper.  Haarlem  was  soon  outstripped 
in  the  woollen  trade  by  Leydeu,  where  the  French  made 
the  finest  cloth,  the  best  serges  to  be  found  in  the  country. 
The  comfort  of  these  thrifty  and  expert  immigrants  was 
such  that  even  Eoman  Catholic  soldiers  would  desert  to 
settle  there. 

But  Amsterdam  was  the  centre,  and  a  whole  quarter 
of  the  city  was  settled  by  the  Protestant  workmen  of 
Pierre  Baill6,  the  richest  manufacturer  of  his  district  in 
France.  Before  this,  Amsterdam  had  been  busied  al 
most  exclusively  with  maritime  commerce.  Now,  in 
dustries  were  rising  everywhere  in  silk  and  wool  and 
linen ;  a  new  part  of  the  city,  as  at  Haarlem,  was  built 
for  the  workers,  and  almost  entirely  occupied  by  hat 
manufactories.  Paper  mills  were  in  plenty  also,  and  the 
book  trade  was  largely  stimulated. 

These  cases  are  typical  of  the  impulse  given  by  the 
French  refugees  to  trade.  What  was  true  of  Holland 
and  its  cities  was  true  also  of  England  and  Ireland,  of 
Germany  and  Switzerland,  of  Sweden  and  Austria,  and 
not  least  of  America,  where  the  French  transplanted 
their  commercial,  industrial,  agricultural  and  religious 
characteristics  in  full  measure. 

Here  is  what  a  writer  in  the  Nederlandsche  Spectator 
of  1750,  who  does  not  quite  like  the  dash  and  swing  and 
success  of  the  newcomers,  in  contrast  to  the  Dutch 


stolidity,  says  of  the  Huguenot  immigration :  i 1  This 
people,  oppressed  and  hardly  handled,  came  over  to  us 
in  so  great  swarms,  that  it  seemed  about  to  equal  the 
number  of  the  inhabitants,  and  scarcely  to  be  provided 
with  places  to  live  in.  Not  alone  were  they  received 
cheerfully  as  brothers  and  fellows  in  faith ;  but  people 
of  every  diverse  sect  lavished  abounding  gifts  upon 
them:  and  everywhere,  as  guests,  free  from  the  charge 
of  scot  or  lot,  they  were  furnished  and  favoured  with 
rare  immunities.  The  engaging  joyousness,  which  no 
tyranny  could  quench,  the  courteous  grace  which  could 
gain  an  entrance  by  its  modest  tact  everywhere,  soon 
made  so  much  impression  here  on  the  more  and  better 
part  of  the  people,  and  so  used  its  mind  to  their  manners, 
that  it  came  to  be  reckoned  an  honour  the  most  to  re 
semble  the  foreigners." 

This  is  a  high  tribute  indeed,  and  something  of  the 
same  result  was  produced  in  America  by  those  gracious 
qualities  and  graceful  manners  which  found  as  much 
contrast  in  the  New  Englanders  as  in  the  Hollanders,  who 
come  of  the  same  sturdy  and  conquering  though  less 
polished  stock. 


In  Great  Britain  the  French  immigrants  made  lasting  in  Great 
impress,  and  gave  trade  and  manufacture  an  impulse  Bntain 
and  breadth  never  afterwards  lost.  The  lace  makers 
spread  their  manufactures  over  several  countries,  and 
made  this  industry  famous  and  remunerative.  Furriers 
and  beaver  hat  makers  in  large  numbers  settled  in 
Waudsworth  ;  and  for  forty  years,  until  a  theft  restored 
the  art,  France  was  compelled  to  import  all  the  best 
goods  of  this  kind,  made  by  Frenchmen,  from  England. 
It  is  said  that  even  the  cardinals  of  the  Holy  College  had 
to  buy  their  hats  in  English  Wandsworth  ;  which  ought 
to  have  been  sufficiently  humiliating  to  the  high  officials 
of  the  Church  which  drove  the  industry  forth  from 





South  Coast 

Shipping  and 

To  LondoD  the  refugees  came  by  thousands,  "  far  the 
greater  numbers  in  a  state  of  persecution,  empty  and 
naked,  to  depend  on  the  hospitality  and  charity  of  this 
good-natured  kingdom."  But  never  for  long  were  they 
dependent.  Workshops  and  churches  sprang  up  to 
gether.  In  a  single  year  the  official  account  of  the  relief 
committee  reported  that  13,500  refugees  had  been  helped 
in  London ;  while  two  French  churches  were  organized 
in  Spitalfields  and  one  by  the  Strand.  Commerce  and 
church  went  together  where  the  Huguenots  were. 
Among  those  thousands  aided  there  were  143  ministers 
and  283  families  of  quality.  Their  children  were  sent  to 
the  best  trades  or  into  his  Majesty's  troops — the  latter  to 
the  number  of  150.  In  the  next  year  the  French  minis 
ters  in  and  about  London  were  incorporated,  with  power 
to  purchase  lands  and  build  houses,  and  three  new 
churches  were  provided  for.  The  peopling  of  the  waste 
Spitalfields  was  due  to  the  French,  and  in  a  generation 
nine  churches  had  arisen  there,  and  the  workmen  were  so 
many  and  so  busy  that  the  silk  manufacture  of  London 
was  multiplied  twentyfold. 

French  colonists  lined  the  south  coast,  where  the  exiles 
gathered  around  such  leaders  as  the  Marquess  de  Euvigny, 
their  aged  chief  who  long  guarded  them  at  the  French 
court  and  was  now  their  sponsor  in  England  ;  whose  sons, 
by  the  way,  rendered  great  service  to  England  in  war. 
These  coast  refugees  devoted  themselves  chiefly  to  ship 
ping  and  commerce.  At  Exeter  the  tapestry  weavers, 
however,  established  themselves,  and  in  other  southern 
towns  trades  were  created,  among  them  the  fine  linens 
and  sail  cloth.  In  nearly  all  the  industrial  centres  the 
French  were  to  be  found,  engaged  in  weaving,  in  print 
ing  calicoes  in  their  unrivalled  style,  in  making  glass  and 
paper  ;  and  everywhere  setting  an  example  of  skill,  thrift 
and  cheerfulness.  The  paper  mills  extended  from  Eng 
land  into  Scotland,  the  first  being  started  at  Glasgow. 
Edinburgh  received  a  number  of  cambric  makers,  and 


the  burghers  built  them  a  large  house  on  the  common, 
long  known  as  little  Picardya.  In  1693  the  city  was  Scotland 
charged  to  the  amount  of  two  thousand  marks  for  the 
support  of  the  manufactory.  Others  worked  in  silk,  and 
planted  mulberry-gardens  on  the  hill  slopes.  Helped  by 
the  public  alms  at  first,  these  Picard  exiles  fared  pros 
perously,  and  maintained  their  native  speech  and  man 
ners,  living  in  a  house,  itself  of  French  fashion,  until  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century. 

The  gentry  and  artisans  formed  the  bulk  of  the  French 
immigrants  to  England.  The  agricultural  classes  pre 
ferred  Germany,  Holland  and  Sweden,  which  were  less 
thickly  peopled.  It  was  the  craftsman,  carrying  his 
means  of  support  in  his  hands  or  in  his  brain,  that 
enriched  England  and  did  much  to  make  the  little  island 
the  workshop  as  well  as  the  counting-house  of  the  world. 
A  strong  contrast  these  French  craftsmen  were  to  the 
English  workmen,  who  belonged  in  general  to  a  rougher 
and  less  skilled  type  ;  who  needed  the  greater  refinement 
and  joyousness  of  the  newcomers  as  much  as  the  Puritans 
did  in  New  England  j  and  who  on  the  whole  received  the 
foreigners  quite  as  hospitably  as  could  be  expected. 


Most  heartily  were  the  persecuted  fugitives  welcomed  Professional 
in  the  various  countries  to  which  they  fled.  At  Dord-  Enrichment 
recht,  in  Holland,  the  burghers  "  received  them  as  kins 
folk  into  their  houses,  cared  for  them  as  for  their  children, 
and  put  them  in  the  way  of  earning  honourably  their 
bread,"  while  the  magistrates  loaded  them  with  privileges 
and  pensions.  This  was  characteristic  of  the  countries 
generally.  The  French  Protestant  ministers  and  men  of 
letters,  many  of  them  eminent  for  learning,  enriched 
Holland  by  their  presence.  It  was  the  artisan  and  agri 
cultural  class  that  chiefly  pushed  on  further.  Colonies 
escaped  through  the  German  border  to  the  north,  and  the 
immigration  to  Hamburg  embarrassed  that  great  city  by 



Gains  a  Com- 

Russia  Gives 
Free  Entry 

its  numbers.  Hamburg  got  in  return,  however,  the  linen 
manufacturing  industry  which  made  it  famous  and  greatly 
increased  its  riches. 

Sweden  1681  King  Christian  of  Sweden  was  among  the  first  to  offer 
asylum  to  banished  families,  promising  to  grant  them 
lands  and  build  them  churches  with  full  religious  freedom. 
One  of  the  Huguenot  ministers  who  went  to  Copenhagen 
was  Phillippe  Menard,  afterwards  French  chaplain  to 
William  III. 

The  Refuge  in  Denmark  included  a  few  military  offi 
cers  ;  one  of  whom  was  Frederic  Charles  de  la  Roche- 
foucault,  ancestor  of  the  Irish  earls  of  Liiford.  This 
Huguenot  became  grand  marshal  and  commander- in-chief 
of  the  Danish  forces.  But  the  bulk  of  the  French  settlers 
were  farmers,  cultivating  especially  potatoes,  the  tobacco 
plant,  which  they  introduced,  and  wheat,  which  they 

The  small  settlement  in  Russia  was  singular  in  that  the 
Czar  granted  free  entry  and  exit  to  any  emigrants  of  the 
evangelical  faith  who  might  choose  to  come,  and  also 
religious  liberty  and  chance  for  government  service.  It 
is  said  that  when  Peter  the  Great  built  St.  Petersburg  he 
seemed  to  take  pleasure  in  outraging  the  prejudice  of  the 
Orthodox  Greek  Church  by  giving  all  encouragement  to 
Lutherans  and  Calvinists.  The  imported  population  gave 
a  new  tone  to  the  rising  capital,  different  in  manners  and 
civilization  from  the  rest  of  Russia.  Thus  a  French  society 
grew  up  there,  with  a  church  built  in  1723,  frequented  by 
the  Swiss  and  English  as  well  as  by  the  French  residents. 

in  Germany  In  the  German  states  the  Huguenots'  influence  was 
marked.  There  the  French  proved  that  gracious  and 
civilizing  power  which  was  conspicuous  subsequently  in 
the  society  at  Berlin.  At  Celle  and  Hanover  French  was 
Spoken  as  purely  as  in  Paris,  and  a  refinement  altogether 
new  sprang  up  in  the  German  principalities.  French 
politeness  softened  Saxon  brusqueness  and  made  life  much 
more  enjoyable. 


The  population  of  Switzerland  was  naturally  greatly  Switzerland 
enlarged  by  the  number  of  refugees  who  there  found 
asylum.  Geneva  benefited  by  the  coming  of  workers  in 
silk  and  wool,  print  manufacturers,  goldsmiths  and  watch 
makers.  A  greater  advantage  even  resulted  from  the 
gathering  there  and  at  Lausanne  of  many  families  of 
rank,  the  artists  and  men  of  science,  who  raised  the 
social  culture.  It  should  be  noted  that  wherever  they 
went  the  Huguenots  conferred  not  only  commercial  bene 
fits  and  carried  their  religion,  but  they  elevated  the 
culture.  To  their  refining  influence  the  refugees  added 
a  material  benefit  throughout  Switzerland.  They  im 
proved  the  vinegrowing  and  husbandry,  and  added  the 
culture  of  orchards  and  kitchen  gardens.  This  was  the 
same  thing  they  did  in  the  New  World  ;  besides  opening 
shops,  starting  manufactures  as  they  were  needed,  and 
generally  taking  the  initiative  in  improvements. 

Germany  owes  not  a  little  of  its  present  fame  as  a  Q^JjjJj,*11,,  b 
manufacturing  country  to  the  French  immigrants  who  the  French 
were  hospitably  taken  in  when  they  were  homeless. 
"Made  in  Germany"  is  stamped  on  many  manufactures 
which,  if  the  history  was  traced  back,  would  show  a 
Huguenot  hand  at  the  beginning.  Jewelry,  woollen 
goods,  flannels,  carpets  and  cloths,  hats  and  gloves,  all 
sorts  of  ornamental  wares,  for  which  Germany  is  known 
were  introduced  by  the  French  artisans.  There  were 
agricultural  as  well  as  industrial  settlements,  and  French 
villages  dotted  many  a  German  valley.  There  were  also 
many  gentle  families,  which  gradually  became  absorbed 
in  the  German  population.  The  one  thing  that  made 
the  French  unpopular  was  their  lively,  light-hearted  be 
haviour,  which  seemed  frivolous  to  the  staid  German, 
who  appreciated  neither  their  talkativeness  in  church, 
their  strange  dress  with  short  cloaks,  nor  their  snuff-boxes. 

This  did  not  apply  so  much  to  Berlin,  which  got  the  Berlin 
most  out  of  the  French  both  in  manufactures  and  man 
ners.     Hither  flocked  not  only  the  best  artisans,  as  to 


strong  French  England,  but  especially  the  soldiers  and  nobles  and  gentry, 
until  it  was  no  wonder  that  Berlin  was  in  danger  of  be 
coming  more  French  than  German,  though  the  French 
element  was  not  of  the  Parisian  type.  The  trade  and 
craft  of  the  French  colony  were  remarkable.  The  new 
comers  introduced  numerous  arts  as  yet  unknown  to  the 
Brandenburgers  when  the  Great  Elector  Frederick  Will 
iam  welcomed  the  French  to  his  dominions.  Not  an 
industry  but  claimed  its  place  among  the  labours  of  the 
French,  while  most  were  their  special  or  exclusive  pos 
session.  As  in  England,  paper  and  glass  were  before 
this  only  made  in  the  commonest  and  coarsest  kinds ; 
now  paper  of  the  finest  was  made  in  Berlin,  while  the 
looking-glasses  were  said  to  excel  those  of  Venice.  Then 
there  was  a  large  mercantile  element  which  rapidly 
gained  supremacy,  so  that  the  Germans  came  to  learn 
from  them  how  to  do  business.  In  mining  and  metal 
founding  the  French  opened  to  Germany  an  unworked 
field.  The  copper  hitherto  sent  by  Sweden  to  France 
was  now  turned  into  French  workshops  in  Germany,  and 
the  iron  trade  helped  Brandenburg  on  its  way  into  the 
rank  of  kingdoms  and  head  of  an  empire.  She  could 
not  make  her  own  arms. 

^e  German  army  owed  much  to  the  French  gentry, 
who  multiplied  many  times  their  real  efficiency,  it  was 
declared,  by  their  moral  sway.  Two  companies  of 
Grands  Mousquetaires  were  formed  of  officers  only, 
under  French  Marshal  Schomberg  and  his  son.  Whole 
regiments  were  formed  or  recruited  from  the  body  of  the 
refugees,  who  thus  as  on  the  farm  and  in  the  factory 
richly  repaid  the  land  that  gave  them  liberty  and  a  home. 
In  the  social  order  the  refugees  were  given  the  same 
place  they  had  in  France,  and  it  was  the  aim  of  the 
German  monarch  to  impress  upon  the  lt  unpolished 
surface  of  the  manner  of  his  court  something  of  the 
refinement  and  grace  of  France."  There  were  two 
French  churches  and  nine  ministers  in  Berlin.  In 



education  the  French  led  the  way  to  higher  medical 
training,  and  in  scientific  knowledge.  The  French  Col 
lege  of  Berlin  was  a  notable  institution.  Poole  goes  so 
far  as  to  assert  that  the  society  of  Berlin  was  the  creation 
of  the  exile,  and  it  was  the  refugees  who  gave  it  that 
mobile  course  of  thought,  that  finer  culture,  that  tact 
in  matters  of  art  and  that  instinct  of  conversation  which 
had  before  been  the  unique  possession  of  France.  They 
diffused  their  own  spirit,  quick,  fine,  lucid ;  the  spirit 
of  French  vivacity  and  precision.  And  thus  they  ex 
erted,  whether  in  Germany  or  Switzerland  or  England, 
that  influence  peculiar  to  France,  upon  the  society  into 
the  midst  of  which  they  were  thrown. 

Having  thus  seen  something  of  the  exiles  in  European 
countries,  we  shall  be  prepared  to  understand  them  and 
their  influence  in  our  own  land,  where  we  may  be  sure 
they  would  be  not  less  influential  along  the  same  lines, 
social,  commercial  and  religious.  We  can  somewhat 
estimate  also  the  loss  to  France  of  such  an  element ;  in 
reality  its  great  middle  class,  the  reliable  and  thoughtful 
and  inventive  class,  combining  the  artisan,  agricultural 
and  professional,  which  gives  to  a  nation  its  best  life  and 
its  material  and  moral  soundness  and  strength. 

Church  and 

Peculiar  Per 
sonal  Quality 


pe?s"cutionf  TT  ^  *s  cominonly  thought  that  the  history  of  the 
Huguenots  in  France  ends  with  the  Revocation  of 
1  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  and  that  the  record  of  blood 
and  fire  concludes  with  the  great  emigration  of  1685.  But 
for  a  hundred  years  thereafter  the  spirit  of  intolerance 
and  persecution  held  its  deadly  sway.  If  nearly  half  a 
million  Protestants  left  France  at  the  Revocation,  there 
were  fully  twice  as  many  who  remained  in  their  native 
land,  and  of  these  only  a  small  minority  abjured  their 
faith.  Their  churches  had  been  destroyed,  their  pastors 
banished,  and  themselves  forced  to  wear  an  outward 
dress  of  Roman  Catholicism ;  but  in  their  hearts  they 
were  Huguenots  still,  and  whenever  a  leader  was  raised 
up  for  them  they  rallied  round  Trim  and  showed  that  the 
light  of  the  Christian  truth  still  burned  within  staunch 
French  hearts. 

In  the  Cevennes  the  peasants  retreated  into  the  moun 
tain  fastnesses  and  held  the  persecutor  at  bay  for  years. 
But  numbers  finally  overcame  them,  and  open  resistance 
ceased  when  the  last  of  those  heroic  peasants  lay  dripping 
in  his  own  blood.  Then  came  the  "Church  of  the 
desert "  with  its  midnight  assemblies,  its  pastors  hiding 
in  holes  and  caves,  its  glorious  martyrs. 

At  this  time  the  saviour  of  French  Protestantism  was 
Court  Antoine  Court,  born  1696,  two  years  before  the  illustri 
ous  Claude  Brousson  sealed  his  faith  with  his  life  at 
Montpelier.  At  seventeen  Court  resolved  to  give  his  life 
to  the  restoration  of  French  Protestantism.  He  began 
to  preach,  gathering  together  a  little  audience  of  eight 



or  ten  in  some  isolated  barn  or  hole  in  the  rocks.  He 
was  an  orator,  was  without  fear,  and  was  eminently 
prudent  withal.  When  he  was  nineteen  he  was  made 
pastor  of  the  Reformed  Church  at  Nismes,  and  a  year 
later,  in  1716,  the  first  synod  was  held,  the  meeting  tak 
ing  place  in  an  old  Roman  quarry  in  the  neighbourhood. 
"The  pastors  were  six  young  men,  peasants  of  the 
Cevennes,  several  of  them  younger  even  than  Court  him 
self.  They  walked  all  night  to  the  place  of  meeting, 
which  meant  for  themselves,  if  taken,  the  gallows,  and 
for  their  audience,  penal  servitude  for  life.  At  dawn 
the  whole  company  knelt  and  invoked  the  presence  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  after  which  Antoine  Court  stood  up. 
He  told  them  of  the  ruinous  condition  of  their  Church, 
and  counselled  that  discipline  be  restored  and  a  form  of 
constitution  drawn  out  and  signed.  Here  are  some  of 
their  rules :  1.  Assemblies  to  be  convened  once  a  fort 
night  ;  2.  Family  prayer  to  be  held  three  times  a  day  ; 
3.  The  pastors  to  meet  twice  a  year  in  synods.  Six 
pastors  signed  the  Covenant.  The  first  was  hanged  in 
1718,  the  second  and  third  in  1728,  the  fourth  in  1732. 
One  other  beside  Antoine  Court  escaped. " 
In  1720  the  Church  at  Languedoc  held  a  midnight  Treachery  and 

, .  .  ,  .     .  „,  Heroism 

meeting  in  a  large  cavern,  Antoine  Court  presiding. 
Treachery  had  been  at  work  and  two  companies  of  sol 
diers  burst  in  upon  the  astonished  worshippers.  Fifty 
men,  women  and  children  were  made  prisoners,  Court 
himself  having  a  "miraculous  escape."  "Some  were 
sent  to  the  galleys,  and  nineteen  were  sentenced  to  trans 
portation.  As  they  entered  Msmes,  drenched  with  rain, 
they  sang  a  psalm  while  marching  through  the  streets. 
They  started  for  the  seaport  of  La  Rochelle  chained  to 
gether  and  escorted  by  soldiers.  Each  night  they  slept 
in  stables  and  were  made  to  lie  down  in  dung.  At  La 
Rochelle  the  whole  party  was  stricken  with  malarial 
fever,  of  which  several  died. 

" .     .     .     The  English  ambassador  induced  the  govern- 



Edict  of 
Louis  XV 

Hunted  but 

merit  to  send  them  to  England.  The  English  chaplain 
took  them  on  board  a  vessel,  and  a  large  crowd  heaped 
blessings  upon  them  as  they  sailed  away  to  exile  and  to 



In  1724  Louis  XV  thought  he  would  outdo  his  prede 
cessor,  and  accordingly  issued  an  edict,  some  of  the  pro 
visions  of  which  were  as  follows  :  Every  minister  to  be 
put  to  death,  and  any  one  helping  them  in  any  way  to  be 
rewarded  by  penal  servitude  for  life.  Life  imprisonment 
was  to  be  meted  out  to  any  one  attending  a  Protestant 
service.  All  children  were  to  be  baptized  by  the  priests 
within  twenty-four  hours  of  birth.  No  marriage  to  be 
held  legal  unless  performed  under  Eoinan  Catholic  aus 
pices.  Every  one  who  knew  when  a  meeting  was  to  be 
held  and  did  not  betray  the  fact  to  the  authorities  was  to 
lose  his  property  and  go  to  the  gallows.  Whenever  a 
Protestant  pastor  was  arrested  every  Huguenot  in  the  dis 
trict  was  to  be  fined  $25,000 — amounting,  in  nearly  every 
instance  to  confiscation  of  entire  property.  The  absolute 
fiendishness  of  these  provisions  needs  no  comment ;  they 
represent  the  high  mark  of  Eoman  Catholic  craft  and 

But  the  Eeformed  Church  of  France  was  not  blotted 
out.  The  meetings  in  the  forests  were  continued,  the 
galleys  were  recruited  from  the  ever  faithful  Protestant 
ranks,  and  though  minister  after  minister  was  made  to 
ascend  the  gallows,  there  were  plenty  of  brave  hearts 
ready  and  eager  to  take  his  place  in  the  pastorate.  These 
pastors  were  hunted  like  wolves  through  the  country, 
bounties  being  placed  on  their  heads  whether  taken  dead 
or  alive.  Like  criminals  they  were  forced  to  resort  to 
aliases.  They  travelled  by  night  through  the  woods  and 
fields.  Journeying  thus,  Antoine  Court  once  covered  three 
hundred  miles  within  the  space  of  two  months,  speaking 
to  three  thousand  of  his  people  at  thirty-two  meetings. 
One  pastor  had  a  hut  of  stones  hidden  away  in  a  ravine  ; 


this  he  used  for  his  study  where  he  prepared  his  sermons 
(surely  they  were  sermons  worth  hearing).  Another 
made  his  home  in  a  hole  covered  over  with  brambles  in 
the  middle  of  a  great  plain  ;  here  he  read  his  Bible  and 
slept,  until  one  day  some  sheep  fell  into  the  hole  and  the 
shepherd,  thus  discovering  the  hiding-place,  informed 
the  magistrates.  In  1758  Paul  Eabaut,  the  "  Apostle  of  Paul  Rabaut 
the  Desert,"  going  by  some  lonely  crossroads,  would  spy 
a  placard  :  "  Wanted,  Paul  Eabaut,  the  minister.  Aged 
about  forty ;  visage  plain,  long  and  thin  ;  a  little  sun 
burned  ;  black  hair,  aquiline  nose  ;  has  lost  a  tooth  in  the 
upper  jaw,"  etc.  The  authorities  rated  his  capture  as 
being  worth  20,000  francs — little  realizing  that  the  value 
of  one  such  man  as  Paul  Eabaut  could  not  be  expressed 
in  terms  of  money. 


But  after  the  middle  of  the  century  persecution  grew  A  B<  Day 
lighter  and  lighter.  The  wishes  of  Eomanism  finally 
were  forced  to  give  way  to  the  growing  spirit  of  human 
ity.  Toleration  came  at  last,  though  with  lagging  foot 
steps.  In  1762,  in  the  city  of  Toulouse,  the  last  Prot 
estant  martyr  ascended  the  scaffold.  This  was  Pastor 
Eochette,  twenty-five  years  old.  When  the  judge  read  1762 
the  sentence  of  death,  Eochette  knelt  and  prayed  in  the 
court-room.  u  The  recorder  shed  tears,  so  did  jailers  and 
soldiers.  Eochette  kindly  turned  to  one  of  them  :  l  My 
friend,  you  would  readily  die  for  the  king.  Do  not  pity 
me,  who  am  going  to  die  for  my  God. ' 

"  At  2  P.  M.  ,  the  last  Protestant  scaffold  was  made 
ready.  He  walked  barefoot,  with  a  placard  around  his 
neck — Minister  of  the  Pretended  Eeformed  Eeligion. 
Every  balcony  and  house-top  was  crowded.  The  whole 
city  was  shocked.  Pity  and  sympathy  were  on  every 
face.  Eochette  stepped  on  the  scaffold,  saying,  Here 
comes  the  happy  day.  It  was  coming — for  the  martyr 
first,  and  soon  for  his  brethren." 


The  last  minister  to  receive  the  death  sentence  was 
Beranger,  in  1767 — but  only  his  effigy  was  hanged.  The 
last  pastor  to  be  imprisoned  was  Broca,  who  was  thrown 
into  a  dungeon  in  1773.  The  last  Protestant  assembly  to 
be  attacked  by  the  dragoons  was  the  Church  of  Orange. 
Eight  of  those  present  were  captured,  and  the  officer  in 
charge  begged  them  to  escape.  This  they  refused,  saying 
it  was  for  public  authority  to  set  them  at  liberty.  They 
remained  in  prison  for  two  months  and  then  a  pardon 
from  the  king  gave  them  freedom.  In  1780,  when  the  re 
peal  of  the  persecuting  edicts  seemed  imminent,  the  as 
sembly  of  the  Eoman  Catholic  clergy  sent  a  petition  to 
Louis  XYI  asking  him  to  recommence  persecution  again, 
but  he  refused.  Seven  years  later  the  Edict  of  Toleration 
put  in  an  appearance.  It  caused  a  great  debate  in  the 
Parliament  of  Paris.  One  delegate  declared  that  the 
Virgin  had  come  to  him  in  a  dream  and  bidden  him  fight 
the  heretics.  Holding  aloft  a  crucifix  he  demanded, 
"Will  you  crucify  Jesus  again?''  But  public  opinion 
was  for  abolishing  the  Inquisition,  and  the  Edict  passed. 
It  provided  that  Protestants  could  marry,  bury  their 
dead,  engage  in  a  trade,  and  hold  private  worship.  In 
1802  Huguenots  were  given  the  privilege  of  holding  pub 
lic  services,  and  the  Pretended  Eeformed  Eeligion  could 
at  last  stand  on  a  legal  equality  with  the  Eoman  Catholic 


The  French  Eevolution  was  the  ultimate  result  of  the 
Eoman  Catholic  effort  to  crush  out  Protestantism  in 
France.  In  that  reign  of  terror  the  Church  had  to  meet 
what  it  had  pitilessly  inflicted  upon  the  Huguenots.  But 
the  spirit  of  reform  was  to  live  and  of  religious  reform. 
There  was  a  great  revival  in  France  in  1827-30,  which 
roused  the  French  Protestants  to  new  life.  Bible,  tract 
and  missionary  societies  were  established,  Sunday-schools 
opened,  philanthropies  organized  j  and  in  this  Christian 
work  dissenters  of  every  shade — Wesleyans,  Baptists, 



Cougregationalists — co-operated  heartily  with  the  Re 
formed  Churches.  In  literature  the  French  Protestants 
have  honourable  rank,  and  France  is  steadily  verging 
towards  the  realization  of  a  Protestant  Republic  in  which 
religious  liberty  shall  be  secured  as  thoroughly  as  in 

The  separation  of  Church  and  State  is  already  an  ac 
complished  fact,  and  the  most  fateful  fact  for  France  since 
Waterloo.  Frenchmen  are  proud  to-day  to  claim  as  an 
cestors  those  martyrs  who  helped  with  their  blood  in  es 
tablishing  the  great  principle  of  religious  freedom. 

The  French  Protestant  Hospital, 
Vidona  Park  1866. 


Living  Death 



Youth  of 




iHOUSAKDS  of  the  Huguenots  who  attempted 
to  escape  from  France  after  the  Eevocation  were 
arrested  and  condemned  to  the  galleys.  This 
was  a  punishment  far  worse  than  torture  and  death. 
Men  of  gentle  birth  and  breeding,  whose  only  fault  was 
their  Protestant  religion,  were  worn  to  death  in  this 
inhuman  form  of  slavery,  whose  horrors  are  almost 
beyond  description.  One  of  the  most  graphic  narratives 
of  this  terrible  experience  is  given  in  this  chapter,  in 
order  to  show  of  what  stuff  the  French  Protestants  were 
made,  that  they  would  undergo  such  merciless  fate  rather 
than  abjure  their  faith.  We  can  only  honour  and  admire 
these  heroes,  while  we  abhor  the  government  that  per 
mitted  the  galley  system  to  exist. 

The  following  account  of  life  in  the  galleys  is  based 
upon  the  memoirs  of  a  young  Huguenot  named  Amade'e, 
who  in  1700  was  convicted  of  the  crime  of  trying  to  leave 
his  country  when  he  was  forbidden  to  practice  his  religion 
in  it. 

Amad6e  was  a  mere  stripling  of  eighteen  when  he  was 
sentenced  to  the  galleys  for  being  on  the  frontier  without 
a  passport.  His  youth  aroused  the  pity  of  his  captors, 
and  they  made  many  attempts  to  get  him  to  abjure  his 
faith.  One  priest  told  him  that  a  beautiful  woman,  the 
possessor  of  a  large  fortune,  had  expressed  a  desire  to 
marry  him  in  case  he  should  renounce  his  faith ;  and 
other  equally  attractive  bribes  were  offered  him — but  all 
in  vain,  for  the  young  man  met  each  temptation  with  the 
answer  that  he  was  "  determined  to  endure  even  the 



galleys  or  death,  rather  than  renounce  the  faith"  in  Bribery 
which  he  had  been  educated.     Finding  their  efforts  of 
little  avail,  the  priests  finally  declared  that  his  soul  was 
in  the  possession  of  the  devil  and  therefore  gave  his  body 
over  to  the  civil  authorities. 

In  company  with  a  fellow  prisoner,  to  whom  he  was 
tied  and  handcuffed,  Ainadee  was  led  away  to  the  prison 
at  Touruay  where  he  was  thrown  into  a  loathsome  dun 
geon.  Six  weeks  was  he  forced  to  drag  out  a  miserable  Dungeon  Life 
existence  in  this  human  kennel — living  on  a  scanty 
allowance  of  bread  and  water,  sleeping  on  the  bare  pave 
ment,  and  "  suffering  inexpressibly"  from  the  accumu 
lated  filth  of  his  apartment.  From  Tournay  he  was 
taken  to  Lisle,  where  he  was  thrown  into  a  room  where 
about  thirty  unfortunates  were  confined  in  total  darkness 
— not  a  ray  of  light  entering  the  apartment.  These 
prisoners  were  of  the  lowest  type,  and  their  vile  company 
was  abhorrent  to  Amadee.  He  did  not  remain  among 
them  for  long,  however,  for  the  turnkey,  fancying  him 
self  insulted,  removed  the  youth  to  a  solitary  dungeon 
whose  floor  was  covered  knee- deep  with  water.  Amade"e 
now  refused  to  eat  the  portion  of  bread  which  was  brought 
to  him  and  resigned  himself  to  a  lingering  death ;  but 
fate,  in  the  person  of  the  Grand  Provost  of  the  prison, 
ordered  otherwise.  The  Provost,  who  was  himself  of 
Protestant  extraction,  upon  hearing  that  Amadee  was  a 
Huguenot,  at  once  ordered  him  removed  to  a  more  com 
fortable  quarter  of  the  prison  and  saw  to  it  that  he  was 
supplied  with  wholesome  food  and  drink. 

This  comparatively  mild  detention  did  not  last  a  great  The  Galleys 
while,  for  at  the  end  of  three  months  Amadee  was 
ordered  to  depart  for  Marseilles  with  a  party  of  galley- 
slaves.  On  the  journey,  which  was  one  of  some  three 
hundred  miles,  a  beautiful  girl  was  attracted  to  Arnade"e 
and  approached  him,  holding  a  rosary  with  a  crucifix 
attached  to  it,  which  she  offered  him.  Though  he  would 
gladly  have  accepted  it  as  a  token  from  the  tender- 





A  Vision 

A  Galley 

hearted  maiden,  he  felt  that  it  would  be  considered  as  a 
sign  of  abjuration  of  his  own  faith,  and  heroically 
declined  it.  That  evening  she  came  to  his  prison  bring 
ing  a  priest,  and  declared  her  object  to  be  his  conversion. 
"  This,"  said  Amadee,  "  was  a  trial  that  God  alone 
enabled  me  to  go  through.  Once  I  became  faint  from 
emotions,  and  I  was  on  the  point  of  yielding.  I  pressed 
the  soft,  delicate  hand,  that  I  held,  to  my  lips  again  and 
again,  and  tried  to  release  it,  but  I  could  not  let  it  go. 
The  priest  saw  my  yielding  spirit.  '  That  hand  may  be 
yours,'  he  said,  'for  all  eternity,  by  renouncing  your  heresy 
and  embracing  the  true  religion. '  Did  God  put  those 
words  into  his  mouth  to  nerve  me  with  courage  !  l  No,? 
I  exclaimed,  with  new  resolution  ;  l  it  might  be  mine  for 
this  life,  but  I  should  purchase  it  by  an  eternity  of  misery. 
Let  me  rather  die  a  galley-slave,  at  peace  with  my  own 
conscience  and  my  God. '  Yet,  when  I  saw  her  no  more, 
when  the  last  glimpse  of  her  sweet  and  sorrowful  face  was 
gone,  when  even  her  white  dress  could  no  longer  be  dis 
cerned,  I  sat  down  and  wept  aloud.  At  length  the  agony 
of  my  soul  began  to  yield  to  a  still,  small  voice  within.  I 
grew  calm,  and  thought  I  was  dying.  '  God  hears  my 
prayers, '  said  I ;  i  He  has  sent  His  angels  to  minister  to 
me,  to  conduct  me  to  the  realms  of  bliss. '  Shall  I  confess 
it  ?  The  face  of  the  sweet  Catholic  girl  was  ever  before 
me.  She  seemed  to  emit  a  radiance  of  light  through  my 
prison.  I  know  not  whether  my  dream  was  a  sleeping  or 
waking  one,  but  methought  she  leaned  over  me,  and, 
raising  the  hand  I  had  resigned,  said  in  a  soft,  silver 
voice,  l  Thou  hast  won  this  for  eternity.'  How  often,  in 
successive  years,  when  chained  to  the  oar,  have  I  heard 
that  voice  and  seen  the  beautiful  vision  !  God  ministers 
to  us  by  His  holy  angels  !  " 

When  he  arrived  at  his  destination  he  was  placed  on 
board  a  galley  called  the  Heureuse,  of  which  he  gives  the 
following  description:  "Ours  was  a  hundred  and  fifty 
feet  long  and  fifty  broad,  with  but  one  deck,  which  cov- 


ered  the  hold.  The  deck  rises  about  a  foot  in  the  middle, 
and  slopes  towards  the  edges  to  let  the  water  run  off  more 
easily  ;  for  when  a  galley  is  loaded  it  seems  to  swim  under 
the  water ;  and  the  sea  continually  rushes  over  it.  To 
prevent  the  sea  from  entering  the  hold,  where  the  masts 
are  placed,  a  long  case  of  boards,  called  the  coursier,  is 
fixed  in  the  middle,  running  from  one  end  of  the  galley 
to  the  other.  The  slaves,  who  are  the  rowers,  have  each 
a  board  raised  from  the  deck  under  which  the  water 
passes,  which  serves  them  for  a  footstool,  otherwise  their 
feet  would  be  constantly  in  the  water.  A  galley  has  fifty  Three  Hun- 
benches  for  rowers,  twenty-five  on  each  side  ;  each  bench 
is  ten  feet  long,  one  end  fixed  in  the  coursier,  that  runs 
through  the  boat,  the  other  in  the  band  or  side  of  the 
boat ;  the  benches  are  half  a  foot  thick,  and  placed  at 
four  feet  distance  from  each  other,  and  are  covered  with 
sackcloth,  stuffed  with  flock,  and  a  cowhide  thrown  over 
them,  which,  reaching  to  the  footstool,  gives  them  the 
appearance  of  large  trunks.  To  these  the  galley-slaves 
are  chained,  six  to  a  bench.  The  oars  are  fifty  feet  long, 
and  are  poised  in  equilibrio  upon  the  apostic,  or  piece  of 
timber  for  this  purpose.  They  are  constructed  so  that  the 
thirteen  feet  of  the  oar  that  go  into  the  boat  are  equal  in 
weight  to  the  thirty-seven  which  go  into  the  water.  It 
would  be  impossible  for  the  slaves  to  grasp  them,  and 
handles  are  affixed  for  rowing. 

"  The  master,  or  comite,  stands  always  at  the  stern,  near  The  Master 
the  captain,  to  receive  his  orders.  There  are  sous-comites, 
one  in  the  middle  and  one  near  the  prow,  each  with  a 
whip  of  cords  to  exercise  as  they  see  fit  on  the  slaves. 
The  comite  blows  a  silver  whistle,  which  hangs  from  his 
neck  ;  the  slaves  have  their  oars  in  readiness  and  strike 
all  at  once,  and  keep  time  so  exactly,  that  the  half  a 
hundred  oars  seem  to  make  but  one  movement.  There  is 
an  absolute  necessity  for  thus  rowing  together,  for  should 
one  be  lifted  up  or  fall  too  soon,  those  before  would  strike 
the  oar  with  the  back  part  of  their  heads.  Any  mistake 




and  Love 

of  this  kind  is  followed  by  blows  given  with  merciless 
fury.  The  labour  of  a  galley-slave  has  become  a  proverb  ; 
it  is  the  greatest  fatigue  that  a  man  can  bear.  Six  men 
are  chained  to  each  bench  on  both  sides  of  the  coursier 
wholly  naked,  sitting  with  one  foot  on  a  block  of  timber, 
the  other  resting  on  the  bench  before  them,  holding  in 
their  hands  an  enormous  oar.  Imagine  them  lengthen 
ing  their  bodies,  their  arms  stretched  out  to  push  the  oar 
over  the  backs  of  those  before  them ;  they  then  plunge 
the  oar  into  the  sea,  and  fall  back  into  the  hollow  below, 
to  repeat  again  and  again  the  same  muscular  action.  The 
fatigue  and  misery  of  their  labour  seems  to  be  without 
parallel.  They  often  faint,  and  are  brought  to  life  by  the 
lash.  Sometimes  a  bit  of  bread  dipped  in  wine  is  put 
into  their  mouths,  when  their  labour  cannot  for  a  moment 
be  spared.  Sometimes,  when  they  faint,  they  are  thrown 
into  the  sea,  and  another  takes  the  place. " 

An  incident  which  Amadee  relates  shows  admirably  the 
Huguenot  character  with  its  self-sacrifice  and  brotherly 
love.  He  had  been  recommended  to  the  captain  of  the 
galley  for  the  position  of  steward  of  the  provisions,  and 
the  captain  had  ordered  him  to  be  brought  into  his  pres 
ence.  "  'They  tell  me,'  he  said,  l  you  are  the  only  slave 
that  can  be  trusted,  and  you  are  a  Huguenot.'  I  an 
swered  submissively,  that  there  were  other  Huguenots  on 
board  the  galley  that  could  be  trusted.  '  I  will  try  you, 
said  he,  l  and  give  you  the  care  of  the  stores ;  but,  re 
member,  for  the  slightest  infidelity  you  receive  the  basti 
nado.'  '  The  office  entitles  the  slave  who  holds  it  to  an 
exemption  from  the  oar  and  a  dinner  every  day  upon  the 
captain's  provisions. 

"Such  a  situation  was  comparative  happiness  to  the 
hard  duty  I  was  undergoing  ;  my  heart  beat  rapidly.  I 
made  no  reply,  for  I  was  buried  in  thought.  l  Dog  of  a 
Christian, '  he  exclaimed,  i  have  you  no  thanks  ? '  At 
this  moment  a  struggle,  not  inferior  to  that  I  had  experi 
enced  once  before,  took  possession  of  my  mind.  '  There 


is  another  Huguenot  on  board  this  galley,7  said  I,  'who  Preferring 
is  every  way  more  worthy  of  the  office  than  myself.  He 
is  an  old  man,  broken  down  by  labour,  he  is  unable  to 
work  at  the  oar,  and  even  stripes  can  get  but  little  service 
from  him.  I  am  yet  able  to  endure  ;  grant  him  this  place, 
and  let  me  still  continue  at  the  oar.'  The  captain  seemed 
doubtful  whether  he  understood  me.  i  I  know  who  he 
means,'  said  the  comite,  'it  is  old  Bancillon.'  'Let  him 
be  brought,'  said  the  commander.  Bansillon  was  brought 
forward,  bowed  down  by  age  and  labour,  his  venerable 
head  covered  with  white  hair.  The  comite  acknowl 
edged  that,  excepting  inability  of  strength,  he  had  no 
faults,  and  was  respected  for  his  integrity  by  every  one. 
It  is  unnecessary  to  go  into  the  details.  He  was  ap 
pointed  to  the  office,  and  the  young  Amadee  returned  to 
the  oar.  '  How  weak  was  my  virtue ! '  he  exclaims ; 
1  though  it  enabled  me  to  resign  the  office  to  this  vener 
able  minister  (for  such  he  was,  once),  it  could  not  restrain 
bitter  emotions.  I  felt  my  face  bedewed  with  scalding 
tears  of  regret,  as  I  once  more  commenced  my  hard 
labour.  But  when,  a  short  time  after,  I  beheld  the 
venerable  Bancillon  losing  the  emaciated  and  distressed 
appearance  he  had  worn,  smiling  benignantly  on  me,  and 
imploring  for  me  the  blessing  of  heaven,  I  no  longer 
murmured  ;  I  was  rewarded  for  my  sacrifice.'  " 

When  Amadee  had  been  a  slave  for  seven  years  his  Gaiiey  in 
galley,  together  with  several  others,  engaged  in  a  strug 
gle  with  an  English  frigate.  After  describing  the  first 
part  of  the  battle,  he  goes  on  to  say  :  "We  have  seen 
how  dexterously  the  frigate  placed  herself  alongside  of 
us,  by  which  we  were  exposed  to  the  fire  of  her  artillery, 
charged  with  grape-shot.  It  happened  that  my  seat,  on 
which  there  were  five  Frenchmen  and  one  Turk,  lay  just 
opposite  one  of  the  cannon,  which  was  charged.  The 
two  vessels  lay  so  close,  that,  by  raising  my  body  in  the 
least,  I  could  touch  the  cannon  with  my  hand.  A 
neighbourhood  so  terrible  filled  us  all  with  silent  con- 




Death  and 

sternation.  My  companions  lay  flat  on  the  seat  and  in 
that  posture  endeavoured  to  avoid  the  coming  blow.  I 
had  presence  of  mind  enough  to  perceive  that  the  gun 
was  pointed  in  such  a  manner  that  those  who  lay  flat 
would  receive  its  contents  ;  and  I  sat  as  upright  as  pos 
sible,  but  being  chained,  could  not  quit  my  station.  In 
this  manner  I  awaited  death,  which  I  had  scarce  any 
hope  of  escaping.  My  eyes  were  fixed  upon  the  gunner, 
who  with  his  lighted  match  fired  one  piece  after  another. 
He  came  nearer  and  nearer  to  the  fatal  one.  I  lifted  my 
heart  to  God  in  fervent  prayers.  Never  had  I  felt  such 
assurances  of  divine  mercy,  whether  life  or  death  awaited 
me.  I  looked  steadily  at  the  gunner  as  he  applied  the 
lighted  match.  What  followed  I  only  knew  by  the 
consequences.  The  explosion  had  stunned  me ;  I  was 
blown  as  far  as  my  chain  would  permit.  Here  I  re 
mained,  I  cannot  say  how  long,  lying  across  the  body  of 
the  lieutenant  of  the  galley,  who  had  been  killed  some 
time  before.  At  last,  recovering  my  senses  and  finding 
myself  lying  upon  a  dead  body,  I  crept  back  to  my  seat. 
It  was  night,  and  the  darkness  was  such  that  I  could  see 
neither  the  blood  that  was  spilled,  nor  the  carnage 
around  me.  I  imagined  that  their  former  fears  still 
operated  upon  my  companions  ;  and  that  they  lay  on 
their  faces  to  avoid  the  no  longer  threatening  danger.  I 
felt  no  pain  from  any  wound  and  believed  myself  un 

1 1 1  remained  in  a  tranquil  state  for  some  moments,  and 
even  began  to  be  amused  with  the  motionless  silence  of 
my  fellow  slaves,  who,  I  supposed,  were  still  lying  as 
they  first  threw  themselves.  Desirous  to  free  them  from 
their  terrors,  I  pushed  the  one  next  to  me.  l  Rise,  my 
boy/  said  I,  'the  danger  is  over.'  I  received  no  an 
swer.  I  spoke  louder ;  all  was  silence  and  Egyptian 

"Isouf,  a  Turk,  had  often  boasted  that  he  never  knew 
what  fear  was.  He  was  a  remarkable  fellow  for  his  truth 


and  honesty.  'My  good  fellow/  said  I,  in  a  tone  of 
raillery,  *  up,  the  danger  is  over,  you  may  be  as  brave  as 
ever.  Come,  I  will  help  you.7  I  leaned  over  and  took 
his  hand.  O  horror !  my  blood  still  freezes  at  the  re 
membrance  ;  it  came  off  in  mine,  stiff  and  deadly  cold. 
The  first  gleam  of  light  showed  me  my  companions  all 
slaughtered  !  Of  the  six  on  our  seat  I  alone  survived. 
Alas !  I  may  well  say,  I  was  the  miserable  survivor ;  The  sole 

J  '    Survivor 

their  toils  and  agonies  were  over.  It  was  some  time  be 
fore  I  discovered  that  I  was  wounded,  and  then  not  by 
pain,  but  by  blood  which  deluged  me."  After  a  long 
period  of  suffering,  Amadee  was  considered  to  be 
sufficiently  recovered  to  take  his  place  again  at  the  oar. 

The  winter  following  the  above  engagement,  Amade'e 
was  confined  to  winter  quarters — a  short  account  of  which 
he  gives.  During  the  winter  months,  if  it  chanced  to  be 
a  season  of  peace,  the  galleys  were  laid  up  for  the  time 
being.  "  The  order  is  given  from  Court  about  the  latter 
end  of  October.  The  galleys  are  then  arranged  along 
the  quay.  The  galley  is  entirely  cleared,  and  the  slaves 
remain  fixed  to  their  wretched  quarters  for  the  winter. 
They  spread  their  greatcoats  for  beds  on  a  board,  and 
here  they  sleep.  When  the  weather  is  extremely  cold 
they  have  a  tent,  made  of  coarse  woollen  cloth,  raised 
over  the  galley.  They  never  have  fire  or  blankets.  It 
is  now  a  season  of  some  rest  for  them,  and  they  are  per 
mitted  to  earn  a  little  money.  Among  the  variety  there 
are  often  tradesmen,  tailors,  shoemakers,  gravers,  etc. 
These  are  sometimes  permitted  to  build  wooden  stalls 
upon  the  quay  opposite  their  respective  galleys.  The 
keeper  chains  them  in  their  stalls.  Here  they  may  earn 
a  few  halfpence  a  day,  and  this  situation  is  comparative 
ease.  There  is,  however,  still  hard  labour  aboard  the  |°™paratjve 
galley.  The  comites  still  use  the  lash  without  mercy, 
and  often  without  discrimination.  One  of  the  hardest 
labours  to  Amade'e,  because  the  most  tyrannical  and  de 
grading,  was  the  exhibition  to  which  they  were  constantly 



ment  of 


exposed  by  the  officers  for  the  entertainment  of  their 
friends.  The  galley  was  cleaned  anew,  and  the  slaves 
were  ordered  to  shave,  and  put  on  their  red  habits  and 
red  caps,  which  are  their  uniform,  when  they  wear  any 
garments.  This  done,  they  are  made  to  sit  between  the 
benches,  so  that  nothing  but  heads  with  red  caps  are 
visible,  from  one  end  of  the  galley  to  the  other.  In  this 
attitude  the  gentlemen  and  ladies,  who  come  as  spectators, 
are  saluted  by  the  slaves  with  a  loud  and  mournful  cry 
of  <Heu.>  This  seems  but  one  voice;  it  is  repeated 
three  times,  when  a  person  of  high  distinction  enters. 
During  this  salute  the  drums  beat,  and  the  soldiers,  in 
their  best  clothes,  are  ranged  along  the  sides  of  the  boat 
with  their  guns  shouldered.  The  masts  are  decorated 
with  streamers  ;  the  chamber  at  the  stern  is  also  adorned 
with  hangings  of  red  velvet,  fringed  with  gold.  The 
ornaments  in  sculpture,  at  the  stern,  thus  beautified  to 
the  water's  edge ;  the  oars  lying  on  the  seats,  and  ap 
pearing  without  the  galley  like  wings,  painted  of  different 
colours, — a  galley  thus  adorned  strikes  the  eye  magnifi 
cently  ;  but  let  the  spectator  reflect  on  the  misery  of 
three  hundred  slaves,  scarred  with  stripes,  emaciated 
and  dead-eyed,  chained  day  and  night,  and  subject  to 
the  arbitrary  will  of  creatures  devoid  of  humanity,  and 
he  will  no  longer  be  enchanted  by  the  gaudy  outside. 
The  spectators,  a  large  proportion  of  whom  are  often 
ladies,  pass  from  one  end  of  the  galley  to  the  other,  and 
return  to  the  stern,  where  they  seat  themselves.  The 
comite  then  blows  his  whistle.  At  the  first  blast  every 
slave  takes  off  his  cap  ;  at  the  second,  his  coat ;  at  the 
third,  his  shirt,  and  they  remain  naked.  Then  comes 
what  is  called  the  monkey-exhibition.  They  are  all 
ordered  to  lie  along  the  seats,  and  the  spectator  loses  sight 
of  them  ;  then  they  lift  one  finger,  next  their  arms,  then 
their  head,  then  one  leg,  and  so  on  till  they  appear 
standing  upright.  Then  they  open  their  mouths,  cough 
all  together,  embrace,  and  throw  themselves  into  ridicu- 



lous  attitudes,  wearing,  to  appearance  of  the  spectator, 
an  air  of  gayety,  strangely  contrasted  with  the  sad, 
hollow  eyes  of  many  of  the  performers,  and  ferocious, 
hardened  despair  of  others.  To  the  reflecting  mind 
there  can  scarcely  be  anything  more  degrading  than 
this  exhibition  ;  men,  subject  constantly  to  the  lash, 
doomed  for  life  to  misery,  perpetually  called  upon  to 
amuse  their  fellow  beings  by  antic  tricks." 

To  conclude  this  melancholy  history,  be  it  said  that 
Amadee  was  released  after  thirteen  years  of  this  miserable 
existence.  Owing  to  the  intercession  of  Queen  Anne,  of 
England,  a  hundred  and  thirty-six  Huguenot  slaves  were 
given  their  freedom  on  condition  that  they  should  pay 
their  own  expenses  in  leaving  the  country.  And  of  these 
fortunate  persons  the  hero  of  this  sketch  made  one. 
After  all  his  suiferings,  it  is  good  to  know  that  he  found 
happiness  and  freedom. 

Released  After 



MUUCT*  of  KfeMft 




HE  earliest  efforts  to  settle  a  body  of  French 


Protestants  in  the  New  World  were  inspired  by  scheme 
Admiral  Coligny,  more  than  a  century  before 
the  Pilgrims  landed  at  Plymouth,  and  before  the  bitter 
religious  persecutions  had  begun  in  France.  Admiral 
Coligny  was  easily  the  greatest  Frenchman  of  the  age  in 
far-seeing  statesmanship,  as  he  was  in  character  the  most 
resolute,  high-minded  and  sagacious,  and  in  looking  at 
the  conditions  of  France  he  saw  clearly  the  dangers 
which  threatened  her  and  the  people  he  loved.  In 
establishing  a  Protestant  colony  he  aimed  at  founding  a 
refuge  for  the  Protestants  wherein  they  would  be  free 
from  the  persecutions  which  he  realized  must  soon  de 
scend  upon  them  with  fury,  for  there  was  every  indica 
tion  that  the  tempest  of  hatred  was  about  to  burst.  The  HIS  Plan 
bitterness  and  malignancy  of  the  Romish  clergy  were  al 
ready  being  aroused  to  feverish  activity  by  the  growth 
and  success  of  the  Reformed  Church.  Their  hatred  was 
only  intensified  by  the  fact  that  the  virtues  and  sobriety 
of  the  Huguenot  ministers  threw  into  unpleasant  relief 
their  own  utter  lack  of  conscience  and  morals;  the 
Christian  and  self-sacrificing  character  of  their  adver 
saries  served  only  to  heighten  their  rage.  Their  open 
advocacy  in  Parliament  of  introducing  the  Spanish  In 
quisition  to  cope  with  heretics  gave  Coligny  his  strongest 
impulse  towards  founding  a  Protestant  colony,  and  he 
straightway  sought  the  ear  of  Henry  II.  Henry's  consent 
was  gained,  for  to  him  the  project  appealed  as  an  oppor 
tunity  for  winning  to  France  a  share  of  the  rich  domain 



claimed  as  a  monopoly  by  Spain  and  Portugal.  The  idea 
of  adding  to  the  prosperity  of  France  by  increasing  her 
industrial  resources  appealed  to  Coligny  also,  but  in  his 
case  the  religious  motive  was  the  dominating  one. 


Brazil  was  selected  as  the  site  for  the  first  Protestant 
Brazil  chosen  Frencn  colony  in  America,  and  Duraud  de  Villegaguou, 
July,  1555  a  soldier  of  fortune  who  had  professed  the  Reformed 
doctrines,  was  chosen  as  leader.  In  July,  1555,  the 
N  little  fleet,  consisting  of  two  ships  and  a  transport,  set 
sail  from  Havre  de  Grace,  carrying  several  hundred 
colonists.  The  character  of  many  of  these  colonists  was 
not  propitious  for  the  success  of  the  venture,  for  while 
some  were  Protestants,  including  noblemen,  soldiers  and 
mechanics,  the  majority  were  recruits  from  the  prisons 
of  Paris.  So  many  of  them  deserted  on  the  way,  how 
ever,  that  only  eighty  were  left  to  complete  the  voyage, 
and  of  these  but  thirty  were  artisans.  After  a  long  and 
stormy  experience,  the  adventurers  reached  the  wonder 
ful  Bay  of  Rio  de  Janeiro.  Here  they  landed  on  an 
island,  constructed  huts,  and  commenced  building  a  fort 
which  they  called  Fort  Coligny. 

Tlie  condition  of  the  colony  was  precarious,  and  un 
less  fresh  supplies  of  food  and  reinforcements  of  men 
were  received  from  France,  the  venture  would  prove 
a  failure.  The  island  was  too  small  to  admit  of 
cultivation,  and  on  the  mainland  the  settlers  were 
threatened  by  the  Portuguese,  who  regarded  them  as  un 
lawful  invaders  of  the  soil.  Many  of  the  colonists  re 
turned  to  France  in  the  ships  which  had  brought  them 
over,  leaving  Villegagnon  with  a  diminished  band  con 
sisting  mostly  of  the  convicts  he  had  taken  from  the 
prisons.  In  addition  to  the  dangers  of  famine  and 
destruction  by  the  Portuguese,  internal  dissensions  threat 
ened  the  life  of  the  colony.  "  Villegagnou  signalized 
his  new-born  Protestantism  by  an  intolerable  solicitude 


for  the  manners  and  morals  of  his  followers.  The  whip 
and  the  pillory  requited  the  least  offense.  The  wild 
and  discordant  crew,  starved  and  flogged  for  a  season 
into  submission,  conspired  at  length  to  rid  themselves  of 
him ;  but  while  they  debated  whether  to  poison  him, 
blow  him  up,  or  murder  him  and  his  officers  in  their 
sleep,  three  Scotch  soldiers,  probably  Calvinists,  revealed 
the  plot,  and  the  vigorous  hand  of  the  commandant 
crushed  it  in  the  bud." 

In  response  to  Villegagnon's  letters  of  appeal,  Coligny  Missionary 
sent  out  re-enforcements  under  Bois-Lecomte,  a  nephew  of 
Villegagnon.  The  better  part  of  these  fresh  recruits 
were  Huguenots,  and  among  them  were  several  young 
theological  students  from  Geneva,  who  were  full  of  zeal 
at  their  opportunity  to  carry  forward  the  growth  of  the 
Eeformed  religion.  Equally  zealous  were  the  two 
ministers,  Pierre  Eicher  and  Gillaume  Chartier,  the  first 
Protestant  clergymen  to  cross  the  Atlantic,  and  who  were 
anxious,  as  the  old  chronicler  Lescarbot  says,  "to  cause 
the  light  of  the  Gospel  to  shine  forth  among  those  barbar 
ous  people,  godless,  lawless,  and  without  religion."  This 
little  band  of  Genevans  was  headed  by  the  venerable  Phil 
ippe  de  Corguilleray,  Sieur  de  Pont,  an  old  neighbour  of 
Coligny,  who  had  left  his  estates  in  France  to  enjoy  the 
religious  privileges  of  Geneva.  Several  other  noblemen 
joined  the  expedition,  which  was  notable  for  its  quality. 
Sailing  from  France  on  November  20,  1556,  after  four 
months  on  the  "great  and  impetuous  sea,"  the  pilgrims 
landed  at  Fort  Coligny.  i  i  The  first  thing  we  did, ' '  says 
Jean  de  Lery,  one  of  the  Genevan  students,  "was  to 
join  in  thanksgiving  to  God." 


From  Parkman's  graphic  account  we  quote  the  follow-  Theological 
ing:  "For  a  time  all  was  ardour  and  hope.     Men  of 
birth  and  station  and  the  ministers  themselves,  laboured 
with  pick  and  shovel  to  finish  the  fort.     Every  day  ex- 



A  False 

Expelling  the 

hortations,  sermons,  prayers,  followed  in  close  succession, 
and  Villegagnou  was  always  present,  kneeling  on  a  vel 
vet  cushion  brought  after  him  by  a  page.  Soon,  how 
ever,  he  fell  into  sharp  controversy  with  the  ministers 
upon  points  of  faith.  Among  the  emigrants  was  a 
student  of  the  Sorbonne,  one  Cointac,  between  whom  and 
the  ministers  arose  a  fierce  and  uniutermitted  war  of 
words.  Is  it  lawful  to  mix  water  with  the  wine  of  the 
Eucharist  ?  May  the  sacramental  bread  be  made  of  meal 
of  Indian  corn?  These  and  similar  points  of  dispute 
filled  the  fort  with  wrangliugs,  begetting  cliques,  factions 
and  feuds  without  number.  Yillegagnon  took  part  with 
the  student,  and  between  them  they  devised  a  new  doc 
trine,  abhorrent  alike  to  Geneva  and  to  Rome.  The  ad 
vent  of  this  nondescript  heresy  was  the  signal  of  redoub 
led  strife.  .  .  .  Villegagnou  felt  himself,  too,  in  a  false 
position.  On  one  side  he  depended  on  the  Protestant,  Co- 
ligny  ;  on  the  other,  he  feared  the  court.  There  were 
Catholics  in  the  colony  who  might  report  him  as  an  open 
heretic.  On  this  point  his  doubts  were  set  at  rest ;  for  a 
ship  from  France  brought  him  a  letter  from  the  Cardinal 
of  Lorraine,  couched,  it  is  said,  in  terms  which  restored 
him  forthwith  to  the  bosom  of  the  Church.  Villegagnon 
now  affirmed  that  he  had  been  deceived  in  Calvin,  and 
pronounced  him  a  '  frightful  heretic.'  He  became  des 
potic  beyond  measure,  and  would  bear  no  opposition. 
The  ministers,  reduced  nearly  to  starvation,  found  them 
selves  under  a  tyranny  worse  than  that  from  which  they 
had  fled. 

1 l  At  length  he  drove  them  from  the  fort,  and  forced  them 
to  bivouac  on  the  mainland,  at  the  risk  of  being  butch 
ered  by  Indians,  until  a  vessel  loading  Brazil-wood  in  the 
harbour  should  be  ready  to  carry  them  back  to  France. 
Having  rid  himself  of  the  ministers,  he  caused  three  of 
the  more  zealous  Calvinists  to  be  seized,  dragged  to  the 
edge  of  a  rock,  and  thrown  into  the  sea.  A  fourth,  equally 
obnoxious,  but  who,  being  a  tailor,  could  ill  be  spared, 


was  permitted  to  live  on  condition  of  recantation.  Then, 
mustering  the  colonists,  he  warned  them  to  shun  the 
heresies  of  Luther  and  Calvin  ;  threatened  that  all  who 
openly  professed  those  detestable  doctrines  should  share 
the  fate  of  their  three  comrades  :  and,  his  harangue  over, 
feasted  the  whole  assembly  in  token,  says  the  narrator, 
of  joy  and  triumph. 

"  Meanwhile,  in  their  crazy  vessel,  the  banished  minis-  Perils  and 
ters  drifted  slowly  on  their  way.  Storms  fell  upon  them, 
their  provisions  failed,  their  water  casks  were  empty,  and, 
tossing  in  the  wilderness  of  waves,  or  rocking  on  the  long 
swells  of  subsiding  gales,  they  sank  almost  to  despair. 
In  their  famine  they  chewed  the  Brazil-wood  with  which 
the  vessel  was  laden,  devoured  every  scrap  of  leather, 
singed  and  ate  the  horn  of  lanterns,  hunted  rats  through 
the  hold,  and  sold  them  to  each  other  at  enormous  prices. 
At  length,  stretched  on  the  deck,  sick,  listless,  attenuated, 
and  scarcely  able  to  move  a  limb,  they  descried  across 
the  waste  of  sea  the  faint,  cloud-like  line  that  marked  the 
coast  of  Brittany.  Their  perils  were  not  past ;  for,  if  we 
may  believe  one  of  them,  Jean  de  Lery,  they  bore  a  sealed 
letter  from  Villegagnon  to  the  magistrates  of  the  first 
French  port  at  which  they  might  arrive.  It  denounced 
them  as  heretics,  worthy  to  be  burned.  Happily,  the  A  Disastrous 
magistrates  leaned  to  the  Eeformed,  and  the  malice  of  the 
commandant  failed  of  its  victims." 

Soon  after  the  return  of  the  ministers  to  France,  Ville 
gagnon  himself  followed  them,  leaving  the  deserted  colony 
to  its  fate.  The  end  was  not  long  in  coming,  and  before 
the  close  of  the  year  1558  a  Portuguese  fleet  arrived  in  the 
Bay  of  Eio  de  Janeiro  and  overpowered  the  feeble  re 
sistance  of  the  little  garrison,  razed  the  fort,  and  put  its 
unhappy  defenders  to  the  sword.  Thus  Coligny's  first 
experiment  in  colonization  failed  most  disastrously. 



Ribault's  Ex 
pedition,  1562 

River  of  May 



years  after  the  failure  of  the  colony  at  Fort 
Coligny,  the  Admiral  again  undertook  his  cher 
ished  plan  of  colonization.  Under  the  leadership 
of  Jean  Eibault,  who  was  the  greatest  navigator  and  cap 
tain  of  France,  and  a  staunch  Huguenot,  an  expedition 
sailed  from  Havre  for  Florida  on  the  18th  of  February, 
1562.  The  two  ships  contained  a  goodly  company  of 
volunteers,  and  nearly  all  the  soldiers  and  labourers,  as 
well  as  the  few  noblemen,  were  Calvinists.  Eene"  de 
Laudonniere,  next  to  Eibault,  was  the  leading  man  among 
them,  while  another  of  the  party,  Nicholas  Barre,  had 
been  with  Villegagnon  in  the  expedition  to  Brazil. 

Six  weeks  after  setting  out  from  France  the  ships  made 
the  coast  of  Florida,  and  proceeding  northward  reached 
the  mouth  of  a  large  river  which  was  named  the  Eiver 
of  May  (now  the  St.  John' s)  because  it  was  the  first  of 
May  when  the  voyagers  sailed  into  its  welcome  calm. 
Here  they  landed,  and  immediately  knelt  in  thanksgiv 
ing  to  God,  and  in  prayer  that  He  would  bless  their  en 
terprise  and  bring  to  the  knowledge  of  the  Saviour  the 
heathen  inhabitants  of  this  new  world.  Thus  both  these 
unfortunate  colonies  were  founded  in  the  spirit  of  evan 
gelism  and  missions. 

The  friendly  natives  who  gathered  fearlessly  about 
them  watched  with  wonder  this  ceremony  and  the  further 
formal  proceedings  whereby  Eibault  took  possession  of  the 
country  in  the  name  of  the  King  of  France,  setting  up  in 
evidence  a  pillar  of  stone,  engraven  with  the  royal  arms, 
upon  a  small  elevation  in  a  grove  of  cypress  and  palm 
trees  near  the  harbour. 


Then  the  French  explored  the  coast  further,  until  they 
reached  the  channel  of  Port  Eoyal,  off  the  coast  of  what  Port  Royal 
is  now  South  Carolina.  Entering  the  harbour,  "one  of 
the  largest  and  fairest  of  the  greatest  havens  of  the 
world,"  Bibault  decided  here  to  lay  the  foundations  of  his 
colony.  The  site  of  a  fort  was  chosen  not  far  from  the 
Beaufort  of  to-day,  and  Charlesfort  was  the  name  given  chariesfort 
in  honour  of  the  boy  King  who  had  lately  come  to  the 
throne  of  France.  When  the  work  was  under  way,  Eibault 
left  a  number  of  his  men  to  garrison  the  little  fort,  and 
returned  to  France,  to  report  his  findings  and  secure 
larger  supplies  of  men  and  means  for  the  colony.  He 
reached  Dieppe  only  five  months  from  the  day  of  sailing. 
But  during  this  brief  interval  France  had  been  plunged 
into  civil  war  by  the  unprovoked  assault  which  the  Duke 
of  Guise  had  made  upon  a  Protestant  assembly  in  a  town 
of  Champagne,  and  the  cold-blooded  slaughter  of  a  half 
a  hundred  inoffensive  persons.  In  the  midst  of  such 
troublous  times  it  was  impossible  to  get  either  men  or 
money  for  Florida,  and  Eibault  followed  his  old  leader, 
Admiral  Coligny,  into  the  field  for  the  Protestants.  Thus 
the  small  body  of  men  at  Charlesfort  was  left  to  its  fate. 

Things  had  gone  from  bad  to  worse  with  them  after 
Eibault' s  departure.  Albert,  their  leader,  developed  into 
a  harsh  tyrant,  and  was  finally  killed  on  account  of  his 
cruelty.  Famine  stared  them  in  the  face,  thoughts  of 
home  filled  their  hearts,  and  they  resolved  to  forsake 
their  life  of  dreary  monotony  and  escape  from  their  prison 
at  all  hazards.  After  infinite  toil  they  constructed  a 
rude  ship,  fitting  her  with  sails  made  from  their  shirts 
and  their  bedding,  and  set  forth  on  their  long  journey 
across  the  Atlantic.  A  long  stretch  of  calm  exhausted 
their  supplies,  and  fierce  gales  racked  their  rude  craft 
until  she  leaked  at  every  seam.  Many  died  from  thirst 
and  exhaustion,  while  others  were  barely  able  to  sustain 
life  by  chewing  upon  their  shoes  and  leather  doublets. 
After  a  series  of  indescribable  privations  and  sufferings 




April,  1564 

Account  by 



the  survivors  were  driven  frantic  with  joy  at  the  sight 
of  the  coast  of  France. 


Coligny  knew  nothing  of  the  fate  which  had  befallen 
his  second  attempt  at  colonization,  and  when  the  first 
civil  war  was  ended  by  the  peace  of  Amboise,  which 
brought  the  Protestants  peace  for  a  time,  he  obtained 
permission  of  the  King  to  fit  out  three  ships  to  go  to 
the  rescue  of  the  Florida  expedition.  Laudonniere  was 
placed  in  command,  and  a  number  of  noblemen  together 
with  experienced  officers  and  sailors  joined  his  party. 
This  expedition  sailed  April  22,  1564,  and  safely  reached 
the  mouth  of  the  St.  John's.  A  graphic  idea  of  what 
took  place  thereafter  may  be  had  from  the  following 
account,  written  by  Laudonniere  himself : 

Afterwards,  we  passed  between  Anquilla  and  Aue- 
garda,  sailing  towards  New  France,  where  we  arrived 
fifteen  days  after,  to  wit :  on  Thursday,  the  22d  of  June, 
about  three  of  the  clock  in  the  afternoon. 

.  .  .  The  next  day,  the  23d  of  this  month,  I  gave 
commandment  to  weigh  anchor,  and  to  hoist  our  sails  to 
Bail  towards  the  Eiver  of  May,  where  we  arrived  two 
days  after,  and  cast  anchor.  Afterwards,  going  on  land 
with  some  number  of  gentlemen  and  soldiers,  to  know  for 
a  certainty  the  singularities  of  this  place,  we  espied  the 
paracoussy  (chief)  of  the  country  which  came  towards  us, 
which,  having  espied  us,  cried,  very  far  off,  Antipola ! 
Autipola !  and,  being  so  joyful  that  he  could  not  contain 
himself,  he  came  to  meet  us,  accompanied  with  two  of 
his  sons,  as  fair  and  mighty  persons  as  might  be  found  in 
all  the  world,  which  had  nothing  in  their  mouths  but  this 
word — amy,  amy ;  that  is  to  say,  friend,  friend  ;  yea,  and 
knowing  those  which  were  there  in  the  first  voyage,  they 
went  principally  to  them  to  use  this  speech  unto  them. 
There  was  in  their  train  a  great  number  of  men  and 
women,  which  still  made  very  much  of  us,  and,  by  evi- 


dent  signs,  made  us  understand  how  glad  they  were  of  our 

.  .  .  I  was  of  opinion,  if  it  seemed  good  unto  them, 
to  seat  ourselves  about  the  River  of  May,  seeing,  also 
that,  in  our  first  voyage,  we  found  the  same  only  among 
all  the  rest  to  abound  in  maize  and  corn,  besides  the  gold 
and  silver  that  were  found  there  :  a  thing  that  put  me  in 
hope  of  some  happy  discovery  in  time  to  come.  After  I 
had  proposed  these  things,  every  one  gave  his  opinion 
thereof ;  and,  in  fine,  all  resolved,  namely,  those  which 
had  been  with  me  in  the  first  voyage,  that  it  was  expe 
dient  to  seat  themselves  rather  on  the  River  of  May  than 
on  any  other,  until  they  might  hear  news  of  France. 
This  point  being  thus  agreed  upon,  we  sailed  towards  the  site  selected 
river,  and  used  such  diligence  that,  with  the  favour  of 
the  winds,  we  arrived  the  morrow  after,  about  the  break 
of  day,  which  was  on  Thursday,  29th  of  June. 

Having  cast  anchor,  I  embarked  all  my  stuff,  and  the 
soldiers  of  my  company,  to  sail  right  towards  the  open 
ing  of  this  river,  wherein  we  entered  a  good  way  up,  and 
found  a  creek,  of  a  reasonable  bigness,  which  invited  us 
to  refresh  ourselves  a  little,  while  we  reposed  ourselves 
there.  Afterwards  we  went  on  shore,  to  seek  out  a  place 
.  .  .  then  we  discovered  a  little  hill  adjoining  unto  a 
great  vale,  very  green,  and,  in  form,  flat ;  wherein  were  Landing 
the  fairest  meadows  of  the  world,  and  grass  to  feed  cattle. 
Moreover,  it  is  environed  with  a  great  number  of  brooks 
of  fresh  water,  and  high  woods,  which  make  the  vale 
more  delectable  to  the  eye.  After  I  had  taken  the  view, 
thereof,  at  mine  ease,  I  named  it,  at  the  request  of  our 
soldiers,  the  Vale  of  Laudonniere.  .  .  . 

.  .  .  We  gathered  our  spirits  together,  and,  march 
ing  with  a  cheerful  courage,  we  came  to  the  place  which 
we  had  chosen  to  make  our  habitation  in  :  whereupon,  at 
that  instant,  near  the  river's  brink,  we  strewed  a  num 
ber  of  boughs  and  leaves,  to  take  our  rest  on  them  the 
night  following,  which  we  found  exceeding  sweet,  because 



Building  a 

of    the    pain    which    before    we    had    taken    in    our 

On  the  morrow,  about  break  of  day,  I  commanded  a 
trumpet  to  be  sounded,  that,  being  assembled,  we  might 
give  God  thanks  for  our  favourable  and  happy  arrival. 
Then  we  sang  a  psalm  of  thanksgiving  unto  God,  be 
seeching  Him  of  His  grace  to  continue  His  accustomed 
goodness  towards  us,  His  poor  servants,  and  aid  us  in 
all  enterprises  that  all  might  turn  to  His  glory  and  the 
advancement  of  our  King.  The  prayer  ended,  every  man 
began  to  take  courage. 

Afterwards,  having  measured  out  a  piece  of  ground, 
in  the  form  of  a  triangle,  we  endeavoured  ourselves  on  all 
sides — some  to  bring  earth,  some  to  cut  faggots,  and 
others  to  raise  and  make  the  rampart ;  for  there  was  not 
a  man  that  had  not  either  a  shovel,  or  cutting-hook,  or 
hatchet,  as  well  to  make  the  ground  plain  by  cutting 
down  the  trees,  as  for  the  building  the  fort,  which  we  did 
hasten,  in  such  cheerfulness,  that,  within  a  few  days,  the 
effect  of  our  diligence  was  apparent.  .  .  . 

Our  fort  was  built  in  the  form  of  a  triangle ;  the  side 
towards  the  west,  which  was  towards  the  land,  was 
inclosed  with  a  little  trench,  and  raised  with  turns  made 
in  the  form  of  a  battlement,  of  nine  feet  high  ;  the  other 
side,  which  was  towards  the  river,  was  inclosed  with  a 
palisade  of  planks  of  timber,  after  the  manner  that 
gabions  are  made.  On  the  south  side,  there  was  a  kind 
of  bastion,  within  which  I  caused  an  house  for  the 
munition  to  be  built ;  it  was  all  builded  with  faggots  and 
sand,  saving  about  two  or  three  feet  high,  with  turf, 
whereof  the  battlements  were  made.  In  the  midst,  I 
caused  a  great  court  to  be  made,  of  eighteen  paces  long 
and  broad,  in  the  midst  whereof,  on  the  one  side  drawing 
towards  the  south,  I  builded  a  corpse  de  gard,  and  an 
house  on  the  other  side,  towards  the  north,  which  I 
caused  to  be  raised  somewhat  too  high,  for,  within  a 
short  while  after,  the  wind  beat  it  down  ;  and  experiences 


taught  rue  that  we  may  not  build  with  high  stages  in  this 
country,  by  reason  of  the  winds  whereunto  it  is  subject. 
One  of  the  sides  that  enclosed  my  court,  which  I  made 
very  fair  and  large,  reached  unto  the  range  of  my  mu 
nitions,  and,  on  the  other  side,  towards  the  river,  was 
mine  own  lodging,  round  about  which  were  galleries,  all 
covered.  One  principal  door  of  my  lodging  was  in  the 
midst  of  the  great  place,  and  the  other  was  towards  the 
river.  A  good  distance  from  the  fort,  I  built  an  oven,  to 
avoid  the  danger  against  fire,  because  the  houses  are  of 
palm-leaves,  which  will  soon  be  burned  after  the  fire 
catcheth  hold  of  them,  so  that,  with  much  ado,  a  man 
shall  have  leisure  to  quench  them.  Lo,  here,  in  brief,  the 
description  of  our  fortress,  which  I  named  Caroline,  in  Fort  Caroline 
honour  of  our  prince,  King  Charles. 

.  .  .  In  the  meanwhile,  I  was  not  able,  with  the 
same  store  of  victuals  which  I  had,  so  well  to  proportion 
out  the  travel  upon  the  ships  which  we  built  to  return 
into  France  ;  but  that,  in  the  end,  we  were  constrained  to 
endure  extreme  famine,  which  continued  among  us  all  Famine 
the  month  of  May ;  for,  in  this  latter  season,  neither 
maize,  nor  beans,  nor  mast,  was  to  be  found  in  the 
villages,  because  they  had  employed  all  for  to  sow  their 
fields,  insomuch  that  we  were  constrained  to  eat  roots, 
which  the  most  part  of  our  men  pounded  in  the  mortars 
(which  I  had  brought  with  us  to  beat  gunpowder  in),  and 
the  grain  which  came  to  us  from  other  places.  Some  took 
the  wood  of  esquine,  beat  it,  and  made  meal  thereof, 
which  they  boiled  with  water,  and  eat  it ;  others  went, 
with  their  barquebuses,  to  seek  to  kill  some  fowl.  Yea, 
this  misery  was  so  great,  that  one  was  found  that  gathered 
up,  among  the  filth  of  my  house,  all  the  fish  bones  that  he 
could  find,  which  he  dried  and  beat  into  powder,  to  make 
bread  thereof. 

.  .  .  I  leave  it  to  your  cogitation  to  think  how  near 
it  went  to  our  hearts  to  leave  a  place  abounding  in  riches 
(as  we  were  thoroughly  informed  thereof),  in  coming 


Sails  Espied 

Sir  Francis 

Kibault's  Ar 

whereunto,  and  doing  service  unto  our  Prince,  we  left 
our  own  country,  wives,  children,  parents,  and  friends, 
and  passed  the  perils  of  the  sea,  and  were  therein  arrived, 
as  in  a  plentiful  treasure  of  all  our  hearts7  desire.  As 
each  of  us  were  much  tormented  in  mind  with  these,  or 
such  like  cogitations,  the  3d  of  August,  I  descried  four 
sails  in  the  sea  as  I  walked  upon  a  little  hill,  whereof  I 
was  exceeding  well  repaid.  I  sent,  immediately,  one  of 
them  which  were  with  us,  to  advertise  those  of  the  fort, 
thereof,  which  were  so  glad  of  these  news,  that  one  would 
have  thought  them  to  be  out  of  their  wits,  to  see  them 
laugh  and  leap  for  joy. 

.  .  .  Captain  Vasseur  and  my  lieutenant,  which 
were  gone  to  meet  them,  which  brought  me  word  that 
they  were  Englishmen.  .  .  .  The  general  (Sir  Francis 
Drake)  immediately  understood  the  desire '  and  urgent 
occasion  which  I  had  to  return  into  France,  whereupon 
he  offered  to  transport  me  and  all  my  company  home  ; 
whereunto,  notwithstanding,  I  would  not  agree,  being  in 
doubt  on  what  occasion  he  made  so  large  an  offer  ;  for  I 
knew  not  how  the  case  stood  between  the  French  and  the 
English ;  and,  although  he  promised  me,  on  his  faith  to 
put  me  on  land  in  France,  before  he  would  touch  in 
England,  yet  I  stood  in  doubt,  lest  he  would  attempt 
somewhat  in  Florida  in  the  name  of  his  mistress ;  where 
fore  I  flatly  refused  his  oifer.  .  .  . 

As  I  was  thus  occupied  in  these  conferences,  the  wind 
and  the  tide  served  well  to  set  sail — which  was  the  eighth 
and  twentieth  of  August ;  at  which  instant,  Captain 
Vasseur,  which  commanded  in  one  of  my  vessels,  and 
Captain  Verdier,  which  was  chief  in  the  other — now  ready 
to  go  forth,  began  to  descry  certain  sails  at  sea,  whereof 
they  advertised  me  with  diligence.  .  .  . 

Being,  therefore,  advertised  that  it  was  Captain 
Ribault,  I  went  forth  of  the  fort  to  meet  him  ;  and,  to  do 
him  all  the  honour  I  could  by  any  means,  I  caused  him 
to  be  welcomed  by  the  artillery,  and  a  gentle  volley  of 


my  shot,  whereunto  he  answered  with  his.  Afterwards, 
being  come  on  shore,  and  received  honourably  with  joy, 
I  brought  him  to  my  lodging,  rejoicing  not  a  little,  because 
that,  in  his  company  I  knew  a  good  number  of  my  friends, 
which  I  entreated,  in  the  best  sort  that  I  was  able,  with 
such  victuals  as  I  could  get  in  the  country,  and  that  small 
store  which  I  had  left  me,  with  that  which  I  had  of  the 
English  general.  .  .  . 

But,  lo  !  how  oftentimes  misfortune  doth  search  and 
pursue  us,  even  when  we  think  to  be  at  rest !  Lo  !  see 
what  happened  after  that  Captain  Ribault  had  brought 
up  three  of  his  small  ships  into  the  river,  which  was  the 
4th  of  September.  Six  great  Spanish  ships  arrived  in  the  sp*™*h  ShiPs 
road,  where  four  of  our  greatest  ships  remained,  which 
cast  anchor,  assuring  our  men  of  good  amity.  They 
asked  how  the  chief  captains  of  the  enterprise  did,  and 
called  them  all  by  their  names.  I  report  me  to  you  if  it 
could  be  otherwise  ;  but  these  men,  before  they  went  out 
of  Spain,  must  needs  be  informed  of  the  enterprise,  and 
of  those  that  were  to  execute  the  same.  About  the  break 
of  day,  they  began  to  make  towards  our  men,  but  our 
men,  which  trusted  them  never  a  deal,  had  hoisted  their 
sails  by  night,  being  ready  to  cut  the  strings  that  tied 
them ;  wherefore,  perceiving  that  this  making  towards 
our  men  of  the  Spaniards  was  not  to  do  them  any  pleas 
ure,  and  knowing  well  that  their  furniture  was  too  small 
to  make  head  against  them,  because  that  the  most  part  of 
their  men  were  on  shore,  they  cut  their  cables,  left  their 
anchors,  and  set  sail.  .  .  . 

After  he  (Ribault)  understood  these  news,  he  returned  A  Bad  Plan 
to  the  fortress,  and  came  to  my  chamber,  where  I  was 
sick  ;  and  there,  in  the  presence  of  several  gentlemen,  he 
propounded  that  it  was  necessary,  for  the  King's  service, 
to  embark  himself,  with  all  his  forces,  and,  with  the  three 
ships  that  were  in  the  road,  to  seek  the  Spanish  fleet; 
whereupon  he  asked  our  advice.  .  .  .  Then  he  told 
me  that  he  could  do  no  less  than  to  continue  this  enter- 


prise  ;  and  that  in  the  letter  which  he  had  received  from 
my  Lord  Admiral,  there  was  a  postscript,  which  he 
showed  me,  written  in  these  words :  i  i  Captain  John 
Eibault,  as  I  was  enclosing  of  this  letter,  I  received  a 
certain  advice,  that  Don  Pedro  Melendez  departeth  from 
Spain,  to  go  to  the  coast  of  New  France.  See  that  you 
suffer  him  not  to  encroach  upon  you,  no  more  than  he 
would  that  you  should  encroach  upon  him." 

"You  see,"  quoth  he,  "the  charge  that  I  have;  and 
I  leave  it  unto  yourself  to  judge  if  you  could  do  any  less 
in  this  case,  considering  the  certain  advertisement  that 
we  have,  that  they  are  already  on  land,  and  will  invade 
us."  .  .  . 

The  night  between  the  19th  and  20th  of  September, 
La  Cigne  kept  watch  with  his  company,  wherein  he  used 
Taken  by  all  endeavour,  although  it  rained  without  ceasing.  When 
the  day  was,  therefore,  come,  and  that  he  saw  that  it  still 
rained  worse  than  it  did  before,  he  pitied  the  sentinels  so 
moiled  and  wet,  and  thinking  the  Spaniards  would  not 
have  come  in  such  a  strange  time,  he  let  them  depart, 
and,  to  say  the  truth,  he  went  himself  unto  his  lodging. 
In  the  meanwhile,  one  which  had  something  to  do  with 
out  the  fort,  and  my  trumpeter,  which  went  up  unto  the 
rampart,  perceived  a  troop  of  Spaniards  which  came 
down  from  a  little  knappe,  where,  incontinently,  they 
began  to  cry  alarm,  and  the  trumpeter  also,  which,  as 
soon  as  ever  I  understood,  forthwith  I  issued  out,  with 
my  target  and  sword  in  my  hand,  and  got  me  into  the 
midst  of  the  court,  where  I  began  to  cry  upon  my  sol 
diers.  ...  As  I  went  to  succour  them  which  were 
defending  the  breach  on  the  southwest  side,  I  encountered, 
by  chance,  a  great  company  of  Spaniards,  which  had 
already  repulsed  our  men,  and  were  now  entered,  which 
drove  me  back  unto  the  court  of  the  fort  .  .  .  and, 
in  the  meanwhile,  I  saved  myself  by  the  breach,  which 
was  on  the  west  side,  near  unto  my  lieutenant's  lodging 
and  gateway,  into  the  woods,  where  I  found  certain  of 


my  men,  which  were  escaped,  of  which  number  there 
were  three  or  four  which  were  sore  hurt.     .     .     / 

Being  able  to  go  no  farther,  by  reason  of  my  sickness 
which  I  had,  I  sent  two  of  my  men,  which  were  with  me, 
which  could  swim  well,  unto  the  ships,  to  advertise  them 
of  that  which  had  happened,  and  to  send  them  word  to 
come  and  help  me.  .  .  .  The  25th  of  September,  we  Escape  to 
set  sail  to  return  into  France.  The  indifferent  and  un- 
passionate  readers  may  easily  weigh  the  truth  of  my 
doings,  and  be  upright  judges  of  the  endeavour  which  I 
there  used.  For  mine  own  part,  I  will  not  accuse,  nor 
excuse  any ;  it  sufficeth  me  to  have  followed  the  truth 
of  the  history,  whereof  many  are  able  to  bear  witness, 
which  were  there  present.  I  will  plainly  say  one  thing — 
that  the  long  delay  that  Capt.  John  Eibault  used  in  his 
embarking,  and  the  fifteen  days  that  he  spent  in  roving 
along  the  coast  of  Florida  before  he  came  to  our  fort, 
were  the  cause  of  the  loss  we  sustained  ;  for  he  discovered 
the  coast  on  the  14th  of  August,  and  spent  the  time  in 
going  from  river  to  river,  which  had  been  sufficient  for 
him  to  have  discharged  his  ships  in,  and  for  me  to  have 
embarked  myself  to  have  returned  into  France.  I  note 
well  that  all  that  he  did  was  upon  a  good  intent ;  yet,  in 
mine  opinion,  he  should  have  had  more  regard  unto  his 
charge  than  to  the  devices  of  his  own  brain,  which,  some 
times,  he  printed  in  his  head  so  deeply,  that  it  was  very 
hard  to  put  them  out,  which  also  turned  to  his  utter 
undoing ;  for  he  was  no  sooner  departed  from  us  but  a 
tempest  took  him,  which,  in  fine,  wrecked  him  upon  the 
coast,  where  all  his  ships  were  cast  away ;  and  he,  with 
much  ado,  escaped  drowning,  to  fall  into  their  hands, 
which  cruelly  massacred  him  and  all  his  company. 


To  this  graphic  story  something  may  be  added  from 
other  sources.     Once  more  the  French  proved  that,  while  French  not 
they  make  a  most  admirable  element  in  a  colony  estab-   Colonizers 


lished  by  others,  they  have  not  the  peculiar  qualifications 
requisite  to  successful  colonizing  when  left  to  themselves. 
In  this  instance  they  invited  the  fate  that  overtook  them. 
They  had  to  depend  upon  themselves  for  food  supplies, 
yet  neglected  to  cultivate  the  soil,  fell  to  quarrelling, 
treated  the  natives  unwisely,  and  proved  generally  unfit 
for  their  undertaking,  difficult  at  best.  Laudonniere  was 
weak  as  leader ;  the  young  nobles  who  had  crossed  the 
ocean  to  find  gold  could  not  stoop  to  work,  and  grumbled 
at  being  required  to  do  their  part  in  the  work  of  fortifi 
cation.  The  Protestants  had  no  pastor,  and  complained 
that  Laudonniere  was  indifferent  to  religion.  Then  came 
famine,  owing  to  the  failure  to  raise  crops.  The  second 

Bad  Manage-  summer  found  scarcity  at  La  Caroline,  although  the  river 
teemed  with  fish.  Laudonniere  at  last  decided  to  return 
to  Europe  and  give  up  his  attempt.  The  one  ship  usable 
was  put  in  repair  and  the  French  were  making  ready  to 
depart  when  the  English  fleet  appeared.  The  captain 
was  friendly,  relieved  their  necessities,  and  offered  to 
transport  them  to  France.  Unhappily  that  was  declined, 
but  a  ship  was  bought  from  the  English.  Soon  another 
fleet  appeared,  commanded  by  Eibault,  who  had  been 
sent  to  supersede  Laudonniere.  His  fleet  comprised 
seven  ships  and  carried  not  far  from  a  thousand  men, 
including  a  number  of  Huguenot  gentlemen.  At  least 
one  minister  was  in  the  company,  M.  Eobert.  Lau 
donniere  was  able  to  clear  himself  from  the  charges  laid 
against  him,  and  was  cordially  treated  by  his  old-time 

The  Spaniards  The  end  drew  near.  Five  days  after  Eibault' s  arrival 
a  third  fleet  came  in  sight.  It  was  the  Spaniards. 
Eibault' s  larger  ships  had  fled.  Spain  denied  the  right 
of  France  in  the  new  world,  and  especially  the  right  of 
French  Protestants  to  live  anywhere.  The  King  of  Spain 
had  sent  Menendez,  one  of  his  bravest  and  cruelest  cap- 

Menendezthe  tains,  to  dislodge  the  French  colony.  With  a  fleet  of 
fifteen  ships  and  two  thousand  six  hundred  men,  Spanish 


and  Portuguese,  Menendez  attacked  the  body  of  less  than 
half  his  numbers  and  little  prepared  to  resist.  Lau- 
donniere's  plan  was  to  strengthen  the  fort,  secure  the 
help  of  the  friendly  Indians,  and  harass  the  Spanish,  who 
had  landed  thirty  miles  south  on  the  coast.  Eibault  alone 
insisted  upon  a  naval  engagement,  and  as  he  was  in  com 
mand,  his  will  was  law.  Euin  resulted.  A  storm  wrecked 
Eibault' s  ships,  and  left  Menendez  free  for  his  work  of 
butchery.  He  surprised  Fort  Caroline,  put  all  to  the 
sword  save  the  women  and  children,  and  returned  to  his 
landing-place.  Laudonniere,  the  minister  Eobert,  and  a 
few  others  fled,  reached  the  coast  and  one  of  the  smaller 
ships  which  Eibault  had  left  in  the  river,  and  finally 
reached  France.  Eibault,  meanwhile,  with  his  ship 
wrecked  followers,  made  their  way  to  La  Caroline  only 
to  find  the  Spanish  there ;  and  a  little  later  Eibault  at 
tempted  to  treat  with  Menendez,  who  would  give  no 
assurance  beyond  saying :  i  i  Yield  yourselves  to  my 
mercy,  give  up  your  arms  and  your  colours,  and  I  will 
do  as  God  may  prompt  me."  Two  hundred  of  Eibault' s 
men  refused  to  accept  these  terms  and  fled  into  the  wil 
derness.  The  others,  one  hundred  and  fifty  in  number,  Horrible 


threw  themselves  upon  the  compassion  of  a  man  who 
knew  none  for  Protestants.  Though  Spain  was  at  peace 
with  France,  as  Eibault  reminded  Menendez,  the  answer 
was,  "Not  so  in  the  case  of  heretics."  Thus  did  this 
inhuman  monster,  sacrilegiously  using  the  name  of  God, 
announce  his  action  to  his  government.  "I  had  their 
hands  tied  behind  their  backs,  and  themselves  put  to  the 
sword.  It  appeared  to  me  that  by  thus  chastising  them, 
God  our  Lord  and  your  Majesty  were  served.  Whereby 
this  evil  sect  will  in  future  leave  us  more  free  to  plant  the 
gospel  in  these  parts." 

Those  who  refused  to  surrender  were  pursued  by 
Menendez,  but  after  strong  resistance  were  promised 
treatment  as  prisoners  of  war,  and  were  finally  sent  to 
the  galleys  by  the  Spanish  king.  Thus  came  to  its 



dreadful  end  Coligny's  last  hope  to  found  a  Protestant 
colony  in  America.  On  the  spot  of  the  La  Caroline 
massacre  Meuendez  placed  a  tablet  bearing  this  inscrip- 
A  Fatal  Tablet  tiou  i  "  Hung  not  as  Frenchmen,  but  as  Lutheran.'7 

Two  years  later,  Dominique  de  Gourges,  a  gallant 
French  officer,  determined  to  avenge  this  slaughter  of 
his  countrymen,  though  he  was  not  a  Huguenot.  The 
brutality  of  the  Spaniards  had  aroused  great  indignation 
in  France,  yet  the  court  remonstrances  had  not  succeeded 
in  obtaining  any  redress  from  the  Spanish  King. 
Hence  de  Gourgues  took  vengeance  into  his  own  hands. 
Selling  his  patrimony,  with  his  brothers'  help  he  fitted 
out  three  small  vessels,  and  after  a  perilous  voyage  he 
reached  the  Florida  coast,  enlisted  the  service  of  the 
friendly  Indians,  and  falling  upon  La  Caroline,  took  prison 
ers  the  Spanish  forces  left  to  garrison  it.  Then  he  put 
most  of  them  to  the  sword,  and  hung  the  remainder  upon 
the  trees  from  which  Menendez  had  hung  his  French 
prisoners ;  and  upon  the  other  side  of  the  tablet  which 
the  Spaniard  had  placed  near  by,  he  inscribed  these 
words :  "  I  do  this  not  as  unto  Spaniards,  nor  as  unto 
seamen,  but  as  unto  traitors,  robbers,  and  murderers."  It 
was  a  pity  that  Menendez  himself  could  not  have  re 
ceived  the  punishment  he  so  richly  merited. 

It  should  be  said,  in  closing  this  dreary  record,  that 
the  French  in  their  short  residence  had  made  a  deep  im 
pression  upon  the  Indians,  whom  they  treated  in  a  man 
ner  quite  unlike  that  of  the  Spaniards  and  Portuguese. 
Their  habitual  gayety  and  good  nature  and  kindliness 
attracted  the  natives,  and  the  singing  of  the  Huguenots, 
who  were  like  Cromwell's  men  great  and  sonorous  singers 
of  hymns,  printed  itself  upon  the  Indian  memory,  so  that 
long  afterwards  the  European  cruising  along  the  coast 
would  be  saluted,  says  Baird,  with  some  snatch  of  a 
French  psalm,  uncouthly  rendered  by  Indian  voices,  in 
strains  caught  from  the  Calvinist  soldier  on  patrol.  No 
fierce  imprecation  or  profane  expletive  lingered  in  the 

Upon  the 


recollection  of  the  red  men,  as  the  synonym  for  the 
French  Protestant.  Moreover,  the  Genevan  students  on 
the  second  expedition  had  succeeded  in  reaching  a  num 
ber  of  the  Indian  tribes  with  the  truth,  and  obtained 
promises  from  many  that  they  would  stop  their  cannibal 
ism,  practiced  upon  their  enemies. 



High  Aim  of 
King  Henry  IV 



ENEY  IV  entered  heartily  into  the  colonization 
plans  of  his  great  minister,  Admiral  Coliguy, 
and  after  the  Edict  of  Nantes  had  brought  peace 
to  France,  this  monarch  undertook  to  realize  his  am 
bitious  plans  to  build  up  a  powerful  navy,  promote 
exploration  and  trade  with  distant  parts,  and  carry  out 
Coligny's  scheme  to  establish  a  French  colony  in 
America.  The  honour  belongs  to  this  enlightened  king, 
who  strove  to  deal  fairly  with  all  his  subjects  and  to  pro 
tect  the  Protestants  in  their  rights,  of  founding  the  first 
agricultural  colony  on  our  continent,  and  of  basing  it, 
moreover,  upon  the  principles  of  religious  liberty  and 

To  understand  the  character  of  this  new  movement  of 
colonization  and  of  those  who  engaged  in  it,  it  is  neces 
sary  briefly  to  review  the  religious  history  of  the  western 
seacoast  provinces  of  France.  The  fisher-folk  and  sailors 
of  Normandy,  Brittany,  Saintonge,  and  the  islands  along 
the  coast,  were  of  the  hardy  sort  of  which  explorers  are 
made.  From  the  year  1504  these  seamen  had  crossed  to 
the  banks  of  Newfoundland  and  rivalled  the  English  and 
Spaniards  in  discovery,  fishing,  and  commercial  enter 
prise.  Many  of  these  men  were  Protestant,  and  many 
of  the  ships  engaged  in  these  voyages  were  owned  by 
Huguenot  merchants,  and  manned  by  Huguenot  sailors, 
who  persisted  in  singing  lustily  Clement  Marot's  version 
of  the  Psalms,  to  the  scandal  of  the  Eoman  Catholics 
who  heard  them.  It  was  as  early  as  1534  that  Protestant 
ism  made  its  way  into  the  seaboard  provinces,  through 



the  preaching  of  two  of  Calvin's  most  zealous  and  fiery 
disciples.  The  spread  of  the  new  doctrines  was  rapid, 
as  the  simpler  religion  appealed  to  the  common  people. 
A  strange  thing  happened  which  aided  in  this  quick  ca[v?nis°m  on 
growth  of  the  Protestant  movement.  A  number  of  monks  the  Seaboard 
in  central  France,  hearing  of  Luther,  left  their  monas 
teries  and  crossed  into  Germany  to  learn  directly  from 
the  Reformer  himself.  As  a  result,  they  returned  to 
France  and  began  to  preach  against  Eome  in  the  same 
vein  that  Luther  did  in  Germany.  They  were  soon 
compelled  to  hide,  and  a  number  of  them  found  refuge 
in  Saintonge,  among  the  seamen.  The  persecution  that 
brought  several  of  these  reformed  monks  to  the  stake 
did  not  check  the  belief  of  the  people  in  their  doctrines, 
and  again  the  blood  of  the  martyrs  became  the  seed  of 
the  church.  By  1550  a  large  proportion  of  the  people 
of  this  province  had  become  Protestants,  and  La 
Eochelle,  the  capital  town  of  the  province,  was  the 
stronghold  of  Protestantism.  To  show  how  thorough 
the  change  was,  it  is  said  that  when  the  Edict  of  Nantes 
was  proclaimed  in  1598  the  Eoman  mass  had  not  been 
said  openly  at  La  Eochelle  for  nearly  forty  years,  while 
in  many  other  Huguenot  towns  the  Eoman  Catholic  wor 
ship  had  practically  disappeared,  so  predominantly 
Protestant  were  the  people. 

It  was  a  Protestant  population,  therefore,  that  wel-  Protestant 
corned  the  colonization  idea,  not  only  for  commercial 
reasons,  but  because  experience  had  taught  them  how 
insecure  they  were  in  France.  Even  the  new  Edict  of 
Henry  could  not  guarantee  continued  possession  of  their 
religious  liberties.  The  edict  had  inflamed  the  Eoman 
Catholics,  and  it  was  plain  that  persecution  would  again 
break  out  the  moment  opportunity  could  be  found.  The 
day  foreseen  by  the  wise  Coligny  might  dawn  on  any 
morrow,  when  the  Protestants  of  France  would  need  a 
place  of  refuge  for  themselves  and  their  children. 



Hence  it  was  that  when,  November  8,  1603,  Pierre  de 
Monte,  a  Huguenot  gentleman  of  Saintonge,  received  a 
royal  commission  authorizing  him  to  possess  and  settle 
that  part  of  North  America  embracing  what  is  now  Nova 
Scotia,  New  Brunswick  and  Canada,  and  granting  him  a 
trade  monopoly  for  ten  years,  this  brave  Protestant 
leader  and  good  man  found  no  difficulty  in  securing 
Protestant  followers.  He  had  himself  accompanied 
Chauvin  on  his  first  visit  to  the  St.  Lawrence,  and 
thinking  that  region  too  severe  in  temperature  had  de 
cided  on  a  more  southerly  region  for  his  colony.  Nova 
Scotia  was  his  choice.  The  name  La  Cadie  had  then  been 
given  to  this  fertile  country  by  the  French  discoverer 
Cartier,  and  thus  the  Acadia  of  poetic  legend  came  to  be 
known.  The  royal  grant  emphasized  the  King's  firm 
resolution  ."with  the  help  and  assistance  of  God,  who  is 
the  author,  distributor,  and  protector  of  all  kingdoms  and 
states,  to  seek  the  conversion,  guidance  and  instruction 
of  the  races  that  inhabit  that  country,  from  their 
barbarous  and  godless  condition,  without  faith  or  re 
ligion,  to  Christianity  and  the  belief  and  profession  of 
our  faith  and  religion,  and  to  rescue  them  from  the 
ignorance  and  unbelief  in  which  they  now  lie."  Thus 
the  purpose  was  declared  to  be  spiritual  as  well  as  secular  ; 
and  the  Sieur  de  Monts  was  appointed  the  King's  lieu 
tenant-general  with  powers  to  "  subject  all  the  peoples  of 
this  country  and  of  the  surrounding  parts  to  our  au 
thority  ;  and  by  all  lawful  means  to  lead  them  to  the 
knowledge  of  God  and  to  the  light  of  the  Christian  faith 
and  religion,  and  to  establish  them  therein."  But  there 
was  one  great  difference  between  this  missionary  purpose 
and  that  of  the  ordinary  Roman  Catholic  ruler.  It  was 
decreed  that  religious  liberty  should  prevail  in  the  new 
colony,  and  that  all  the  colonists  were  to  be  maintained 
and  protected  in  the  exercise  and  profession  of  the  Chris 
tian  faith,  and  in  peace,  repose  and  trauquility.  Calviuist 


and  Eomanist  were  to  be  safe  to  follow  their  own  con 
sciences  without  molestation  from  the  other.  De  Monts 
was  well  fitted  for  leadership.  He  was  a  valiant  soldier, 
who  had  won  the  entire  confidence  of  his  sovereign,  and 
was  a  man  of  highest  integrity  and  patriotism,  as  well  as 
of  exemplary  piety.  By  the  testimony  of  his  contem 
poraries,  he  was  thoroughly  qualified  by  his  courage, 
energy,  perseverance,  tact  and  firmness,  to  found  New 
France  in  America,  and  represented  the  commanding 
qualities  of  the  Huguenot  gentleman. 

With  two  ships  he  sailed  from  Havre  in  March,  1604,  Port  Royal 
taking  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  persons.  High 
and  low  birth,  Protestants  and  Catholics,  with  a  Protestant 
minister  and  a  Eoman  Catholic  priest  to  look  after  the 
spiritual  interests,  made  up  the  company,  which  was  de 
cidedly  superior  in  character  to  most  of  those  that  had 
previously  gone  forth  in  search  of  adventure.  Two  of 
de  Monts'  former  comrades,  gentlemen  of  fortune  and 
rank — Samuel  de  Champlain  and  Baron  de  Poutrincourt, 
accompanied  him.  Proceeding  to  the  Bay  of  Fundy, 
passing  through  the  narrow  channel  into  the  beautiful 
basin  now  known  as  Annapolis  Harbour,  de  Monts 
named  the  basin  Port  Royal,  and  here  de  Poutrincourt 
decided  to  found  a  settlement  and  bring  families  from 
France  to  develop  his  grant.  No  more  favourable  place 
could  have  been  found  for  the  purpose.  De  Monts  fixed 
upon  a  small  island  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Croix  for  his 
own  colony — a  site  as  poor  as  Port  Eoyal  was  good  ;  and 
after  Jurying  the  hard  experiences  of  a  winter  he  saw  his 
mistake  and  decided  to  unite  forces  at  Port  Eoyal.  Only 
forty  of  seventy-nine  of  his  company  survived,  owing  to 
sickness  at  St.  Croix,  and  among  those  who  died  were  the 
priest  and  the  minister,  so  that  no  religious  teacher  was 
left.  In  this  emergency,  Marc  Lescarbot,  a  Protestant 
lawyer  and  writer,  became  teacher  and  preacher,  * l  in 
order  that  we  might  not  live  like  the  beasts,"  as  he  tells 
us  in  his  most  interesting  "  History  of  New  France,'7 


"  and  that  we  might  afford  the  savages  an  example  of  our 
way  of  living."  It  is  worthy  of  mention  that  Baron  de 
Poutrincourt,  while  nominally  a  Eoman  Catholic,  was 
apparently  in  full  sympathy  with  his  Protestant  asso 
ciates,  and  was  an  open  enemy  of  the  Jesuits.  Lescarbot 
was  not  only  teacher  of  his  countrymen,  but  reached  a 
number  of  the  natives,  for  whose  conversion  the  Hugue 
nots  of  La  Eochelle  daily  prayed. 


France  seemed  destined  to  defeat  in  the  new  world.  If 
religious  troubles  did  not  bring  disaster,  commercial 
rivalries  did.  De  Monts  was  just  getting  his  new  colony 
in  prosperous  condition,  when  in  1607  his  trade  monopoly 
was  withdrawn  at  the  instance  of  merchants  of  Brittany, 
who  learned  with  indignation  that  a  rival  threatened  their 
traffic  along  the  American  coast,  and  that  exclusive  rights 
had  been  granted  which  shut  them  out  from  the  fisheries 
and  fur  trade.  The  withdrawal  of  his  exclusive  rights 
crippled  de  Monts  in  his  plans  and  led  to  the  abandon 
ment  of  Port  Eoyal.  Already  a  small  palisaded  fort  had 
been  built,  besides  a  mill,  storehouses  and  dwellings,  and 
friendly  relations  had  been  formed  with  the  Indians. 
De  Poutrincourt  held  his  grant  to  the  site,  and  took 
possession  of  it  again,  but  the  chance  for  a  strong  colony 
was  lost. 

De  Monts  now  made  another  attempt,  selecting  the 
interior  for  his  new  venture.  For  this  purpose  he  ob 
tained  a  renewal  of  his  trade  monopoly  for  a  single  year, 
and  taking  Champlain  with  him,  made  his  way  up  the 
St.  Lawrence  with  two  vessels,  one  equipped  for  the 
expedition,  the  other  for  the  fur  traffic  which  was  to 
Quebec  1608  bring  the  needed  funds.  In  the  summer  of  1608,  Cham- 
plain,  under  de  Monts'  authority,  landed  on  the  site  of 
Quebec,  and  established  a  trading-post  at  that  strategic 
point.  De  Monts  now  took  in  with  him  the  rivals  who 
had  formerly  broken  in  upon  his  monopoly,  and  pros- 


perity  attended  his  venture.  Many  merchants  of  La 
Eochelle  actively  engaged  in  the  profitable  trade. 

Religious  liberty  had  not  as  yet  been  interfered  with, 
and  though  there  were  serious  discussions  between  the 
Romanists  and  Calvinists,  the  friendly  intercourse  pre 
vailed  in  the  main  so  long  as  de  Monts  was  in  control. 
Presently,  however,  Champlain,  who  was  a  Roman  Cath 
olic,  was  appointed  governor  of  the  colony,  and  the  re 
ligious  contentions  gave  him  much  trouble.  The  Calvin 
ists  remained  true  to  their  faith,  and  on  most  of  the  5eligti?us 


"  company's  vessels  the  crews  were  assembled  daily  for 
prayers,  after  the  manner  of  Geneva  ;  and  even  good 
Catholics,  it  was  complained,  were  required  by  the 
Huguenot  captains  to  join  in  the  psalmody  which  formed 
so  important  a  part  of  the  Protestant  worship."  But  now 
came  the  terrible  blow  to  the  Protestants  in  France. 
Tolerant  and  sympathetic  King  Henry  IV  fell  under  the 
assassin's  knife,  and  it  was  plain  that  no  longer  would  the 
Huguenots  enjoy  their  freedom  of  worship.  De  Monts 
gave  up  his  hopes  and  plans,  and  surrendered  his  com 
mission  as  viceroy  of  New  France  to  the  Prince  of  Conde", 
who  had  been  a  Huguenot  leader,  but  was  now  engaged 
in  politics  rather  than  religion,  using  the  latter  as  a  po 
litical  weapon.  The  proprietary  rights  which  had  be 
longed  to  de  Monts  passed,  by  the  irony  of  fate,  into  the 
hands  of  the  Jesuits,  most  inveterate  and  implacable  of 
foes  to  the  Protestant  faith.  One  of  the  romances  of  his-  peMonts 

Loses  Canada 

tory  stranger  than  fiction  is  to  be  found  in  the  passing  of 
the  title  to  half  a  continent  from  Protestant  to  Roman 
Catholic  hands,  through  the  missionary  zeal  of  a  French 
noblewoman  controlled  by  the  Jesuits  on  the  one  hand,  Jesuits  in  Con- 
and  the  financial  needs  of  the  noble  de  Monts,  who  had 
become  governor  of  a  Huguenot  town  and  wanted  to  de 
fend  it  against  time  of  persecution,  on  the  other.  Thus 
began  the  Jesuit  missions  in  North  America  under  fa 
vourable  auspices,  and  thus  sounded  the  death -knell  of  a 
Protestant  New  France  in  North  America. 


Loses  North 
America  as  a 

Shutting  Out 


To  the  Jesuits,  those  fomenters  of  wars  and  mischief  in 
every  country  where  they  have  been  permitted  to  live, 
France  owes  it  that  North  America  was  lost  to  her.  The 
first  thing  the  Jesuits  aimed  at  was  to  get  control  of 
Acadia  and  Canada,  and  banish  every  heretic  from  the 
new  world,  then  prevent  any  more  from  coming.  In  that 
simple  way  New  France  was  to  be  kept  Eoman  Catholic, 
and  free  from  religious  troubles  such  as  had  long  dis 
tracted  France  and  Germany  and  other  nations.  By  the 
formation  of  a  new  company,  the  Company  of  New 
France,  in  which  no  Huguenot  had  place,  and  by  the 
taking  away  of  its  charter  from  the  former  company,  at 
the  head  of  which  was  a  Huguenot,  the  transformation 
was  accomplished  after  a  few  years.  Complaints  of  the 
singing  of  the  Huguenots  on  shipboard  brought  orders 
prohibiting  the  singing  of  hymns,  which  was  peculiarly 
distasteful  to  the  Jesuits,  of  whom  it  was  said,  l  i  They  do 
not  sing  ;  birds  of  prey  never  do."  Champlain,  as  gov 
ernor  of  Quebec,  tried  to  enforce  the  orders  against  sing 
ing  and  public  saying  of  prayers,  but  says  :  u  At  last  it 
was  agreed  that  they  might  meet  to  pray,  but  should  not 
sing  psalms.  A  bad  bargain,  yet  it  was  the  best  we 
could  do." 

It  was  not  long,  however,  before  the  Jesuits  had  grown 
strong  enough  to  stop  even  the  arrival  of  the  singing 
Protestants.  Under  the  policy  of  Cardinal  Eichelieu, 
who  was  as  zealous  a  Eoman  Catholic  as  he  was  energetic 
and  unscrupulous  a  minister  of  Louis  XIII,  every  emi 
grant  who  went  out  under  the  Company  of  New  France, 
must  first  profess  the  Eoman  Catholic  faith.  This  was  in 
the  line  of  Eichelieu' s  plan  to  crush  out  Protestantism  in 
France  also,  and  was  regarded  as  a  master  stroke  of 
policy.  What  it  accomplished  was  to  hand  over  North 
America  to  England,  and  to  pave  the  way  in  France  for 
the  awful  days  of  Eed  Revolution  and  a  descending  scale 
of  power  and  influence  among  the  world  powers. 



It  was  oue  of  the  reprisals  of  justice,  one  of  the  right 
eous  punishments  of  religious  usurpation,  that  when  the 
English  king  determined  to  contest  the  claim  to  North  |Jj^8  Nova 
America  by  right  of  discovery,  Sir  William  Alexander, 
who  had  a  royal  grant  to  Nova  Scotia,  found  the  best 
material  for  his  expedition  of  conquest  in  the  large  num 
bers  of  Huguenot  seamen  and  soldiers  who  had  found 
refuge  in  England  from  the  renewed  persecutions  at  home, 
and  were  only  too  glad  to  engage  in  war  against  the 
Jesuits,  even  though  they  were  French.  Hence  we  find 
that  the  admiral  who  had  charge  of  Sir  Alexander's 
squadron,  fitted  out  for  the  conquest  of  New  France,  was 
David  Kirke,  while  his  brothers  were  his  assistants — all 
natives  of  Dieppe  in  Normandy,  and  staunch  Protestants  Helped  by 
who  had  fled  from  their  country  rather  than  deny  their 
faith.  The  sailing  master,  Jacques  Michel,  was  an  ardent 
Calvinist,  who  had  been  in  the  employ  of  Guillaume  de 
Caen  when  that  strong  Huguenot  leader  was  at  the  head 
of  the  former  Canadian  Company  organized  by  de  Monts. 
Acadia  was  an  easy  prey  to  these  bold  invaders,  and 
Kirke  then  turned  his  attention  to  Quebec,  and  on  July 
20,  1629,  that  stronghold,  under  Champlain,  was  obliged 
to  surrender.  And  now  the  Jesuit  fathers  who  had  lately 
come  to  occupy  the  mission  field  which  they  proposed  to 
hold  forever  shut  against  heretics,  were  prisoners  in  the 
hands  of  the  very  heretics  whose  destruction  at  home  and 
abroad  they  had  planned. 

That  Quebec  again  passed  into  French  possession,  be 
cause  peace  had  been  signed  between  England  and  France 
three  months  before  Quebec  was  captured,  was  a  fortune 
of  war ;  but  during  the  three  years  of  negotiations  a 
Huguenot,  Louis  Kirk,  was  in  command,  and  won  the 
confidence  and  respect  of  all  by  his  admirable  and  toler 
ant  conduct.  His  English  name  came  from  the  fact  that 
his  father  was  a  Scotchman  who  lived  and  married  in  Louis  Kirk  at 
France.  He  tried  to  induce  the  French  families  to  re- 


main  in  Quebec,  and  permitted  them  their  religious  lib 
erty — an  example  which  the  Jesuit  fathers,  whom  he  per 
mitted  to  say  mass,  never  reciprocated  when  they  were  in 
power.  It  is  significant,  also,  that  it  was  a  Huguenot, 
Emery  de  Caen,  who  was  made  the  agent  of  France  to  re 
ceive  back  her  American  province.  The  truth  seems  to 
be  that  the  Huguenots  were  men  of  such  ability  and  trust 
worthiness  that  they  were  chosen  when  public  service  de 
manding  highest  integrity  and  capacity  was  to  be  ren 
dered.  We  are  constantly  reminded  of  the  fact  that 
France  lost  her  best  blood  when  her  Protestant  subjects 
were  massacred  or  exiled.  They  were  the  people  who 
had  convictions  and  courage,  capacity  and  character  such 
as  make  nations  powerful  and  influential.  And  while 
New  France  was  to  cease  to  exist,  the  best  of  Old  France 
was  to  enter  into  the  making  of  the  New  World.  The 
religious  bigotry  and  crime  and  folly  of  the  leaders  of  one 
nation,  inspired  by  a  hierarchy  as  pitiless  as  it  has  ever 
been  shortsighted  and  grasping,  were  to  contribute  ele 
ments  of  inestimable  value  to  other  nations,  particularly 
to  that  new  one  that  was  destined  to  be  the  wonder  of 
them  all. 

May  23,  1633,  was  a  decisive  day  for  New  France.  On 
that  day  Champlain,  again  appointed  governor,  received 
the  keys  of  the  fort  of  Quebec  from  the  Huguenot  de  Caen, 
and  from  that  hour  Canada  was  closed  to  the  Huguenot  as 
a  colonist.  None  but  Eoman  Catholic  Frenchmen  could 
acquire  permanent  residence.  Dr.  Baird  is  undoubtedly 
right  when  he  says  :  "  In  this  prohibition,  religious  in 
tolerance  pronounced  the  doom  of  the  French  colonial 
system  in  America.  The  exclusion  of  the  Huguenots 
from  New  France  was  one  of  the  most  stupendous  blunders 
that  history  records.  The  repressive  policy  pursued  by 
the  French  government  for  the  next  fifty  years,  culminat 
ing  in  the  Eevocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  tended  more 
and  more  to  awaken  and  to  strengthen  among  the  Protes 
tants  a  disposition  to  emigrate  to  foreign  lands.  Industri- 


ous  and  thrifty,  ready  for  any  sacrifice  to  enjoy  the  liberty 
of  conscience  denied  them  at  home,  they  would  have 
rejoiced  to  build  up  a  French  state  in  the  New  World. 
No  other  desirable  class  of  the  population  of  France  was 
inclined  for  immigration.  It  was  with  great  difficulty 
that  from  time  to  time  the  feeble  colony  could  be  recruited, 
at  vast  expense,  and  with  inferior  material.  Meanwhile, 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  expatriated  Huguenots  carried 
into  Protestant  countries  of  Northern  Europe,  and  into  the 
British  colonies  of  North  America,  the  capital,  the  indus 
trial  skill,  the  intelligence,  the  moral  worth,  that  might 
have  enriched  the  French  possessions,  and  secured  to  the 
Gallic  race  a  vast  domain  upon  the  North  American 






N  the  list  of  passengers  on  the  good  ship  Mayflower  The  May- 
may  be  seen  the  names  of  a  family  called  "Mulling,"   flower' l630 
consisting  of  father  and  mother  and  two  children :  a 
son  named  Joseph  and  a  daughter  named  Priscilla.     But 
while  the  name  William  Mullins  is  thoroughly  English, 
investigation  proves  that  the  man  so  called  was  not  Eng 
lish  at  all.     When  the  little  ship  Speedwell  put  out  from 
Delfthaven  in  Holland  to  meet  the  Mayflower  at  South 
ampton,  among  the  Pilgrims  there  was  a  Huguenot  family, 
the  father's  name  being  Guillaume  Molines.     Already  in  The  Molines 
the  Old  World,  in  that  haven  of  Holland,  the  English  and 
French  refugees,  sufferers  alike  for  their  religion,  had 
clasped  hands  of  kinship  ;  and  in  the  first  company  that 
made    home  in  the  New   World  the  Huguenots  were 
represented,    although   the   habit  of    corrupting  names 
tended  to  conceal  the  fact.     In  that  first  awful  year  of 
starvation  and  suffering  that  followed  the  coming  of  the 
Pilgrims  to  the  Massachusetts  coast,  Guillaume  Molines, 
his  wife,  and  the  son  perished.     But  Priscilla  survived, 
and  by  her  marriage  with  John  Alden  became  the  ances 
tress  of  that  celebrated  New  England  family,  the  Aldens.    PriSCiiia  a 
From  this  descent,  too,  was  John  Adams,  second  Presi-   Hueuenot 
dent  of  the  United  States.     More  than  this,  Longfellow's 
poem  has  enshrined  this  French  girl  in  the  affections  of 



New  England  as  the  typical  Puritan  maiden  ;  and  so  com 
pletely  is  she  identified  in  thought  and  imagination  with 
the  story  of  the  Pilgrims,  that  in  spite  of  the  record  of 
history  it  is  probable  that  the  picture  of  John  Aldeu  and 
his  fair  young  bride  will  remain  the  popular  representa 
tion  of  the  peculiarly  English  ancestors  of  New  England. 
French  Traits  And  yet,  as  a  recent  writer  suggests,  it  has  always  been 
a  source  of  wonder  that  an  English  girl  could  have  had 
the  ready  wit  to  give  John  Alden  "  the  tip"  that  released 
him  from  his  ambiguous  wooing  and  herself  from  the 
domination  of  the  fierce  little  captain.  "How  blind  we 
were  to  the  Gallic  coquetry  with  which  she  held  on  to 
Miles  till  she  had  secured  John  !  She  was  a  worthy  pro 
genitor  of  the  Yankee  girl  in  her  ability  to  take  care  of 
herself.  We  must  blot  out,  then,  from  the  historic  portrait 
the  blue  eyes  and  rosy  cheeks  of  the  English  maiden  whom 
our  fancy  has  called  up  whenever  we  have  thought  of 
Priscilla  ;  and  we  must  paint  in  a  slender,  graceful,  black  - 
haired  brunette,  with  brown-black  velvet  eyes  and  long 
sweeping  lashes,  from  under  which  were  shot  such  glances 
as  melted  the  hearts  of  all  the  colony ;  and  we  must  adorn  the 
Puritan  garb  with  some  dainty  ribbon."  We  can  at  once 
see  how  this  different  feminine  element  would  exert  its 
powerful  influence,  and  how  Priscilla  would  be  a  marked 

A  still  greater  shock  will  be  given  to  tradition  and 
family  pride  when  it  is  said,  further,  that  there  are  very 
good  grounds  for  believing  that  John  Alden  himself  had 
Huguenot  blood  in  his  veins.  Let  this  case  be  stated  by 
Julien,  author  of  Tales  of  Old  Boston,  who  made  it  a  mat 
ter  of  careful  research,  and  thought  the  evidence  rather 
strongly  in  favour  of  a  Huguenot  origin.  The  Alden 
genealogies,  he  says,  state  vaguely  that  the  name  of  Alden 
is  not  found  in  England,  or  mention  a  certain  Mr.  Aldeu 
of  St.  John's  College,  who  is  referred  to  as  "one  who 
suffered  by  the  tyrannical  Bartholomew  act" — which 
suggests  that  it  was  a  French  refugee  of  1572  who  was 

John  Alden 


the  ancestor  of  this  family.  There  is  mention  also  of  a 
"  John  Alden  of  the  Middle  Temple, "  to  whom  a  coat  of 
arms  was  assigned  in  1607.  Now  the  John  Alden  of  the  Ald«n  ped*- 
Mayflower,  it  will  be  remembered,  was  a  cooper,  whom  the 
Pilgrims  met  at  Southampton,  just  before  their  departure 
for  America,  and  whom  they  induced  to  join  their  com 
pany  with  the  understanding  that  he  should  be  free  to 
remain,  or  return  to  England  as  he  pleased.  I  find  in  the 
list  of  persons,  mostly  Huguenots  naturalized  by  royal 
letters  patent  and  recorded  at  Westminster  for  the  5th  of 
March,  1691,  the  name  of  Anne  Alden,  with  those  of  her 
son-in-law  Jean  Biancard  and  Mary,  his  daughter.  And 
there  is  a  still  more  significant  record  of  the  granting  of 
naturalization  in  1575 — that  is,  three  years  after  the 
massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew — to  u  Susan  and  Sarah 
Alden,  daughters  of  John  Alden  of  London,  grocer,  and 
Barbara,  daughter  of  Jacques  du  Prier,  his  wife."  In 
these  records  we  have  sufficient  evidence  at  least  to  surmise 
that  the  John  Alden  of  the  Mayflower,  as  well  as  his  wife 
Priscilla,  was  of  direct  Huguenot  origin.  Everybody  is 
familiar  with  Millais'  beautiful  picture  of  the  i  i  Huguenot 
Lovers ' '  of  the  period  of  the  St.  Bartholomew  massacre. 
It  would  be  a  curious  continuation  of  the  story  which  that 
picture  suggests  if  it  should  have  a  New  World  companion 
piece  in  the  New  England  lovers  of  1620,  who  on  the 
white  sand  and  amid  the  tangled  sea  grasses  of  Plymouth 
beach,  vowed  fealty  to  each  other. 


The  case  of  Priscilla  Molines  is  more  or  less  typical  of  changes  in 
the  record  of  other  Huguenot  emigrants.  Her  name  was 
distorted  into  the  uneuphonious  appellation  of  Mullins, 
and  her  identity  was  swallowed  up  in  all  its  superficial 
aspects  by  the  outward  characteristics  of  her  alien  neigh 
bours.  It  is  easy  to  account  for  the  changes  which  took 
place  in  the  French  names  :  even  common  English  names 
of  that  period  were  spelled  in  a  great  variety  of  ways,  ac- 


Loss  of 

Quick  As 
similation  of 
the  French 

cording  to  the  whim  or  degree  of  learning  of  the  user,  and 
so  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  the  strange  and  unfa 
miliar  names  of  the  French  emigrants  should  have  been 
mangled  almost  out  of  all  resemblance  to  the  originals. 
We  shall  find  this  to  be  the  case  over  and  over  again. 
And  while  the  Huguenots  did  not  lose  the  essential  traits 
of  character  which  are  the  pride  of  their  descendants, 
they  were  very  adaptable,  and  soon  learned  to  conform  to 
the  outward  customs  of  the  people  among  whom  they  found 
themselves.  They  entered  into  the  spirit  of  the  civili 
zation  by  which  they  were  surrounded  and  thoroughly 
identified  themselves  with  it.  For  these  reasons  it  is 
often  extremely  difficult  to  separate  their  history  from  the 
history  of  the  country  at  large,  just  as  in  the  present  in 
stance  it  would  be  an  almost  impossible  task  to  convince 
the  general  public  that  Priscilla  Mullins,  the  flower  of 
early  Puritan  civilization,  was  in  reality  a  daughter  of 

A  year  after  the  landing  of  the  Pilgrims  on  Plymouth 
Eock  another  Huguenot  joined  his  fortunes  to  those  of  the 
infant  state.  This  was  Phillip  de  la  Noye,  who  came  over 
in  the  ship  Fortune.  Like  so  many  other  French  emi 
grants  who  came  to  America,  la  Noye  was  born  in  Hol 
land,  where  his  parents  had  taken  refuge,  and  had  there 
made  his  acquaintance  with  the  Puritans.  Fate  was 
kinder  to  him  than  it  had  been  to  Guillaume  Molines,  and 
he  was  enabled  to  gain  a  strong  foothold  in  the  colony. 
His  descendants,  whose  name  became  anglicized  into 
Delano,  are  numerous  in  the  region  where  their  ancestors 
landed,  and  are  to  be  met  with  in  the  West  as  well  as  in 
New  England.  The  late  Eev.  H.  A.  Delano,  a  Baptist 
minister  of  marked  gifts  as  a  preacher,  was  an  honoured 
member  of  this  family. 


Teuton's  Peti-       In  the  year  1662,  Jean  Touton,  "  of  Eotchell  in  France, 
Doctor  Chirurgion,"  forwarded  a  petition  to  the  "Magis- 

Phillip  de  la 


trates  of  the  Massachusetts  Colonie"  on  behalf  of  himself 
and  other  persecuted  citizens  of  that  town.  The  petition- 
ers  stated  that  they  "are  for  their  religion  sake,  outed 
and  expelled  from  their  habitations  and  dwellings  in 
Rotchell,"  and  humbly  crave  the  "liberty  to  come  heather, 
here  to  inhabit  and  abide  amongst  the  English  in  this 
Jurisdiction,  and  to  follow  such  honest  endeavours  & 
yniploymts,  as  providence  hath  or  shall  direct  them  unto, 
whereby  they  may  get  a  livelihood,  and  that  they  might 
have  so  much  favour  from  the  Govmt  here,  as  in  some 
measure  to  be  certayne  of  their  residence  here  before  they 
undertake  the  voyage,  and  what  privileges  they  may 
expect  here  to  have,  that  so  accordingly  as  they  find 
incoridgmt  for  further  progress  herein,  they  may  dispose 
of  their  estates  of  Eotchell,  where  they  may  not  have  any 
longer  continuance."  In  October  of  that  year  the  Gen-  October  1662 
era!  Court  of  Massachusetts  granted  the  petitioners  the 
right  to  take  up  their  residence  in  the  Colony,  but  how 
many  took  advantage  of  the  opportunity  it  is  quite  impos 
sible  to  tell.  A  list  of  the  petitioners  was  forwarded  with 
the  petition  itself,  but  unfortunately  it  was  destroyed. 
Doubtless  several  of  them  found  their  way  to  Boston,  for 
we  have  evidence  that  Jean  Toutou  himself  arrived  in 
Massachusetts  during  the  very  year  of  the  petition.  In 
1687  we  find  him  again  addressing  the  General  Court.,  de 
claring  that  he  had  i  i  ever  since  the  year  1662  been  an 
Inhabitant  in  the  Territory  of  his  Majesty." 

Philip  English,  who  was  baptized  Phillip  L'Anglois, 
came  to  Salem,  Massachusetts,  in  or  about  the  year  1670.    saiem  1670 
He  was  a  high-spirited  man  and  possessed  of  a  great  store 
of  energy,  and  he  at  once  made  a  place  for  himself  in  the 
affairs  of  that  thriving  seaport.     He  built  up  a  large  trade 
with  France,  Spain  and  the  West  Indies,  and  soon  came 
to  be  recognized  as  one  of  the  most  prosperous  merchants 
of  Salem.     At  one  time,  when  at  the  height  of  his  good 
fortune,  he  was  credited  with  owning  fourteen  buildings  Philip  English 
in  the  town,  a  commodious  warehouse  and  wharf,  to  say 



nothing  of  the  twenty -one  vessels  which  brought  in 
splendid  profits  under  his  skillful  management.  Eng 
lish  had  made  his  way  to  Salem  from  the  Island  of  Jersey, 
and  he  was  instrumental  in  bringing  over  a  number  of 
his  compatriots  who  had  taken  refuge  there.  There  is  no 
complete  record  of  their  names,  but  we  know  that  among 
those  who  came  to  Salem  were  John  Touzell,  John 
Browne  (Jean  Le  Brun),  Nicholas  Chevalier,  Peter 
Morall,  Edward  Feveryear,  John  Voudin,  Eachel  Delia- 
close,  the  Valpy  family,  the  Lefavors  and  the  Cabots. 


But  it  was  not  until  the  Revocation  of  the  Edict  of 
Nantes  crushed  all  hope  of  religious  toleration  in  France 
and  rendered  the  lives  of  Protestants  unsafe,  that  the 
Huguenots  began  to  flock  to  New  England  in  any  consid 
erable  numbers.  In  the  very  month  of  the  Revocation 
their  eyes  were  turned  longingly  towards  the  new  world 
that  promised  them,  an  asylum  from  their  persecutions 
and  an  opportunity  to  enjoy  that  liberty  of  conscience  for 
which  they  had  so  manfully  struggled  during  a  period  of 
over  a  century  and  a  half.  On  October  1,  1685,  a  letter 
was  sent  from  La  Rochelle  to  some  unknown  correspond 
ent  in  Boston  ;  it  expressed  the  condition  of  the  Rochel- 
lese  and  the  faith  they  had  in  New  England  as  a  place  of 
refuge,  as  the  following  extract  will  show : 

Letter  from 

God  grant  that  I  and  my  family  were  with  you,  we  should  not  have 
been  exposed  to  the  furie  of  our  enemies,  who  rob  us  of  the  goods  which 
God  hath  given  us  to  the  subsistence  of  our  soule  and  body.  I  shall 
not  assume  to  write  all  the  miseries  that  we  suffer,  which  cannot  be 
comprehended  in  a  letter,  but  in  many  books.  I  shall  tell  you  briefly, 
that  our  temple  is  condemned,  and  razed,  our  ministers  banished  for 
ever,  all  their  goods  confiscated,  and  moreover  they  are  condemned  to 
the  fine  of  a  thousand  crowns.  All  t'other  temples  are  also  razed,  ex- 
cepted  the  temple  of  Re,  and  two  or  three  others.  By  act  of  Parlia 
ment  we  are  hindered  to  be  masters  in  any  trade  or  skill.  We  expect 
every  days  the  lord  governour  or  Guiene,  whom  shall  put  soldiers  in 



our  houses,  and  take  away  our  children  to  be  offered  to  the  Idol,  as 
they  have  done  in  t'other  countrys. 

The  country  where  you  live  (that  is  to  say  New  England)  is  in  great 
estime  ;  I  and  a  grat  many  others,  Protestants,  intend  to  go  there.  A  Haven 
Tell  us,  if  you  please,  what  advantage  we  can  have  there,  and  particu 
larly  the  boors  who  are  accoustumed  to  plow  the  ground.  If  somebody 
of  your  country  would  hazard  to  come  here  with  a  ship  to  fetch  in  our 
French  Protestants,  he  would  make  great  gain. 

Five  years  previous,  in  1680,  some  commissioners  dele 
gated  by  the  Protestants  of  La  Rochelle  had  visited  Boston 
and  gained  permission  for  a  number  of  their  countrymen 
to  settle  in  Massachusetts.  But  the  projected  emigration 
was  given  up,  though  two  years  later  twelve  persons  did 
find  their  way  to  Boston,  coming  by  way  of  London. 
They  were  6lie  Charron,  Fran£ois  Basset,  Marie  Tissau 
Pare"  and  her  three  daughters,  and  a  widow  named 
Guerry,  with  her  two  sons,  her  son-in-law  and  two  small 
children.  This  little  company  was  very  hospitably  re 
ceived  by  the  good  people  of  Boston.  They  were  in  abso 
lute  poverty  ;  so  great  was  their  destitution,  and  so  sym 
pathetic  were  the  people  for  the  sufferings  which  they  had 
undergone  for  conscience'  sake,  that  the  governor  and  coun 
cil  recommended  that  on  a  certain  day  all  the  churches 
of  the  neighbourhood  should  take  up  a  collection  to  relieve 
their  distress,  referring  to  them  as  "  these  Christian  suf 
ferers."  At  such  a  welcome  these  forlorn  pilgrims  must 
have  indeed  thought  that  they  had  at  last  reached  the 
Promised  Land,  and  it  was  probably  the  news  of  their 
kindly  reception  which  caused  the  Eochellese  to  look  with 
such  yearning  eyes  towards  Boston  and  Massachusetts. 


Nor  had  they  any  cause  to  be  disappointed  when,  in 
1686,  a  company  of  them  reached  the  colony.  The  first 
ship  arrived  in  July  of  that  year,  coming  by  way  of  St. 
Christopher's.  In  granting  their  application  for  admis 
sion  to  the  colony,  the  council  passed  an  order  including 

Free  Citizen 
ship  Granted 


other  French  Protestants  within  its  scope  as  follows  :  ' '  Or 
dered,  That  upon  the  taking  the  oath  of  allegiance  before 
the  president,  and  under  his  hand  and  seal  of  his  Majtys 
Territory  and  Dominion,  they  be  allowed  to  reside  and 
dwell  in  his  Majtys  sd  dominion,  and  to  proceed  from 
hence  and  return  hither  as  freely  as  any  other  of  his 
Majtys  subjects,  and  this  to  be  an  order  for  all  such 
French  Protestants  that  shall  or  may  come  into  this  his 
Majtys  Territory  and  Dominion."  By  this  generous 
action  of  the  council,  Massachusetts  put  herself  on  record 
as  being  ready  and  eager  to  furnish  a  home  for  all  those  who 
truly  desired  to  dwell  in  liberty  of  conscience.  And  we 
can  only  add  that  she  was  amply  repaid  for  her  liberality 
by  the  high  character  and  loyalty  of  the  French  refugees 
whom  she  sheltered.  Bowdoin,  Faneuil  and  Eevere,  are 
names  that  she  could  ill  afford  to  have  stricken  from  her 

Christian  In  August  the  second  party  of  emigrants  arrived.    They 

had  suffered  much  from  the  long  voyage  and  had  lost 
their  doctor  and  twelve  of  their  fellows  through  sickness 
on  the  way  over.  The  survivors  who  landed  in  Boston 
were  wasted  by  sickness  and  were  almost  wholly  destitute 
of  property.  Their  sad  plight  did  not  escape  the  vigilance 
of  the  ever  watchful  and  solicitous  council,  which  pre 
pared  a  statement  of  the  needs  of  the  Huguenots  and 
caused  it  to  be  read  in  all  the  churches  of  the  colony. 
This  paper  represented  them  as  "  objects  of  a  true  Chris 
tian  charity,"  exhorted  the  people  to  give  liberally  in  so 
good  a  cause,  and  asked  the  ministers  to  "put  forward 
the  people  in  their  charity."  Captain  Elisha  Hutchin- 
sou  and  Captain  Samuel  Sewall,  two  of  the  leading  citi 
zens  of  Boston,  took  charge  of  receiving  and  distributing 
the  relief  fund,  and  everything  was  done  to  provide  for 
the  fugitives'  comfort  and  welfare.  We  are  told  in  the 
brief  prepared  by  the  council  that  this  stricken  company 
consisted  of  "  fifteen  French  familyes  with  a  religious 



Protestant  minister,  who  are  in  all,  men,  women  and  chil 
dren,  more  than  fourscore  soules." 

The  third  party,  "  crowded  into  a  small  ship,"  reached 
Salem  in  September  of  that  same  year.  The  same  kind-  A  French 
ness  that  had  been  shown  the  others  was  dealt  out  to  ^a°iemin 
them,  and  a  large  house  (even  down  to  the  middle  of  the 
nineteenth  century  known  as  the  "French  House")  was 
set  apart  for  their  use.  Philip  English,  by  this  time  well 
on  the  road  to  prosperity,  was  unremitting  in  his  efforts 
to  alleviate  the  misery  of  his  countrymen,  and  his  gen 
erosity  was  unbounded.  Not  for  long,  however,  did  these 
devoted  emigrants  stand  in  need  of  assistance.  They  had 
brought  little  property  with  them,  but  they  were  rich  in 
thrift,  perseverance,  and  industry,  and  they  were  soon 
able  to  take  care  of  themselves  and  lend  a  helping  hand 
to  later  arrivals. 


Bernon  the 

Region  near 


•  WEALTHY  refugee  from  La  Eochelle,  Gabriel 
Bernon,  who  reached  London  in  1697,  was  the 
prime  mover  in  the  French  settlement  of  Oxford, 
Massachusetts.  He  had  for  some  time  contemplated  go 
ing  to  America,  and  his  design  was  stimulated  by  the 
offer  of  a  grant  of  land  on  condition  that  he  should  form 
a  settlement  thereon.  Bernon  chose  for  his  agent  a  refugee 
from  Poitiers,  one  Isaac  Bertrand  du  Tuffeau,  and  fur 
nished  him  with  the  necessary  funds  for  effecting  an  im 
mediate  settlement.  Du  Tuffeau  reached  Boston  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  summer  of  1687,  and  upon  presenting 
his  credentials  was  given  a  grant  of  seven  hundred  and 
fifty  acres  of  land  in  the  Nipmuck  region,  on  the  site  of 
the  present  town  of  Oxford. 

The  place  selected  for  the  little  colony  was  far  from 
civilization,  in  the  heart  of  the  forests  that  stretched  in 
every  direction  undisturbed  by  the  settler's  axe.  It  could 
be  reached  only  by  the  faint  trail  known  as  the  Bay  Path, 
which  connected  Boston  with  the  valley  of  the  Connecti 
cut  Eiver  and  the  settlement  of  Springfield  ;  but  remote 
and  difficult  of  access  as  it  was,  the  Oxford  region  had 
many  features  to  recommend  it.  A  small  river  flowed 
through  the  centre  of  a  delightful  valley  which  was  walled 
in  by  a  circle  of  rolling  hills.  Abundant  water-power 
was  at  hand,  the  level  plain  which  stretched  out  on  either 
side  of  the  river  gave  evidence  of  great  fertility,  while 
the  near-by  hillsides  offered  admirable  opportunities  for 
orchards  and  meadows. 

To  this  promising  locality,  then,  the  first  group  of  set- 



tiers  made  their  way  in  the  summer  of  du  Tuffeau's  ar-  Arrival  of 
rival  in  Boston.  There  were  not  more  than  ten  families  in 
the  party  which  Daniel  Bondet,  an  intrepid  French  Prot 
estant  minister  who  had  come  to  Boston  during  the  pre 
vious  year,  led  forward  into  the  wilderness.  Hardly  had 
the  work  of  clearing  the  land  and  building  the  rude  log 
cabins  been  gotten  under  way  when  du  Tuffeau  himself 
took  up  his  residence  in  the  colony.  Fortunately  for  the 
colonists  the  winter  proved  to  be  a  very  mild  one  ;  and  al 
though  they  had  arrived  too  late  for  gathering  any  crops 
they  did  not  suffer  for  lack  of  food,  as  the  woods  abounded  Game  and  Fish 
in  game  and  the  numerous  lakes  and  streams  were  well 
stocked  with  fish,  while  from  the  neighbouring  Indians 
they  were  able  to  procure  supplies  of  corn.  Du  Tuffeau's 
first  ,"care  was  to  erect  a  fort  on  a  hill  which  commanded 
the  little  village  and  the  surrounding  valley.  The  remains 
of  this  fort  are  still  extant,  and  show  it  to  have  been  a  The  Fort 
carefully  planned  and  solidly  built  structure,  consisting 
of  a  roomy  inclosure  surrounded  by  a  stockade,  near  the 
centre  of  which  stood  a  block -house  about  thirty  feet  long 
by  eighteen  feet  wide.  The  fort  was  equipped  with  a  well 
and  a  powder-magazine  and  was  adapted  to  resist  a  sud 
den  onslaught  or  an  extended  siege ;  for  the  settlers  of 
those  days  were  forced  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness 
against  every  conceivable  stroke  of  ill  fortune.  But  the 
Indians  were  apparently  peacefully  disposed  and  the 
Huguenots  wasted  but  little  thought  on  them. 


The  year  following  the  establishment  of  the  colony 
Bernou  himself  set  sail  for  America,  bringing  with  him  a 
number  of  servants  and  several  families  of  prospective 
settlers.  This  company  numbered  about  forty  persons  in 
all,  and  Bernon  took  upon  himself  the  expense  of  fitting 
out  the  entire  enterprise.  As  soon  as  he  arrived  at  Bos-  less 
ton  Bernon  proceeded  to  get  a  confirmation  of  a  grant  of 
land  giving  him  a  tract  of  twenty-five  hundred  acres 


Bernon  Ar 

House  of 


Du  Tuffeau 

Some  of  the 

lying  within  the  boundaries  of  Oxford.  A  little  later  he 
set  out  from  Boston  accompanied  by  Joseph  Dudley,  then 
Chief  Justice  of  Massachusetts  and  one  of  the  principal 
proprietors  of  the  Oxford  lands,  who  desired  to  show  all 
courtesy  to  the  powerful  and  agreeable  Huguenot  by  put 
ting  him  in  formal  possession  of  his  property.  Bernon' s 
presence  gave  a  fresh  impetus  to  the  thriving  little  vil 
lage.  He  at  once  set  about  causing  needed  improvements 
to  be  made ;  built  a  grist-mill  and  a  saw-mill  to  utilize 
the  excellent  water-power,  and  in  many  other  ways  pro 
vided  for  the  comfort  and  welfare  of  the  colonists.  It  is 
significant  to  note  that  among  his  earliest  enterprises  on 
American  soil  was  the  erection  of  a  commodious  "tem 
ple"  for  the  worship  of  God.  Previous  to  his  coming, 
religious  exercises  had  been  conducted  in  minister  Bon- 
det's  "  great  house,'7  which  stood  a  little  apart  from  the 
village,  but  owing  to  the  number  of  new  arrivals  it  was 
no  longer  large  enough  to  serve  as  a  place  of  gathering. 

The  village  itself  was  built  in  the  compact  style  to 
which  the  refugees  had  been  accustomed  in  their  native 
country.  All  in  all,  the  town  probably  contained  between 
seventy  and  eighty  inhabitants  during  the  second  year  of 
its  establishment.  Gabriel  Bernon  was  only  an  occasional 
resident,  spending  the  greater  part  of  his  time  in  Boston. 
After  Bernon,  du  Tuffeau  was  probably  the  most  impor 
tant  personage  connected  with  the  village.  Besides  acting 
as  Bernon' s  agent  he  was  the  village  magistrate,  commis 
sioned  by  the  General  Court  in  1689  to  l  i  have  Authority 
for  Tryall  of  small  Causes  not  exceeding  forty  shillings, 
and  to  act  in  all  other  matters  as  any  other  Assistant  may 
doe,  as  the  Lawes  of  this  Colony  direct."  Andre  Sigour- 
ney  was  likewise  a  leader  in  the  community.  His  ap 
pointment  as  constable  of  t  i  the  French  Plantation, ' '  an 
office  which  carried  with  it  considerable  respect  and  in 
fluence,  shows  how  highly  he  was  regarded  by  his  fellow 
citizens.  With  Sigourney  was  his  wife,  Charlotte  Pairan, 
and  five  children,  who  fled  with  him  from  La  Rochelle 


during  the  winter  of  1681.  Francois  Bureau  came  of 
noble  blood,  and  fled  to  London  with  his  brother  Thomas 
from  their  native  village  of  Niort,  in  Poitou.  In  1688 
Franyois  came  to  Oxford  with  his  wife  Anne  and  their 
two  sons  and  two  daughers.  The  eldest  daughter,  Anne, 
became  later  on  the  wife  of  Benjamin  Faneuil  and  the 
mother  of  Peter  Faneuil  of  Boston  fame. 

Besides  these,  there  was  Jean  Germaine,  whose  name 
was  corrupted  into  Germon  or  German,  and  his  daughter 
Margaret,  who  came  from  La  Tremblade,  in  the  province 
of  Saiutouge  ;  Paiz  Cassaneau,  of  Languedoc ;  Daniel 
Johonnot,  a  youthful  nephew  of  Andre  Sigourney  ;  Jean 
Martin,  his  wife  Anne,  and  their  two  children  ;  Elie 
Dupeux,  a  native  of  Port  des  Barques  on  the  Saintonge 
coast ;  Eene  Grignon,  Thomas  Mousset,  Guillaume  Bar  but, 
Jean  Millet,  Pierre  Cante  (Canton),  Cornilly,  Butt, 
Thibaud,  Mourgues,  and  an  Englishman  named  Johnson 
who  married  Susanne  Sigourney.  Jacques  Depont  was  a 
nephew  of  Bernon,  while  Jean  Baudouin  was  the  eldest 
son  of  Pierre  Baudouin,  founder  of  the  illustrious  Bow- 
doin  family  in  America. 


But  the  little  colony  so  prosperously  begun  was  destined 
to  have  its  full  share  of  troubles.     The  practice  of  some  Troubles 
unscrupulous  traders  in  selling  rum  to  the  Indians  seems  Traders 
to  have  given  the  settlers  the  first  premonitions  of  im 
pending  disaster.     In   1691  the  worthy  Pastor  Bondet,   1691 
who  had  an  appointment  from  the^  Society  for  the  Propa 
gation  of  the  Gospel  to  work  among  the  Indians,  wrote  a 
letter  to  one  of  the  Massachusetts  authorities  imploring 
him  to  use  his  influence  in  putting  a  stop  to  the  traffic. 
After  stating  that  the  cause  of  his  request  is  one  which 
fills  his  heart  with  sorrow,  he  writes,  "My  humble  re 
quest  will  be  at  least  before  God  and  before  you  a  solemn 
protestation  against  the  guilt  of  those  incorrigible  persons 
who  dwell  in  our  place.     The  rome  is  always  sold  to  the 


Indians  Crazed  Indian  without  order  and  measure,  insomuch  that  accord 
ing  to  the  complaint  sent  to  me  by  master  Dickestean 
with  advice  to  present  it  to  your  honour,  the  26  of  the 
last  month  there  was  about  twenty  Indians  so  furious  by 
drunkeness  that  they  fought  like  bears  and  fell  upon  one 
called  Eemes  who  is  appointed  for  preaching  the  Gospel 
amongst  them.  He  had  been  so  much  disfigured  by  his 
wonds  that  there  is  no  hope  of  his  recovery."  Bondet 
then  goes  on  to  beg  his  reader  to  interpose  and  maintain 
"the  honour  of  God  in  a  Christian  habitation"  and  give 
comfort  to  "some  honest  souls  which  being  incompatible 
with  such  abominations  feel  every  day  the  burden  of 
afliction  of  their  honourable  peregrination  aggravated." 

But  no  steps  appear  to  have  been  taken  to  suppress  the 
evil  on  the  part  of  the  authorities,  for  two  years  later 
Andre  Sigourney  made  the  following  deposition  : 

No  Help—  Andre"  Sigourney  ages  of  about  fifty  years  doe  affirme  that  the  28 

ing  day  of  nouember  last  he  was  with  all  the  others  of  the  village  in  the 

mill  for  to  take  the  rum  in  the  hands  of  Peter  Canton  and  when  they 
asked  him  way  hee  doe  abuse  soe  the  Indiens  in  seleing  them  liquor  to 
the  great  shame  and  dangers  of  all  the  company  hee  sd  Canton  an 
swered  that  itt  was  his  will  and  hee  hath  right  soe  to  doe  and  asking 
him  further  if  itt  was  noe  him  how  make  soe  many  Indiens  drunk  he 
did  answer  that  hee  had  sell  to  one  Indien  and  one  squa  the  valew  of 
four  gills  and  that  itt  is  all  upon  wch  one  of  the  company  named 
Ellias  Dupeux  told  him  that  hee  have  meet  an  Indien  drunk  wch  have 
get  a  bott  fooll  and  said  that  itt  was  to  the  mill  how  sell  itt  he  an 
swered  that  itt  may  bee  trueth. 

p?ie*tsainncite  The  settlers  had  real  cause  for  alarm  when,  in  the 
to  Murder  summer  of  1694,  a  band  of  Indians  set  on  by  the  Canadian 
priests,  brutally  murdered  the  young  daughter  of  one  of 
the  villagers  named  Alard,  and  carried  off  two  little  chil 
dren.  Other  depredations  followed,  and  the  whole  line 
of  the  outlying  English  colonies  was  threatened  by  the 
attacks  of  roving  bands  of  Canadian  Indians  accompanied 
by  Jesuit  missionaries.  The  inhabitants  of  Oxford  were 
continually  stirred  by  the  news  of  some  bloody  foray ; 


now  it  would  be  the  story  of  how  some  isolated  farmhouse 
had  been  attacked  in  the  middle  of  the  night  and  its 
sleeping  occupants  butchered ;  or  again,  it  would  be  the 
tale  of  a  whole  settlement  put  to  the  tomahawk.  During 
the  latter  part  of  the  summer  the  appearance  of  several 
bands  of  savages  compelled  the  French  colonists  to  take 
refuge  in  their  fort.  But  though  they  were  safe  from 
actual  danger  within  the  confines  of  their  strong  stock 
ade,  yet  they  were  made  to  suffer  greatly  through  the 
destruction  of  their  crops  and  a  large  number  of  their 
cattle,  which  left  them  in  a  feeble  condition  to  meet  the 
rigorous  winter  which  followed.  As  soon  as  they  thought 
it  prudent  to  leave  the  protection  of  the  fort,  several  of 
the  Huguenots  made  their  way  to  Boston,  being  under 
the  strong  impression  that  their  isolated  settlement  would 
not  be  able  to  maintain  itself  in  the  face  of  the  roving 
bands  of  marauders,  who  being  perfectly  at  home  in  the 
woods  had  every  advantage  of  their  civilized  opponents. 
Among  the  number  who  left  was  du  Tuffeau,  who  had 
been  called  to  account  by  Bernon  for  mismanagement  of 
his  property. 

Nothing  further  happened  to  disturb  the  peace  of  1696  Johnson 
Oxford  until  the  summer  of  1696.  The  home  of  the  Eng-  fa'cke1/  A 
lishman  Johnson,  who  had  married  Susanne  Sigourney, 
stood  a  little  removed  from  the  other  houses  of  the  town 
in  the  midst  of  a  level  stretch  still  known  as  Johnson's 
Plain.  On  August  5th,  a  band  of  Indians  approached 
this  dwelling  while  Johnson  was  some  distance  off,  seized 
his  three  small  children,  Andre",  Pierre  and  Marie,  who 
were  playing  about  the  door-step,  and  dashed  their  brains 
out  on  the  stones  of  the  fireplace.  The  dazed  and  agonized 
mother  made  her  escape  and  started  out  to  warn  her  hus 
band,  but  failed  to  find  him.  Johnson,  unsuspecting  the 
fate  that  had  befallen  his  home,  returned  soon  after  the 
atrocity  had  taken  place  and  was  felled  to  the  ground  as 
he  crossed  the  threshold.  As  the  news  of  this  massacre 
spread  through  the  outlying  districts  the  inhabitants  were 


one  and  all  aroused  to  the  danger  which  threatened  them. 
A  body  of  troops  was  sent  out  from  Worcester,  supported 
by  forty  friendly  Indians,  and  for  many  days  the  neigh 
bouring  woods  were  scoured  for  traces  of  the  murderers, 
but  none  of  them  were  ever  brought  to  justice. 
The  feeling  of  insecurity  that  had  been  gaining  ground 

Abandoned  *n  Oxf°r(l  was  so  heightened  by  the  killing  of  the  Johnson 
children  that  with  one  accord  the  refugees  decided  to 
abandon  their  settlement.  Sigourney,  Germou,  Johonuot, 
Boutiueau,  Dupeul  Cassaneau,  Grignon,  Barbut,  Montier, 
Canton,  Maillet,  and  Mousset  retired  to  Boston.  Depont 
found  a  new  home  in  Milford,  Connecticut.  Bondet  and 
Martin  went  to  New  Eochelle,  in  the  province  of  New 
York ;  Bureau  and  Montel  to  New  York.  Baudouin 
made  his  way  to  Virginia,  where  his  descendants  may 
still  be  traced. 


An  attempt  to  revive  the  settlement  was  made  three 
years  later,  in  the  spring  of  1699.  The  refugees  who  had 
gone  back  to  Boston  returned  to  Oxford  and  reclaimed 
their  abandoned  farms.  It  is  probable  that  the  energetic 
Bernon  was  the  prime  mover  in  this  endeavour  at  reset 
tlement,  for  he  had  expended  a  large  sum  of  money  in 
developing  his  Oxford  property  and  in  providing  for  the 
common  welfare.  The  greatest  loss,  therefore,  resulting 
from  the  abandonment  of  the  project  fell  upon  his  shoul 
ders.  As  soon,  however,  as  the  colony  was  revived  he 
proceeded  to  invest  more  capital  in  its  interests,  and  to 
gether  with  Eene"  Grignon  and  Jean  Papineau  established 
a  wash-leather  manufactory  on  the  banks  of  the  river  that 

New  industry  flowed  through  the  town.  This  new  industry  gave  em 
ployment  to  many  of  the  villagers  in  hunting  and  trap 
ping  the  game  that  abounded  in  the  surrounding  forests, 
and  proved  itself  a  decided  advantage  to  the  refugees. 
Loads  of  dressed  skins  were  carted  down  to  Providence 
and  thence  shipped  by  water  to  Boston  and  Newport, 


where  they  were  made  into  hats  and  gloves  by  the  skilled 
Huguenot  artisans. 

Jacques  Laborie,  a  minister  who  had  come  to  Boston 


from  London  during  the  previous  year,  accompanied  the 
returning  settlers.  He  brought  with  him  his  wife,  Jeanne 
de  Eessiguier,  and  his  daughter  Susanne.  As  he  held  an 
appointment  from  the  corporation  for  promoting  the 
Gospel  in  New  England  he  at  once  set  to  work  among  the 
savages,  with  whom  he  soon  came  to  be  on  the  most 
friendly  footing.  It  was  owing  to  his  intimacy  with  the 
Indians  and  his  knowledge  of  their  language  that  the 
warning  of  fresh  intrigues  on  the  part  of  the  Jesuits  was 
brought  to  the  attention  of  the  authorities.  In  spite  of 
the  treaty  of  Eyswick  it  soon  became  evident  that  the 
priests  were  again  endeavouring  to  stir  up  the  friendly 
tribes  to  proceed  against  the  English  colonies. 

In  a  letter  to  Governor  Bellomont,  Laborie  informs 
him  that  numbers  of  the  neighbouring  Indians  are  pre 
paring  to  leave  and  join  the  Pennacooks  in  New  Hamp 
shire.  That  they  declare  the  " French"  religion  to  be 
"plus  belle  que  la  notre"  (more  beautiful  than  ours), 
and  that  they  will  be  furnished  with  silver  crosses  to 
hang  about  their  necks,  and  that  great  promises  have 
been  made  to  them.  Laborie  is  confident  from  the  things 
he  has  heard  that  the  priests  are  hard  at  work  perfecting 
some  scheme  which  they  will  bring  forward  when  a 
propitious  occasion  presents  itself.  Rumours  of  such  a 
nature  kept  the  people  of  Oxford  in  a  constant  state  of 
tension,  but  it  was  not  until  the  summer  of  1703  that  1703 
actual  hostilities  broke  out.  They  did  their  best  to  pre 
pare  for  any  sudden  emergency  that  might  arise  ;  a  mil-  Deerfieid 
itary  company  was  formed  and  the  town's  defenses  were 
strengthened  by  building  a  palisade  around  Bernon's 
house  to  serve  as  a  stronghold  for  the  garrison.  But 
after  the  Deerfieid  massacre,  where  over  a  hundred  and 
fifty  persons  were  slain  or  made  prisoners,  the  handful  of 


Final  refugees  felt  that  they  were  too  tempting  and  easy  a  bait 

to  hold  their  isolated  position  with  any  degree  of  security, 
and  they  accordingly  abandoned  their  settlement  in  the 
spring  of  1704,  never  to  return  again. 

THB."  .BOSTON   MASSACRE,       MARCH   5,  1770 




ABEIEL  BEENON  came  of  an  ancient  family  The  Bernon 
claiming  descent  from  the  house  of  the  Counts  of  Ancient 
Burgundy.  Even  without  this  noble  lineage  the 
Bernons  had  an  independent  patent  of  nobility,  due  to  the 
fact  that  they  had  furnished  several  mayors  to  the  inde 
pendent  city  of  La  Eochelle.  Gabriel,  who  succeeded  his 
father  Andre"  iii  business,  was  born  April  6,  1664.  He 
was  a  skillful  man  of  affairs  and  under  his  guidance  the 
house  of  Bernon  became  one  of  the  wealthiest  and  most 
influential  concerns  in  the  flourishing  seaport.  The  de 
velopment  of  a  considerable  trade  with  Canada  caused 
Bernon  to  take  up  his  residence  there  for  a  number  of 
years,  and  so  successful  was  he  that  the  governor  of 
Canada,  de  Denonville,  refers  to  him  as  the  principal 
merchant  in  the  colony. 

But  Bernon  was  a  Protestant,  as  his  father  had  been 
before  him  ;  indeed,  the  family  had  been  one  of  the  first  staunch 
in  La  Eochelle  to  adopt  the  Eeformed  religion,  and  it  was 
in  the  Bernon  mansion  that  many  of  the  earliest  Protes 
tant  services  were  held.  His  religion  made  him  obnoxious 
to  the  Jesuits,  who  had  by  this  time  gained  control  of 
Canada  and  were  bent  on  persecuting  the  Huguenots  as 
heartily  as  did  their  compatriots  at  home,  and  so  he  was 
given  notice  to  recant  or  quit.  "  It  is  a  pity  that  he  can 
not  be  converted,"  wrote  de  Denonville,  uas  he  is  a 
Huguenot,  the  bishop  wants  me  to  order  him  home  this 
autumn,  which  I  have  done,  though  he  carries  on  a  large 
business  and  a  great  deal  of  money  remains  due  to  him  here." 



Personal  Ap 

Jesuit  Honour  If  they  could  not  make  him  a  Catholic  they  would  at  least 
make  sure  that  his  faith  should  cost  him  a  fortune ! 
Nothing  daunted  by  this  blow,  Bernon  returned  to  La 
Eochelle,  arriving  at  the  height  of  the  persecution.  He 
was  at  once  thrown  into  prison  where  he  was  confined  for 
some  months,  being  released  finally  through  the  influence 
of  his  brothers,  who  had  recanted.  Unshaken  in  his 
faith,  he  made  the  best  disposition  of  what  property  re 
mained  to  him  and  escaped  to  Holland  in  May,  1686. 
From  Amsterdam  he  made  his  way  to  London  the  follow 
ing  year  and  formed  the  project  of  the  Oxford  settlement, 
as  we  have  seen. 


In  the  summer  of  1688  Bernon  reached  Boston  after  a 
voyage  of  ten  weeks,  a  rapid  journey  for  those  days.  His 
personal  appearance  is  described,  by  a  tradition  dating 
from  his  arrival  in  Boston,  as  that  of  a  man  of  command 
ing  presence  whose  bearing  always  won  the  respect  and 
consideration  due  to  his  character  and  ability.  His  figure 
was  tall  and  of  slender  proportions ;  his  carriage,  erect 
and  expressive  of  energy  in  every  movement,  yet  tem 
pered  with  a  peculiar  grace  and  courtly  suavity.  While 
on  ordinary  occasions  his  manner  was  affable  and  kindly, 
his  hot  temper  sometimes  led  him  to  assume  a  tone  of  de 
cided  imperiousness.  Thoroughly  upright  in  all  the  acts 
of  his  life,  thinking  high  thoughts,  genuine  in  his  re 
ligious  feelings,  thoughtful,  optimistic  and  daring  in  his 
public  and  private  ventures,  he  was  naturally  qualified 
for  leadership.  Misfortunes  never  daunted  him,  and  left 
him  ever  the  same  brave,  steadfast,  hopeful  man. 

Such  a  man  would  soon  make  his  presence  felt  in  the 
colony,  and  Bernon  shortly  became  one  of  the  leading 
citizens  of  Boston.  After  attending  to  the  matters  of  the 
Oxford  settlement  and  getting  himself  naturalized  as  a 
British  subject,  he  devoted  his  attention  to  several  in 
dustrial  enterprises.  Prominent  among  these  undertak 
ings  was  the  manufacture  of  rosin  and  other  naval  stores. 

A  Leading 


He  was  so  successful  in  this  that  he  engaged  the  interest  Naval  stores 
of  a  government  agent  who  had  been  sent  to  Massachu 
setts  to  learn  what  means  were  to  be  found  in  America  for 
supplying  the  royal  navy  with  such  articles.  By  the  ad 
vice  of  this  agent,  Bernon  took  a  trip  to  London  in  the 
year  1693  to  inform  the  admiralty  of  the  opportunities 
for  producing  naval  stores  on  a  large  scale  in  America, 
and  also  for  the  purpose  of  securing  a  patent  on  their 
manufacture.  He  was  very  favourably  received  by  Lord 
Portland  and  other  high  officials,  and  succeeded  in  se 
curing  a  contract  from  the  government  to  supply  a  quan 
tity  of  stores  for  a  term  of  years. 

Three  years  later  he  again  made  a  visit  to  England  on 
the  same  errand,  returning  to  Boston  with  Governor  Bello- 
mont.  To  the  governor  Bernon  unfolded  his  schemes  for  Developer  ot 
developing  the  manufactures  and  produce  of  the  colony, 
and  Lord  Bellomont  was  greatly  taken  with  his  ideas, 
even  recommending  the  royal  council  to  appoint  the 
refugee  superintendent  of  naval  stores  in  America.  But 
it  was  the  government's  policy,  at  that  time,  to  discourage 
colonial  industries  even  in  a  case  where  they  would  mani 
festly  benefit  the  public  interests,  and  nothing  ever  came 
of  Bernon' s  efforts  in  that  direction. 

But  during  these  years  Bernon' s  activities  were  not 
confined  to  endeavouring  to  overcome  British  insularity. 
His  energy  found  vents  for  itself  in  a  hundred  other  direc-  Large  Enter- 
tions.  Besides  retaining  an  active  interest  in  the  Oxford 
settlement  he  joins  the  Faneuils  and  Louis  Allaire  in  trad 
ing  with  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania ;  he  becomes  a 
prosperous  exporter  to  England  and  the  West  Indies; 
trades  in  furs  with  the  Nova  Scotians  ;  invests  considera 
ble  capital  in  ship-building ;  sets  up  salt  -  works,  and 
undertakes  the  manufacture  of  nails.  Indeed,  there  was 
hardly  a  department  of  colonial  enterprise  to  which  Ber 
non  did  not  turn  his  attention.  He  did  not  put  business  Religion  First 
first,  however,  but  was  always  scrupulous  to  discharge  his 
obligations  as  a  Christian  and  a  member  of  the  state.  He 

Removal  to 
Rhode  Island 



was  free -handed  in  his  dealings  with  his  fellow  refugees 
and  aided  many  of  them,  who  had  been  compelled  to  leave 
all  their  property  in  France,  to  get  on  their  feet.  When 
he  had  been  a  resident  of  Massachusetts  for  but  two  years 
the  expedition  against  Port  Eoyal  was  sent  forward,  and 
Bernon  was  not  slow  to  contribute  more  than  his  share  in 
furnishing  arms,  munition  and  money. 


After  a  residence  of  nine  years  in  Boston  he  removed  to 
Ehode  Island  and  settled  first  in  Newport,  from  there 
going  to  Providence.  While  in  Newport  his  career  was 
substantially  the  same  that  it  had  been  in  Boston.  He 
identified  himself  with  the  life  of  the  growing  town  and 
was  a  leader  in  many  of  its  numerous  enterprises.  With 
Daniel  Ayrault  for  a  partner  he  engaged  largely  in  the 
West  India  trade,  in  which  Ehode  Island  was  then  taking 
the  lead.  It  was  a  hazardous  business,  involving  great 
risks  and  great  profits  as  well,  as  many  wealthy  Ehode 
Island  families  of  to-day  whose  fortunes  date  back  to  the 
days  of  the  t  i  triangular  trade ' '  attest.  Fortune  did  not 
favour  Bernon  in  most  of  these  ventures,  however.  He 
suffered  losses  from  the  French  privateers  which  scoured 
the  neighbouring  waters,  and  from  shipwreck,  also. 
Greater  than  any  loss  of  wealth  to  Gabriel  Bernon  was 
the  death  of  his  only  son,  who  met  his  death  in  one  of  his 
father's  ships  that  was  outward  bound  for  the  Indies. 
Soon  after  leaving  Newport  the  vessel  was  overtaken  by 
a  violent  storm,  and  it  is  believed  that  she  must  have 
foundered,  for  none  of  her  ship' s  company  was  ever  heard 
from  again.  It  was  a  great  blow  to  the  Huguenot,  with 
his  pride  of  birth  and  ancestry,  to  lose  the  only  member 
of  his  family  who  could  perpetuate  the  name  of  Bernon 
in  America.  Perhaps  the  death  of  his  son  may  have  in 
fluenced  him  to  withdraw  from  the  trade  and  take  up  his 
residence  in  Providence,  for  he  did  so  not  long  after 


But  though  he  gradually  withdrew  from  active  partic-  Providence 
ipation  iu  business  affairs,  he  lost  none  of  his  former 
zeal  in  the  cause  of  religion.  While  living  in  Boston  he 
had  been  a  devoted  member  of  the  French  Reformed 
church,  and  the  relations  he  afterwards  sustained  with 
that  church  were  always  of  the  most  cordial  nature,  but 
on  coming  to  Rhode  Island,  where  there  were  not  enough 
of  his  countrymen  to  support  such  an  organization,  he 
immediately  allied  himself  with  the  Anglican  communion. 
More  fervent  in  his  faith  than  the  majority  of  the  Epis 
copalians  in  the  colony,  and  accustomed  to  act  rather  Founder  of 
than  talk,  he  was  largely  instrumental  in  founding  the 
first  three  Anglican  churches  in  the  province — Trinity 
Church  in  Newport,  St.  Paul's  Church  in  Kingston  and 
St.  John's  Church  in  Providence.  In  the  year  1724, 
when  he  was  eighty-one  years  old,  he  crossed  over  to  Devotion  to 
present  to  the  Bishop  of  London  the  needs  of  the  church 
in  Providence  and  the  benefits  which  would  accrue  from 
sending  there  an  able  and  competent  minister.  Surely 
it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  a  man  who,  in  the  declining 
years  of  his  life,  was  willing  to  undertake  the  perils  and 
hardships  of  a  voyage  that  was  at  its  best  an  uncomfort 
able  and  hazardous  proceeding — and  willing  to  do  this 
not  for  personal  motives  but  for  the  well-being  of  others 
— was  a  man  of  heroic  mould,  and  one  of  whom  his  de 
scendants  may  well  be  proud. 

Bernon  had  lost  much  of  his  property  by  some  of  his  Last  Years 
later  ventures,  yet  enough  remained  to  him  to  enable  him 
to  build  a  fine  house  in  Providence  "near  Roger  Will 
iams'  spring,"  and  there  he  lived  his  last  few  years  in  quiet 
happiness,  giving  his  time  to  writings  and  correspond 
ence,  mostly  of  a  religious  character.  Up  to  the  very 
last  his  Protestantism  was  pronounced  and  vigorous.  He 
could  never  endure  anything  in  the  nature  of  priestly  as 
sumption  or  ecclesiastical  domination,  and  in  a  letter  to 
the  vestry  of  Trinity  Church  in  Newport  written  in  his 
old  age,  denouncing  a  pamphlet  on  church  order  which 

His  Views 



they  had  sanctioned,  he  says  :  "I  am  a  born  layman  of 
France,  naturalized  English,  which  I  hold  a  greater 
honour  than  all  the  riches  of  France,  because  the  English 
laity  are  not,  like  the  laity  of  France,  slaves  of  the  clergy 
and  hackneys  of  the  Pope  ;  wherefore  rather  than  submit 
to  this  I  abandoned  my  country,  my  fortune,  and  my 
friends,  in  order  to  become  a  citizen  under  the  English 
government."  And  because  of  his  staunch  belief  in  the 
rights  of  the  laity  he  found  Ehode  Island  a  more  congenial 
place  of  residence  than  Massachusetts,  with  its  ecclesias 
tical  hierarchy,  which  smacked  too  much  of  the  intoler 
ance  of  Catholicism  in  France  to  meet  with  his  entire  ap 

He  died  in  1736,  at  the  age  of  ninety-one,  and  was 
buried  under  St.  John's  Church,  Providence,  with  every 
token  of  public  respect.  A  tablet  in  the  church  bears 
the  following  inscription : 

Bernon's  De 

In  Memory  of  Gabriel  Bernon,  Son  of  Andre  and  Suzanne  Bernon, 
Born  at  La  Rochelle,  France,  April  6,  A.  D.  1644.  A  Huguenot. 
After  two  years'  imprisonment  for  his  Religious  Faith,  Previous  to  the 
revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  He  took  refuge  in  England,  and 
came  to  America  A.  D.  1688.  Here  he  continued  steadfast  in  promot 
ing  The  Honour  of  the  Church  And  the  Glory  of  God.  It  is  recorded 
in  the  History  of  Rhode  Island,  that  "  To  the  persevering  piety  and  un 
tiring  zeal  of  Gabriel  Bernon  the  first  three  Episcopal  Churches  in 
Rhode  Island  owed  their  orgin,"  King's,  now  St.  John's  Church,  Provi 
dence,  Founded  A.  D.  1722,  being  one  of  them.  He  died  in  the  Faith 
once  delivered  to  the  Saints,  Feb.  1,  A.  D.  1736,  A  92,  And  is 
buried  beneath  this  Church.  "  Every  one  that  hath  forsaken  houses, 
or  brethren,  or  sisters,  or  father,  or  mother,  or  wife,  or  children,  or 
lands,  for  My  name's  sake,  shall  receive  an  hundredfold,  and  shall  in 
herit  eternal  life."— St.  Matt. 


Bernon's  first  wife  was  Esther  Le  Eoy,  daughter  of  a 
wealthy  Huguenot  merchant  of  La  Rochelle.  She  ac 
companied  her  husband  to  America  and  died  in  Newport 
in  1710,  at  the  age  of  fifty-six.  The  children  by  this 


marriage  were  Gabriel,  Marie,  Esther,  Sarah,  and  Jeanne. 
Gabriel  died  unmarried.  Marie  married  Abraham  Tour- 
tellot,  a  Huguenot  who  was  at  that  time  master  of  a  ves 
sel  sailing  from  Newport.  Their  descendants  are  numer 
ous.  Esther  married  Adam  Powell,  of  Newport,  in  1713. 
She  gave  birth  to  two  daughters,  the  elder  of  whom, 
Elizabeth,  married  the  Reverend  Samuel  Seabury,  of  New 
London,  Connecticut  ;  while  the  younger,  Esther,  married 
Chief-Justice  Helme  of  the  Superior  Court  of  Rhode 

Sarah  married  the  representative  of  a  prominent  New 
England  family,  Benjamin  Whipple,  in  the  year  1722. 
Jeanne  married  Colonel  William  Coddington,  of  Newport, 
in  1722.  The  issue  of  this  union  was  two  sons  and  four 
daughters  j  John  and  Francis,  Content,  Esther,  Jane  and 

The  children  of  Bernon's  second  wife,  Mary  Harris, 
granddaughter  of  William  Harris,  who  accompanied 
Roger  Williams  when  he  landed  at  Whatcheer  rock  in 
1636,  were  Susanne,  Mary,  and  Eve.  There  was  also 
born  to  her  a  sou,  Gabriel,  who  died  at  an  early  age. 

Susanne    married    Joseph    Crawford  in   1734.      Nine 
children  were  born  to  them,  the  youngest  of  whom,  Ann,    Honorable 
was  married  to  Zachariah  Allen  in  1778.     The  Honour-   AUenariah 
able  Zachariah  Allen,  son  of  Ann  Crawford  and  grandson 
of   Susanne  Bernon,    was  born   in   Providence,    Rhode 
Island,  in  1795,  where  he  died  in  1882  at  the  age  of  eighty- 
seven.     His  Huguenot  ancestry  was  always  a  matter  of 
keen  interest  to  Mr.  Allen,  and  as  president  of  the  Rhode  President 
Island    Historical    Society    and  first   president  of   the  His°torii?so- 
Huguenot  Memorial  Society  of  Oxford,  Massachusetts,  he 
was  enabled  to  further  the  growing  sentiment  which  gives 
to  the  French  Protestant  emigrants  their  rightful  place 
among  the  founders  of  the  Republic.     As  Baird  says  of  Brown  1813 
Mr.  Allen,  "  perhaps  more  than  any  other  American  who 
has  lived  in  these  times,  Mr.  Allen  himself  illustrated 
some  of  the  finest  traits  of  the  Huguenot  character. "     A 


graduate  of  Brown  University  in  the  class  of  1813,  he 
studied  law  and  medicine  and  then  engaged  in  business 
with  marked  success.  Inheriting  the  versatility  of  his 
ancestor,  Gabriel  Bernon,  his  public  and  his  private  in 
terests  were  of  the  broadest  character  ;  he  was  a  thorough 
student  of  the  sciences,  made  several  valuable  improve 
ments  in  the  construction  of  machinery,  was  largely  en 
gaged  in  promoting  philanthropic  activities,  and  wrote 
several  books  and  many  papers.  But  above  all,  he  was 
loved  by  all  who  knew  him  for  his  buoyancy,  kindliness, 
unfailing  sympathy  and  simple  piety. 

Mary  Bernon  married  Gideon  Crawford,  and  gave  birth 
to  seven  sons  and  four  daughters.  Her  younger  sister, 
Eve,  died  unmarried. 

THE      BAL.L.OU      CHUR.CH-.-J64O 
ay    PRgs.G^RFiei-0'S 




more  unfortunate  in  its  outcome  than  the  A  Land 
Oxford  settlement  was  the  attempt  to  establish  a 

Huguenot  community  near  the  shores  of  Narra- 
gansett  Bay,  within  the  limits  of  the  township  known  to 
day  as  East  Greenwich.  The  complete  failure  of  this  proj  - 
ect  was  in  no  wise  due,  however,  to  the  refugees  them 
selves,  but  to  the  fact  that  they  were  inveigled  by 
an  unscrupulous  land  company  into  purchasing  a  tract 
whose  title  was  later  shown  to  be  invalid. 

In  October,  1686,  a  body  of  Huguenots  in  London  made  xese  London 
arrangements  with  the  "Atherton  Company,"  which  °°n 
claimed  the  ownership  of  the  "  Narragansett  Country," 
whereby  they  acquired  a  site  for  a  settlement.  According 
to  the  terms  of  the  contract  each  family  was  to  receive 
one  hundred  acres  of  upland  and  a  share  of  meadow  ;  the 
price  for  which  was  fixed  at  twenty  pounds  the  hundred 
acres  if  paid  for  at  once,  or  twenty-five  pounds  if  settled 
for  at  the  end  of  three  years.  The  "  Narragansett 
Country,"  comprising  all  that  portion  of  Rhode  Island 
which  to-day  lies  south  of  the  town  of  Warwick  on  the 
western  side  of  Narragansett  Bay,  had  long  been  the 
cause  of  dispute  between  Connecticut  and  Rhode  Island. 
Connecticut  claimed  that  her  borders  extended  to  the 
shores  of  Narragansett  Bay  and  therefore  included  the 
disputed  territory,  and  Rhode  Island,  on  the  other  hand, 
as  stoutly  denied  it.  These  rival  claims  had  already  been 
submitted  to  the  crown  for  adjustment  and  the  decision 
was  still  pending  when  the  Huguenots  made  their 
unfortunate  purchase,  little  dreaming  that  their  homes 



would  be  taken  from  them  through  a  judgment  of  the 

The  colonists  Immediately  following  the  purchase  of  their  town-site 
from  the  "Atherton  Company,  "  the  refugees  took  up 
their  residence  in  Ehode  Island.  They  numbered  in  all 
forty-eight  families,  ten  of  whom  came  from  La  Eochelle, 
ten  from  Saintonge,  with  perhaps  as  many  more  from 
Poitou  ;  the  remainder  hailing  from  Guyenne  and  Nor- 

Pastor  mandy.     ^zechiel  Carre*  was  the  pastor  and  principal 

leader  of  the  colony.  He  had  studied  under  Calvin  at 
Geneva,  and  had  already  held  the  pastorate  of  two 
churches  in  France,  at  Mirameau  in  Saintonge,  and  La 
Eoche  Chalais  in  Guyenne.  Closely  associated  with  him 
as  a  leader  was  Pierre  Berthon  de  Marign  (Peter  Berton, 
or  Burton),  who  was  descended  from  a  prominent  family 
of  Chattelerault  in  Poitou.  With  Berton  came  his  wife, 
Margaret,  a  native  of  the  same  town.  Pierre  Ayrault,  a 
native  of  Angers,  province  of  Anjou,  was  the  physician 
of  the  colony,  and  brought  with  him  his  wife,  Francoise, 
his  son  Daniel,  and  nephew  named  Nicholas.  Besides 
these  leaders  the  list  of  the  colonists  comprises  the 
following  names  :  Andre  Arnaud,  Jean  Amian,  Louis 
Allaire,  ^zechiel  Bouniot,  Jean  Beauchamps,  Pierre 
Bretin  dit  Laronde,  Daniel  Belhair,  Paul  Bussereau, 
Guillaume  Barbut,  Jean  Coudret,  Jean  Chadene,  Paul 
Collin,  Jean  David,  Josue  David,  Sr.,  Josue  David,  Jr., 
Pierre  Deschanips,  Theophile  Frontier,  Jean  Galay, 
^zechiel  Grazilier,  Eene  Grignon,  Jean  Germon,  Jean 
Julien,  Daniel  Jouet,  fitienne  Jamain,  Daniel  Lambert, 
Pierre  Le  Moine,  Etienne  La  Vigne,  Moise  Le  Brun, 
Daniel  Le  Gendre,  Jean  Lafon,  Franyois  Legare,  Menar- 
deau  Milard,  Jacques  Magni,  Jean  Magni,  £lie  Eambert, 
Jacob  Eatier,  Daniel  Eenaud,  Etienne  Eogineau,  Daniel 
Targe,  Abram  Tourtellot.  Pierre  Traverrier,  Pierre 


The  first  care  of  the  settlers  was  to  provide  themselves 


with  places  of  shelter  against  the  approaching  winter.  Homes  bum 
According  to  the  account  left  by  Ayrault,  some  twenty 
houses  were  built  that  fall,  together  with  "  some  cellars 
in  the  ground."  The  latter  refers,  undoubtedly,  to  the 
dug-outs  which  many  of  the  early  settlers  found  it  con 
venient  to  occupy  until  opportunity  came  for  constructing 
more  comfortable  and  pretentious  dwellings.  The  com 
mon  type  of  such  "  cellars  "  was  a  square  pit  six  or  seven 
feet  deep,  floored  and  walled  with  wood,  and  roofed  with 
logs  covered  by  a  layer  of  sod.  If  we  may  believe  the 
testimony  of  a  contemporary  writer  and  observer  it  was 
possible  for  the  occupants  of  these  residences  to  "live 
dry  and  warm  with  their  families  for  two,  three  and  four 
years."  During  the  winter  they  occupied  their  time  in 
clearing  away  the  stones  that  littered  their  farms,  felling 
trees,  and  otherwise  preparing  for  the  planting  season. 
Fifty  acres  of  land  were  set  apart  for  the  maintenance 
of  a  school,  provision  was  made  for  erecting  a  church  as 
soon  as  the  weather  permitted,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty 
acres  were  freely  donated  to  Pastor  Carre"  for  his  support ; 
for  among  these  worthy  people,  religion,  education  and 
industry  went  hand  in  hand.  And  although  their  labours 
were  of  necessity  very  severe  at  first  they  went  about  with 
glad  hearts,  "for,"  says  Ayrault,  "we  had  a  comfort; 
we  could  enjoy  our  worship  to  God." 

In  the  course  of  a  few  years  the  appearance  of  "  French-  Frenchtown 
town,"  as  it  was  then  called,  and  as  the  locality  is  known 
to-day,  was  greatly  changed.  By  their  industry  and  skill 
the  refugees  had  turned  a  wilderness  into  a  garden.  The 
"cellars"  had  been  replaced  by  comfortable  houses,  the 
forest  had  given  way  to  orchards  and  vineyards,  and 
neat  fences  and  hedges  surrounded  trim  gardens.  The 
mild  climate  of  that  section  of  Ehode  Island,  resembling 
Virginia,  was  found  to  be  admirably  adapted  to  the  cul 
tivation  of  grapes,  and  some  persons  in  Boston  who  had 
tasted  the  wine  from  them  gave  the  judgment  that  they 
"thought  it  as  good  as  Bordeaux  claret."  Other  plans, 


Land  Claimed 
by  the  English 

Pitiable  Plight 
of  the  Victims 

too,  filled  the  busy  minds  of  the  settlers ;  among  them 
being  the  planting  of  mulberry  trees  upon  which  to  breed 
silk-worms.  In  this  effort  to  establish  a  profitable  indus 
try  they  hoped  to  be  aided  by  further  accessions  of  their 
countrymen,  and  the  prospect  seemed  good  that  within  a 
few  years  Ehode  Island  would  be  the  home  of  a  large 
number  of  Huguenot  silk  producers. 

But  though  the  future  prospect  of  the  settlement  seemed 
bright,  it  was  never  realized.  Within  five  years  of  its 
establishment  only  two  families  out  of  the  forty-eight 
remained  on  the  land  they  had  improved  and  rendered 
fertile.  For  by  the  decision  of  the  court  it  was  made 
apparent  that  the  refugees  had  been  innocently  occupying 
lands  to  which  other  parties  held  prior  claims,  and  that 
the  "Atherton  Company"  had  deluded  them  with  spe 
cious  pretenses.  In  the  summer  of  1691  the  settlement 
was  broken  up  and  the  various  families  sought  homes  for 
themselves  in  more  hospitable  localities.  Dr.  Ayrault 
gives  the  following  account  of  the  troubles  which  beset 
the  refugees : 

The  protecting  of  us  in  our  liberty  and  property  was  continued  not 
two  years  under  said  Government,  before  we  were  molested  by  the 
vulgar  sort  of  the  people,  who  flinging  down  our  fences  laid  open  our 
lands  to  ruin,  so  that  all  benefit  thereby  we  were  deprived  of.  Ruin 
looked  on  us  in  a  dismal  state  ;  our  wives  and  children  living  in  fear 
of  the  threats  of  many  unruly  persons ;  and  what  benefit  we  expected 
from  our  lands  for  subsistence  was  destroyed  by  secretly  laying  open 
our  fences  by  night  and  day ;  and  what  little  we  had  preserved  by 
flying  from  France,  we  had  laid  out  under  the  then  improvements.  It 
looked  so  hard  upon  us,  to  see  the  cryes  of  our  wives  and  children, 
lamenting  their  sad  fate,  flying  from  persecution,  and  coming  under 
his  Majesty's  gracious  Indulgence,  and  by  the  Government  promised 
us,  yet  we,  ruined.  And  when  we  complained  to  the  Government,  we 
could  have  no  relief,  although  some  would  have  helped  us,  we  judge,  if 
by  their  patience  they  could  have  borne  such  ill  treatments  as  they  must 
expect  to  have  met  with  by  the  unruly  inhabitants  there  settled  also. 
Many  of  the  English  inhabitants  compassionating  our  condition, 
would  have  helped  us  ;  but  when  they  used  any  means  therein,  they 
were  evilly  treated.  So  that  these  things  did  put  us  then  upon  looking 


for  a  place  of  shelter,  in  our  distressed  condition  ;  and  hearing  that 
many  of  our  distressed  country  people  had  been  protected  and  well 
treated  in  Boston  and  Yorke,  to  seek  out  new  habitations,  where  the 
Governments  had  compassion  on  them,  and  gave  them  relief  and  help, 
to  their  wives  and  children  subsistance.  Only  two  families  moving  to 
Boston,  and  the  rest  to  New  York,  and  there  bought  lands,  some  of 
them,  and  had  time  given  them  for  payment.  And  so  was  they  all 
forced  away  from  their  lands  and  houses,  orchards  and  vineyards, 
taking  some  small  matter  from  some  English  people  for  somewhat  of 
their  labour  ;  thus  leaving  all  habitations.  Some  people  got  not  any 
thing  for  their  labour  and  improvements,  but  Greenwich  men  who  had 
given  us  the  disturbance,  getting  on  the  lands,  so  improved  in  any 
way  they  could,  and  soon  pulled  down  and  demolished  our  church. 

It  is  only  fair  to  the  "Greenwich  men"  to  state  that 
the  tract  of  land  occupied  by  the  French  had  been  granted 
to  these  " unruly  persons"  by  the  legislature  of  Ehode 
Island  in  1677,  so  that  they  looked  upon  the  refugees  as 
nothing  short  of  interlopers.  Besides  doing  everything 
in  their  power  to  dispossess  the  Huguenots,  the  people  of 
Greenwich  sent  a  petition  to  the  governor  in  which  they 
desired  to  know  i  i  by  what  order  or  Lawe  or  by  what  means 
those  Frenchmen  are  settled  in  our  town  bounds,"  and 
in  which  they  asserted  that  the  presence  of  these  intruders 
"proves  great  detriment  to  us,"  and  prophesied  that 
unless  the  French  were  made  to  vacate  their  illegal  hold 
ings  the  persons  to  whom  the  land  belonged  would  "be 
utterly  ruined." 

Their  plan  for  establishing  a  community  proving  itself  scattered 
a  failure,  and  having  sunk  the  greater  part  of  their  funds  c 
in  the  common  venture,  the  refugees  could  no  longer  pro 
ceed  as  a  body  but  were  forced  to  become  widely  scattered 
upon  leaving  the  Narragansett  settlement.  The  condi 
tions  prevailing  in  the  province  of  New  York  seemed 
most  favourable  to  the  majority  of  the  Huguenots,  and 
of  the  twenty -five  families  who  removed  thither  the  fol 
lowing  found  homes  in  New  York  city  itself :  Bouniot, 
Coudret,  the  three  David  families,  Galay,  Grazilier, 
Jamain,  Lafon,  Lambert,  La  Vigne,  LeBreton,  the  two 



Magni  families,  Eambert,  Eatier,  Eobineau,  both  Targe 
families,  Traverrier,  and  Touge"re.  The  families  of  Ber- 
tiD,  Chadene,  Frontier  and  Benaud  joined  the  settlement 
at  New  Eochelle.  The  families  of  Allaire,  Arnaud, 
Beauchamps,  Barbut,  Deschamps,  Legare  and  Tourtellot 
went  to  Boston.  Germon  and  Grignon  journeyed  through 
the  woods  to  the  settlement  at  Oxford.  South  Carolina 
received  Amian,  Jouet,  Le  Brun  and  Le  Gendre,  and 
Milford,  Connecticut,  became  the  home  of  Paul  Collin. 
Jean  Julien  went  only  as  far  as  Newport,  while  Ayrault 
and  Le  Moine,  of  all  the  settlers,  were  the  only  ones  to 
remain  in  Greenwich.  Le  Moine' s  descendants,  under 
the  name  of  Money  or  Mawney,  still  possess  the  farm 
which  their  ancestor  cut  out  of  the  forest.  A  few  of  the 
emigrants,  Pastor  Carre  among  them,  disappear  from  the 
records  after  the  year  1691,  and  it  is  impossible  to  trace 
them  to  their  new  habitations  or  state  what  fate  befell 

£psfon  Old  Latin  School  Where  French  Church  Jlst 


THE  history  of  the  French  Protestant  Church  in 
Boston  forms  an  essential  part  of  the  story  of  the 
French  who  found  refuge  among  the  Puritans  in 
this  land  which  was  destined  to  become  one  of  religious 
liberty,  although  the  principle  of  freedom  of  conscience 
had  to  be  established  through  the  independent  stand  of 
those  who  would    not  yield    to    Congregationalism  in 
America    those  things    from   which    they  had  fled  in 

The  date  of  the  organization  of  the  French  Protestants 
of  Boston  into  a  church  is  not  definitely  known.     Such  an  Organized  by 
organization  was  in  existence  as  early  as  1685,  with  a  l68s 
settled  minister,  as  is  shown  by  the  correspondence  be 
tween  Eev.  Peter  Daille  and  Eev.  Increase  Mather,  min 
ister  of  the  North  Church  in  Boston  and  President  of 
Harvard  College.     Dr.  Charles  W.  Baird  thinks  it  highly  Peter  Daille 
probable  that  this  congregation,  like  some  others,  may 
have   been   gathered    together  by  the  excellent  Daille, 
who  gained  the  title  of  the  l i  Apostle  of  the  Huguenots  in 
America,"    collecting    them    into    churches  in  various 
sections  of  the  country  as  Paul  gathered  the  Christian 
converts  in  Asia  Minor.     Daille  came  to  America  in  1682, 
sent  out  by  the  Bishop  of  London  to  labour  among  the 
French  emigrants  in  the  new  world. 

We  know  that  the  French  were  treated  most  kindly  by   „  Latine 
the  ministers  and  the  public  authorities  of  Boston,  who  |ra°?ed°fo?e 
received  the  little  flock  of  strangers  as  brothers  fleeing   Meetings 
from  home  persecution  on  account  of  their  faith,  and  thus 





worthy  of  every  consideration.  The  Council  of  Boston 
on  November  24,  1687,  granted  liberty  "  to  the  French  Con 
gregation  to  ineete  in  the  Latine  Schoolhouse  at  Boston  as 
desired."  This  Latin  School  was  the  beginning  of  the 
educational  system  in  Boston,  and  gave  the  name  of 
Schoolhouse  Lane  to  what  is  now  School  Street.  In  the 
old  schoolhouse,  which  stood  just  southeast  of  the  present 
King's  Chapel,  the  French  Church  continued  to  worship 
for  nearly  thirty  years.  At  least  ten  years  earlier  than 
this  there  was  an  effort  made  to  build  a  suitable  * l  tem 
ple,"  as  we  learn  from  the  Massachusetts  Archives  where 
are  preserved  the  Minutes  of  Council.  Under  date  of 
January  12,  1704  is  this  record  : 

Upon  a  Representation  made  by  Mr.  Daill6  Minister  and  the  Elders 
of  the  French  Protestant  Church  in  Boston  That  his  late  Majesty,  King 
William,  had  bestowed  on  them  Eighty -three  pounds  to  be  Imploy'd 
towards  building  them  a  House  for  the  Publick  Worship  of  God,  set 
ting  forth,  That  they  have  purchased  a  piece  of  land  in  Schoolhouse 
Lane  in  Boston  for  that  use,  Praying  to  be  licensed  to  aske  and  receive 
the  Benevolence  of  well-disposed  persons  that  shall  be  willing  to  en 
courage  so  pious  a  worke  to  assist  them  in  said  Building  :  Advised 
that  License  be  accordingly  granted  and  the  moneys  thereby  collected 
to  be  put  into  the  hands  of  Simeon  Stoddard  Esqr  and  to  be  applyed 
for  the  use  afores'd  and  no  other.  And  the  House  when  built  to  be 
forever  continued  and  improved  for  religious  worship. 


Ref£sedion  While  the  Council  consented,  the  selectmen   refused 

their  permission  to  build  at  this  time,  renewing  however 
the  "  offer  of  the  free  liberty  to  meet  in  the  new  school- 
house,"  which,  they  said,  was  "  sufficient  for  a  far  larger 
number  of  persons'7  than  that  composing  the  congrega 
tion.  Mr.  Julien  thinks  it  may  fairly  be  surmised  that 
this  refusal  was  based  upon  a  feeling  that  the  Huguenot 
custom  of  observing  Christmas  and  like  festival  days,  to 
gether  with  the  fact  that  the  congregation  spoke  a 
foreign  tongue,  seemed  to  justify  to  their  Puritan  neigh 
bours  a  measure  of  restraint.  This  is  not  unlikely  in 


view  of  the  fact  that  it  was  deemed  essential  to  enact  in 
the  laws  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  1651,  that  "  whosoever 
shall  be  found  observing  any  such  day  as  Christmas,  or 
the  like,  either  by  forbearing  labour,  feasting,  or  any 
other  way  upon  such  account  as  aforesaid,  every  such 
person  so  offending  shall  pay  for  every  such  offense,  five 
shillings  as  a  fine  to  the  county. ' ' 

It  is  known,  moreover,  that  while  Pastor  Daille"  was  Liturgy  not 
admired  and  esteemed  by  the  English,  many  of  whom 
sometimes  came  to  hear  his  eloquent  sermons,  yet  the 
stricter  class  of  the  Puritans  could  not  be  expected  to 
favour  a  liturgical  worship  that  reminded  them  of  what 
they  would  fain  forget,  or  observances  which  savoured  to 
them  of  popery.  Samuel  Sewall,  who  was  next  door  neigh 
bour  to  one  of  the  Huguenot  merchants,  Jacques  Leblond, 
enters  in  his  famous  diary  a  gentle  protest  against  one  of 
these  practices  :  i  i  This  day  I  spake  with  Mr.  Newman 
about  his  partaking  with  the  French  Church  on  the  25th 
of  December  on  account  of  its  being  Christmas  day,  as 
they  abusively  call  it."  Another  surmise  may  be  made, 
namely,  that  the  selectmen,  who  represented  a  govern 
ment  that  was  a  combination  of  Church  and  State,  did  not 
wish  any  other  form  of  church  organization  to  become  so 
firmly  established  as  to  own  a  house  of  worship,  and 
treated  the  French  precisely  as  they  did  the  Baptists  who 
desired  to  build  meeting  houses  :  with  this  difference,  that 
they  were  much  more  kindly  and  lenient  in  disposition 
towards  the  French,  and  did  not  persecute  them  as  they 
did  those  of  kindred  blood  who  took  their  stand  for 
liberty  of  conscience.  There  are,  indeed  many  evidences 
that  the  French  had  the  cordial  regard  of  their  Puritan  Regard  for  the 
neighbours.  "  'Tis  my  hope,"  said  Cotton  Mather,  French 
"  that  the  English  churches  will  not  fail  in  respect  to  any 
that  have  endured  hard  things  for  their  faithfulness  to 
the  Son  of  God."  This  hope  was  realized.  While  the 
plans  for  a  church  building  were  delayed  for  a  decade, 
until  after  the  death  of  the  good  minister,  Daille",  who  had 


House  in  1715  cherished  the  project,  in  1715  a  house  of  worship,  an  un 
pretentious  brick  building,  was  erected  on  the  plot  of 
ground  originally  intended  for  it,  and  the  French  church 
had  a  home  of  its  own  until  it  gave  up  its  separate 


The  first  pastor  of  the  French  church  was  a  severe  trial 
Erratic  Pastor  both  to  the  members  and  the  outside  friends.  Laurent-ills 
Van  den  Bosch,  more  properly  Laurent  du  Bois,  of 
French  parentage,  had  lived  some  time  in  Holland  and 
adopted  a  Dutch  patronymic.  He  was  erratic  in  the  ex 
treme.  Eeinoving  to  England,  he  conformed  to  the  Eng 
lish  church,  and  came  to  America  with  a  license  from  the 
Bishop  of  London.  In  Boston  he  speedily  made  himself 
disliked  by  his  disregard  of  rules  and  haughty  and  stub 
born  demeanour  when  reproved.  He  also  embroiled  his 
little  congregation,  and  his  conduct  was  so  prejudicial 
that  Mr.  Daille"  wrote  to  Eev.  Increase  Mather,  begging 
him  not  to  permit  the  annoyance  occasioned  by  Mr. 
"Vandenbosk"  to  diminish  his  favour  towards  the 
French,  since  the  fault  of  a  single  person  ought  not  to  be 
imputed  to  others  to  their  harm. 

Fortunately  for  all  concerned  Vandenbosk  soon  left 

Boston,   and  was  followed  by  a  man  of  very  different 

character,   a  most  estimable  minister  who  accompanied 

Good  the  French  Protestants  from  the  island  of  St.  Christopher 


in  1686.  The  coming  of  this  company  added  much  to 
the  strength  of  the  French  congregation,  which  was 
•  never  large  in  numbers,  and  the  new  pastor,  David  Bon 
repos,  was  able  to  heal  the  divisions  caused  by  his  pred 
ecessor,  and  to  enter  into  most  pleasant  relations  with 
his  fellow  ministers.  His  little  flock  was  to  be  pitied 
that  after  a  year  of  such  admirable  service  to  the  cause  in 
Boston  he  was  called  to  minister  to  the  Huguenot  colonies 
in  New  Eochelle,  Stateu  Island,  and  New  Paltz,  in  the 
province  of  New  York. 


"  There  are  not  more  than  twenty  French  families 
here,"  he  wrote  from  Boston  in  the  winter  of  1687,  "  and 
their  number  is  diminishing  daily,  as  they  remove  into 
the  country  to  buy  or  take  up  lands  for  cultivation  with 
a  view  to  permanent  settlement."  The  way  these  com 
paratively  few  families  held  together  and  maintained  their 
church  is  remarkable ;  all  the  more  so  when  it  is  con 
sidered  that  for  eight  years  after  Mr.  Bonrepos  left  them 
they  were  pastorless,  the  pulpit  being  supplied  irregularly 
by  ^zechiel  Carre",  minister  of  the  French  colony  in  Nar- 
ragansett,  Daniel  Bondet,  of  New  Oxford,  and  occasion 
ally  by  Eev.  Nehemiah  Walter,  John  Eliot's  successor  at 
the  First  Church  in  Eoxbury,  who  was  an  accomplished 
French  scholar,  and  was  glad  to  render  this  service  to  the 
appreciative  refugees 

Affairs  were  not  promising  until  Mr.  Daille"  came  to 
Massachusetts  from  New  York,  where  he  had  been  settled 
as  minister  of  the  French  congregation  from  the  time  of 
his  arrival  in  America.  He  served  as  pastor  of  the  French 
church  in  Boston  from  1696  until  his  death,  nineteen 
years  later.  This  was  the  period  of  greatest  prosperity 
for  the  church.  Mr.  Bailie"  was  received  by  his  brother 
ministers  with  the  consideration  his  character  and  talents 
merited.  He  bore  a  distinguished  name — that  of  the 
famous  minister  of  Charenton,  Jean  Daille,  one  of  the 
most  learned  scholars  and  theologians  of  his  age.  Before 
coming  to  America,  moreover,  Pierre  had  been  professor  A  scholar  and 
in  the  great  Protestant  Academy  of  Saumur,  the  most 
celebrated  of  the  four  Protestant  colleges  of  France,  "for 
eighty  years  a  torch  that  illuminated  all  Europe."  Like 
other  scholars  of  his  time  he  wrote  Latin  fluently,  and 
his  letters  to  Eev.  Increase  Mather  show  the  marks  of  the 
scholar  and  courteous  French  gentleman.  He  was  in 
truth  a  fine  type  of  the  Huguenot,  adding  to  his  breeding 
and  learning  an  earnest  and  unaffected  piety.  "He  is 
full  of  fire,  godliness  and  learning,"  wrote  the  Dutch 
minister  Selyns  of  New  York.  i  i  Banished  on  account  of 


his  religion,  he  maintains  the  cause  of  Jesus  Christ  with 
untiring  zeal."  Such  a  minister  and  man  was  an  influ 
ence  of  inestimable  good  to  the  New  England  colony,  not 
simply  to  his  own  people,  who  revered  and  loved  him  as 
one  who  had  shared  the  fires  of  persecution  in  the  bonds 
of  a  common  faith. 


The  liturgy  observed  by  the  refugees  in  their  public  re- 
ligious  services,  says  Baird,  was  that  which  had  been  in 
use  among  the  Eeformed  churches  of  France  for  nearly  a 
century  and  a  half.  Modelled  by  Calvin  upon  primitive 
offices,  it  was  of  rigid  simplicity,  yet  it  was  orderly  and 
impressive.  The  Sunday  service  was  preceded  by  the 
reading  of  several  chapters  of  Holy  Scripture.  The  read 
ing  was  performed,  not  by  the  clergyman,  but  by  a  "lec- 
teur,"  who  was  also  the  "chantra"  or  precentor,  and  who 
frequently  united  with  these  functions  those  of  the  parish 
schoolmaster  during  the  week.  In  Dailies  day  the  "lec- 
teur"  was  probably  "old  Mr.  John  Eawlins,"  whom  the 
pastor  remembered  affectionately  in  his  will.  The  read 
ing  ended  with  the  decalogue ;  and  then  came  the  service 
conducted  by  the  minister.  It  began  with  a  sentence  of 
invocation,  followed  by  an  invitation  to  prayer,  and  a 
general  confession  of  sins.  The  congregation  rose  with 
the  words  of  invocation,  and  remained  standing  during 
prayer,  but  resumed  their  seats  when  the  psalm  was  given 
out  for  singing.  This  was  the  people's  part — the  service 
of  song — in  a  ritual  without  other  audible  response  ;  and 
all  the  Huguenot  fervour  broke  out  in  those  strains  that 
had  for  generations  expressed  the  faith  and  the  religious 
joy  of  a  persecuted  race.  A  brief  extempore  prayer  pre 
ceded  the  sermon.  They  closed  with  the  Lord's  Prayer 
and  the  Apostles'  Creed,  except  when  the  Communion 
was  to  be  administered ;  and  after  the  benediction  the 
congregation  was  dismissed  with  the  word  of  peace,  and 
an  injunction  to  remember  the  poor,  as  they  passed  the 


alms'  chests  at  the  church  door.  A  prominent  seat  was 
reserved  in  the  church  for  the  "  anciens  "  or  elders  of  the 
congregation.  These,  with  the  pastor,  constituted  the 
Cousistoire,  or  Church  Session.  They  were  elected  by 
the  people,  holding  office  for  a  term  of  years,  and  had  en 
tire  charge  of  the  church  government,  both  spiritual  and 



The  Earl  of  Bellomont,  while  governor  of  Massachu-  Favourable 
setts,  in  an  address  to  the  General  Court  upon  his  last 
visit  to  Boston,  thus  expressed  his  opinion  of  the  French 
refugees  :  "I  recommend  to  your  care  the  French  min 
ister  of  this  town,  who  is  destitute  of  a  maintenance,  be 
cause  there  are  so  few  families  here.  Let  the  present 
raging  persecution  of  the  French  Protestants  in  France 
stir  up  your  zeal  and  compassion  towards  him.  I  wish 
for  your  sakes  the  French  Protestants  had  been  encour 
aged  among  you.  They  are  a  good  sort  of  people,  very 
ingenious,  industrious,  and  would  have  been  of  great  use 
for  peopling  this  country,  and  enriching  it  by  trade. " 
Perhaps  stimulated  by  this  interest,  the  French  Protes 
tants  in  Boston  presented  a  petition  to  him  and  to  the 
general  court  for  aid  in  the  support  of  the  gospel  ministry 
among  them.  They  ' '  take  leave  to  signifie  that  many  of 
their  flock  being  already  gone  away  who  contributed 
much  for  the  subsistence  of  their  minister,  the  few  that 
remain  are  not  capable  of  furnishing  the  one-half  that  is 
necessary,  and  they  must  undergo  the  unhappyness  of 
being  deprived  of  the  consolation  of  the  holy  ministry  of  Petition  for 
the  word  of  God  (whereof  the  unheard-of  cruelty  of  the 
persecutors  of  the  church  had  deprived  them  in  their  own 
country)  unless  they  may  obtain  your  Christian  assist 
ance.7'  The  petitioners  also  state  that  they  have  "  borne 
great  charges  in  paying  taxes  for  the  poor  of  New  Ox 
ford,  who  by  occasion  of  the  war  withdrew  themselves, 
and  since  that  they  have  assisted  many  who  returned  to 
Oxford  in  order  to  their  resettlement." 


Slender  Sup 

Tomb  in  Old 

His  Will 

This  petition  was  referred  to  a  committee,  which  re 
ported  that  "for  their  encouragement  as  strangers  and 
for  the  carrying  on  the  publick  worship  of  God  amongst 
them  there  be  paid  unto  their  minister  twelve  punds 
of  the  publick  treasury."  This  report  was  passed  by 
both  branches  of  the  General  Court,  and  so  far  as  recorded 
was  the  only  grant  from  the  public  funds. 

The  support  was  so  slender  that  Mr.  Daille  sometimes 
questioned  whether  he  could  remain  ;  but  he  lived  up  to 
his  own  declaration  that  "  A  minister  must  use  every  ex 
pedient  before  deserting  his  flock. ' ?  Among  those  expe 
dients  was  an  appeal  to  the  English  Society  for  the 
Propagation  of  the  Gospel  in  Foreign  Parts ;  an  appeal 
that  was  seconded  by  Governor  Dudley,  who  spoke  of 
him  as  u  an  honest  man  and  good  preacher, ' '  who  in  the 
governor's  belief  had  not  more  than  thirty  pounds  per 
annum  to  live  upon.  The  society  declined,  on  the  ground 
that  the  French  church  did  not  belong  to  the  Anglican 
communion,  and  the  pastor  laboured  on  till  his  death, 
May  20,  1715,  in  his  sixty- seventh  year. 

No  minister  of  the  early  colonial  days  did  more  honour 
to  his  calling  than  the  learned  and  devoted  Pierre  Daille*, 
whose  tombstone  may  be  seen  in  the  Old  Granary  Bury 
ing  Ground.  And  however  inadequate  his  salary,  with 
the  characteristic  thrift  of  his  people,  this  good  man  in 
some  way  managed  to  save  up  enough  to  be  able  to  leave 
some  considerable  bequests  in  his  will.  His  first  remem 
brance  was  for  the  church  and  its  ministers.  He  gave  all 
his  French  and  Latin  books — at  a  time  when  such  books 
were  of  great  value — to  the  church  for  the  use  of  its  min 
isters.  He  remembered  their  necessities,  besides,  by  giv 
ing  one  hundred  pounds  to  be  let  out  at  interest  for  the 
help  and  support  of  the  minister ;  and  he  bequeathed 
ten  pounds  towards  the  erection  of  the  meeting  house 
for  which  he  had  longed.  For  the  rest  he  gave  three 
hundred  and  fifty  pounds  in  province  bills  or  silver 
equivalent  thereto,  and  his  negro  man-servant  named 


Kuffy  and  all  his  "  plate,  cloaths,  household  goods  and 
furniture,"  to  his  "loving  wife,  Martha,"  who  was  his 
third  wife  ;  the  residue  of  his  estate  going  to  his  brother 
Paul  in  Holland.  In  saving  as  in  spirituality  this 
French  apostle  set  a  worthy  example  to  his  brethren 
in  the  ministry.  His  character  may  be  read  as  through 
an  open  window  in  a  sentence  in  one  of  his  private 
letters:  "I  have  always  determined  to  injure  no  one  His  Motto 
by  my  words  or  otherwise,  but  on  the  contrary  to  serve 
whomsoever  I  might  be  able  to  serve." 


The  French  Church  in  Boston  was  to  have  but  one 
more  pastor,  who  was  settled  before  many  months.  A 
call  was  given  to  Andre  Le  Mercier,  a  young  man  lately  Pastor 
graduated  from  the  Academy  of  Geneva,  and  recom-  from  Geneva 
mended  highly  by  the  church  authorities  there,  who  took 
a  paternal  interest  in  the  Calvinistic  churches  in  America. 
A  salary  of  one  hundred  pounds  was  offered  him,  the 
arrangement  being  made  by  Andrew  Faneuil,  indicating 
that  the  congregation  was  more  prosperous  than  hitherto. 
Leaders  in  it  were  Andrew  Faneuil,  James  Bowdoin, 
Daniel  Johonnot,  and  Andrew  Sigourney,  each  of  whom 
at  his  death  left  a  generous  bequest  to  the  pastor.  This 
may  perhaps  explain  in  part  the  amount  saved  by  Mr. 
Daille,  though  such  bequests  to  him  are  not  a  matter  of 
record.  Soon  after  the  coming  of  the  new  minister  the 
" meeting  house"  was  built,  diagonally  opposite  the 
Latin  School  on  School  Street.  This  pastorate  continued 
thirty-four  years.  While  not  so  brilliant  a  preacher  as  Thirty-four 

-rx    •!!  /     T       T..-         •  Years'  Pastor- 

Daille,  Le  Mercier  was  pious  and  earnest  and  a  diligent  ate 
worker  in  various  fields.  Two  books  from  his  pen  are 
extant:  a  " History  of  the  Church  and  Eepublic  of 
Geneva,"  and  a  "  Treatise  Against  Detraction."  He 
busied  himself  in  the  improvement  of  agriculture  in  Mas 
sachusetts,  and  was  very  zealous  in  humane  endeavours 
to  preserve  the  lives  of  seamen  shipwrecked  upon  the 


Originator  of 



Sable  Island 


End  in  1748 

dangerous  coast  of  Nova  Scotia.  In  1738  he  petitioned 
the  governor  and  council  of  Nova  Scotia  for  a  grant  of 
the  Sable  Island,  off  that  coast,  that  he  might  erect  build 
ings  thereon  and  stock  the  island  with  such  domestic 
animals  as  might  be  useful  in  preserving  the  lives  of 
escaped  mariners.  The  grant  was  made,  and  the  colonial 
governments  of  Nova  Scotia  and  Massachusetts  issued 
proclamations  warning  all  persons  against  destroying  or 
removing  the  improvements  made  by  the  proprietor  of 
the  island.  It  is  said  that  many  lives  were  saved  by  this 
humane  enterprise,  which  in  a  sense  was  the  origin  of  the 
life-saving  coast  service  of  to-day.  Sable  Island  has  con 
tinued  to  be  the  scene  of  frequent  shipwrecks,  and  at 
present  the  noble  work  begun  by  the  Huguenot  pastor  of 
Boston  is  carried  on  by  government  at  an  expense  of  four 
thousand  dollars  yearly,  maintaining  a  force  of  men 
furnished  with  provisions  and  appliances  for  the  relief 
of  shipwrecked  sailors.  Let  it  not  be  forgotten  that  the 
sailors  owe  a  debt  of  gratitude  to  Andre  Le  Mercier,  the 
refugee  minister  of  Boston. 

That  the  membership  of  the  French  Church  decreased 
under  his  ministry  is  not  to  be  attributed  chiefly  to  any 
lack  in  him  either  as  preacher  or  pastor,  but  rather  to 
the  aptitude  of  the  French  for  assimilation.  The  chil 
dren  became  proficient  in  the  English  language,  and 
through  their  associations  were  led  naturally  to  favour 
the  American  churches.  The  tendency  was  irresistible, 
and  when  the  young  people  were  "driven  to  other 
churches"  (a  charge  laid  against  Le  Mercier  with  prob 
ably  scant  justice)  it  was  only  a  question  of  time  when 
the  French  Church  should  cease  to  exist.  This  time  came 
in  1748,  when  the  membership  had  become  reduced  to  a 
mere  handful.  Through  intermarriage  the  leading  French 
families  had  formed  close  interests  in  such  churches  as 
Trinity  and  King's  Chapel,  the  Faneuils  becoming  prom 
inent  supporters  of  the  latter.  On  the  dissolution  of  the 
French  Church  the  meeting  house  passed  into  possession 


of  a  new  Congregational  society,  with  the  proviso  that 
the  building  was  to  be  preserved  for  the  sole  use  of  a 
Protestant  sanctuary  forever.  How  little  human  pro 
visions  can  control  is  shown  by  the  fact  that,  in  spite  of 
the  condition  of  sale,  forty  years  later  the  Huguenot 
"  tern  pie"  was  sold  to  the  Eoman  Catholics,  and  mass 
was  said  within  its  walls  by  a  Eomish  priest  November 
2,  1788.  As  for  Le  Mercier,  he  lived  for  sixteen  years 
after  the  dissolution  of  the  church,  spending  his  last  days 
upon  an  estate  which  he  had  purchased  in  Dorchester, 
Massachusetts,  where  he  died  March  31,  1764. 

During  Daille's  pastorate  the  church  received  a  present  Queen  Anne 
of  a  Bible  from  Queen  Anne  for  pulpit  use.  This  Bible  I 
was  highly  esteemed  and  continued  in  use  until  the 
church  dissolved,  when  it  passed  into  possession  of  Eev. 
Mather  Byles,  first  pastor  of  the  Hollis  Street  Congrega 
tional  Church,  whose  library  was  subsequently  sold,  the 
Bible  going  to  Mr.  E.  Cobb,  by  whose  widow  it  was  pre 
sented  in  1831  to  the  Divinity  Library  of  Harvard  Uni 
versity,  where  it  is  now  carefully  preserved.  The  book 
is  in  a  very  good  state  of  preservation ;  contains  a  few 
illustrations  and  maps,  and  the  Apocrypha;  and  was 
printed  in  Amsterdam,  by  the  Elzeviers  in  1669. 


The  Rivoires 

Early  Life 

Artist  En 



>AUL  REVERE,  born  in  Boston  on  January  8, 
1735,  was  descended  from  an  honourable  Huguenot 
family — the  Rivoires  of  Romagnieu.  His  father, 
Apollos  Rivoire,  came  to  Boston  from  the  Island  of 
Guernsey,  when  he  was  a  lad  of  thirteen,  and  was  set  to 
learn  the  goldsmith's  trade  as  apprentice  to  John  Coney. 
After  he  had  established  himself  in  the  business  of  a  gold 
and  silversmith,  he  married  Deborah  Hichborn  ;  and  the 
third  child  of  this  union  was  Paul  Revere,  craftsman, 
artist  and  patriot. 

Revere  received  his  education  at  the  famous  old  i  i  North 
Grammar  School,"  which  stood  on  North  Bennett  Street. 
After  leaving  school  he  entered  his  father's  shop  as  an 
apprentice.  He  possessed  a  natural  taste  for  drawing, 
and  became  very  skillful  in  the  use  of  the  graver ;  exe 
cuting  most  of  the  embellishments  on  the  silverware  then 
manufactured  in  Boston.  Many  are  the  cups,  spoons, 
mugs,  pitchers,  tankards,  and  other  articles  of  beautiful 
patterns,  made  by  him,  and  still  owned  by  our  New  Eng 
land  families ;  some  are  now  in  every  day  use ;  all  are 
treasured  relics.  If  not  as  famous  or  gifted  as  Cellini, 
abundant  monuments  remain  to  prove  that  Revere  was 
also  an  artist,  as  praiseworthy  for  the  beauty  and  grace 
of  his  artistic  creations  as  for  their  excellent  handiwork. 
Long  practice  in  the  successful  embellishment  of  silver 
ware  caused  him  to  learn  the  art  of  engraving  on  copper 
plate,  entirely  self-taught ;  and  numerous  specimens  of 
his  handiwork  in  this  line  are  still  in  existence,  treasured 
memorials  of  a  skillful  and  patriotic  hand.  Many  of  his 
pictures  were  political  caricatures,  and  engravings  of  his- 


PAUL  REVERE,  Portrait   by  Gilbert  Stuart 


toric  scenes  closely  connected  with  the  struggle  for  Inde 

But  Eevere  was  not  wholly  satisfied  with  leading  a  life  hiesgMiiit1agr°f 
of  quiet  prosperity.  He  longed  for  a  taste  of  military  life,  career 
and  obtained  his  desire  by  joining  the  second  expedition 
against  Crown  Point— serving  through  the  campaign  as  a 
lieutenant  of  artillery.  On  his  return  to  civil  life  he  mar 
ried  Miss  Sarah  Orne  and  settled  down  to  his  trade. 
From  thence  on  he  devoted  considerable  of  his  time  to  en 
graving,  and  his  art  was  immensely  popular  during  the 
years  preceding  the  Eevolution.  His  bold  attempts  at  £2!caturis? 
copperplate  engraving  are  rude  enough  to  be  sure  ;  but 
they  were  considered  good  at  the  time,  and  were  vastly 
better  than  nothing.  His  keen  sense  of  humour  found  con 
genial  employment  in  the  caricatures  of  political  events 
which  issued  from  his  shop  and  obtained  a  wide  popular 
ity.  His  art  was  always  used  in  favour  of  the  people,  of 
the  masses ;  he  was  quick  at  perceiving  the  striking 
features  of  the  hour ;  and  his  ready  genius  to  portray 
them  made  him  the  l l  offhand  artist  of  many  caricatures 
intended  to  bring  ridicule  upon  the  enemy,  and  the  author 
of  various  sketches  of  interesting  scenes  of  which  he  was 
an  eye-witness." 

Eevere' s  patriotic  services  began  in  1765,  when  he  be 
came  one  of  the  first  members  of  the  famous  ' '  Sons  of  sons  of 
Liberty" — an  organization  which  soon  became  famous 
for  its  intimidation  of  the  stamp -distributors  and  its  keen 
opposition  to  any  enforcement  of  the  hated  Stamp  Act. 
He  was  likewise  an  active   member   of  "Long  Eoom 
Club"  and  the  "STorth  End  Caucus"— the  latter  being 
the  association  which  gave  birth  to  "The  Boston  Tea-   Boston  Tea 
Party."     Eevere  became  the  confidential  messenger  of 
the  patriots  and  travelled  thousands  of  miles  on  horseback, 
during  troublous  times,  when  railroads  and  steamboats 
were  unknown.     During  all  these  years  he  had  a  large 
family  to  support ;  yet  he  was  so  constituted  as  to  find  Ardent  Patriot 
sufficient  leisure  to  interest  himself  in  all  the  matters 

170        THE  FEENCH  BLOOD 


The  Midnight 

pertaining  to  the  public  good,  watching  closely  the 
course  of  political  events  in  the  pre-revolutionary 
days.  "  With  well-considered,  settled  opinions,  his  will 
was  strong ;  while  his  general  gifts  rendered  him  com 
petent  to  great  emergencies,  and  equal  to  great  events. 
The  result  was,  that  in  a  crisis  like  that  of  rousing  the 
people  to  conflict  on  the  eve  of  the  first  struggle  for  our 
Independence,  he  was  the  wise  counsellor  at  home,  and 
the  daring  actor  in  the  field." 

Eevere  took  many  rides  in  the  service  of  the  Eevolu- 
tionary  party,  but  most  famous  of  them  all  was  the  ride 
on  the  night  of  the  18th  of  April,  1775 — "  the  most  im 
portant  single  exploit  in  our  nation's  annals."  Long 
fellow's  account  is  known  throughout  the  land  ;  and  there 
fore  the  insertion  of  the  following  extracts  from  Eevere' s 
own  version  of  the  affair  is  made  at  the  risk  of  repeating 
a  well-known  story : 


Telling  of  the 

April  18,  1775 
Committee  on 

The  Lantern 

In  the  fall  of  1774,  and  winter  of  1775,  I  was  one  of  upwards  of 
thirty,  chiefly  mechanics,  who  formed  ourselves  into  a  committee  for  the 
purpose  of  watching  the  movements  of  the  British  soldiers,  and  gain 
ing  every  intelligence  of  the  movements  of  the  Tories.  We  held  our 
meetings  at  the  Green  Dragon  Tavern.  We  were  so  careful  that  our 
meetings  should  be  kept  secret,  that  every  time  we  met,  every  person 
swore  upon  the  Bible  that  they  would  not  discover  any  of  our  trans 
actions  but  to  Messrs.  Hancock,  Adams,  and  one  or  two  more.  .  .  . 
In  the  winter,  towards  the  spring,  we  frequently  took  turns,  two  by 
two,  to  watch  the  soldiers,  by  patrolling  the  streets  all  night.  The 
Saturday  night  preceding  the  19th  of  April,  about  twelve  o'clock  at 
night,  the  boats  belonging  to  the  transports  were  all  launched,  and 
carried  under  the  sterns  of  the  men-of-war.  We  likewise  found  that 
the  grenadiers  and  light  infantry  were  all  taken  off  duty.  From  these 
movements  we  expected  something  serious  was  to  be  transacted. 
.  .  I  agreed  with  a  Colonel  Conant  and  some  other  gentlemen^ 
that  if  the  British  went  out  by  water,  we  would  show  two  lanterns  in 
the  North  Church  steeple;  and  if  by  land,  one  as  a  signal ;  for  we  were 
apprehensive  it  would  be  difficult  to  cross  Charles  River,  or  get  over 
Boston  Neck.  ...  I  then  went  home,  took  my  boots  and  surtout, 
went  to  the  north  part  of  the  town,  where  I  kept  a  boat ;  two  friends 
rowed  me  across  Charles  River  a  little  to  the  eastward  where  the 








Sounding  the 

Somerset  man-of-war  lay.     It  was  then  young  flood,  the  ship  was  wind 
ing,  and  the  moon  was  rising. 

They  lauded  me  on  the  Charlestown  side.  When  I  got  into  town,  I  Getting  Ready 
met  Colonel  Conant  and  several  others ;  they  said  they  had  seen  our 
signals.  I  told  them  what  was  acting,  and  went  to  get  me  a  horse ;  I 
got  a  horse  of  Deacon  Larkiu.  While  the  horse  was  preparing,  Richard 
Deveus,  Esq.,  who  was  one  of  the  Committee  of  Safety,  came  to  me, 
and  told  me  that  he  came  down  the  road  from  Lexington,  after  sun 
down,  that  evening  ;  that  he  met  ten  British  officers,  all  well  mounted 
and  armed,  going  up  the  road. 

I  set  off  upon  a  very  good  horse ;  it  was  then  about  eleven  o'clock 
and  very  pleasant.  After  I  had  passed  Charlestown  Neck,  and  got 
nearly  opposite  where  Mark  was  hung  in  chains,  I  saw  two  men  on 
horseback,  under  a  tree.  When  I  got  near  them,  I  discovered  they 
were  British  officers.  One  tried  to  get  ahead  of  me,  and  the  other  to 
take  me.  I  turned  my  horse  very  quick,  and  galloped  towards  Charles- 
town  Neck,  and  then  pushed  for  the  Medford  road.  The  one  who 
chased  me,  endeavouring  to  cut  me  off,  got  into  a  clay  pond,  near  where 
the  new  tavern  is  now  built.  I  got  clear  of  him,  and  went  through 
Medford,  over  the  bridge,  and  up  to  Menotomy.  In  Medford  I  waked 
the  Captain  of  the  minute  men  ;  and  after  that,  I  alarmed  almost 
every  house  till  I  got  to  Lexington. 

At  Lexington  he  gave  the  alarm  to  John  Hancock  and 
Samuel  Adams,  and  then  pressed  on  towards  Concord 
"  to  secure  the  stores,  etc.,  there."  On  his  way,  how 
ever,  he  met  with  some  British  officers  ;  u  in  an  instant  I 
was  surrounded  by  four  j — they  had  placed  themselves  in 
a  straight  road,  that  inclined  each  way  ;  they  had  taken 
down  a  pair  of  bars  on  the  north  side  of  the  road,  and  two 
of  them  were  under  a  tree  in  the  pasture.  ...  I  ob 
served  a  wood  at  a  small  distance,  and  made  for  that. 
When  I  got  there,  out  started  six  officers,  on  horseback, 
and  ordered  me  dismount. ' '  And  thus  the  i '  midnight 
ride  of  Paul  Bevere"  came  to  an  untimely  end. 

During  the  war  Eevere  served  his  country  in  a  dual 
capacity — as  a  Colonel  in  the  Massachusetts  artillery,  and 
as  a  producer  of  gunpowder  and  cannon.  In  the  capacity 
of  Colonel,  he  had  active  command  of  the  defenses  of 
Boston  harbour  until  he  resigned  from  the  service  in  1779. 
As  a  manufacturer  he  was  sent  to  Philadelphia  by  the 

Stopped  by 
the  Enemy 

Colonel  and 
Powder  Maker 




Death  in  1818 

Council  to  gain  a  knowledge  of  powder  making  in  order 
that  the  colony  might  make  its  own  ammunition  ;  and  he 
also  was  engaged  to  oversee  the  casting  of  cannon.  He 
found  time,  meanwhile,  to  engrave  and  print  the  Massa 
chusetts  colony  notes,  and  make  dies  for  coins. 

After  the  war  Revere  launched  out  into  new  enter 
prises,  the  most  important  of  which  was  the  establishment 
of  a  foundry  where  he  undertook  the  casting  of  cannon, 
ironware  and  church  bells.  He  perfected  a  process  of 
preparing  copper  for  use  in  bolts  and  spikes,  etc.,  for 
naval  purposes,  and  furnished  the  sheathing  and  fittings 
for  Old  Ironsides,  and  many  another  gallant  vessel. 
His  business  prospered  greatly,  as  his  foundry  was  the 
only  one  in  the  country  which  could  turn  out  sheet  cop 
per.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  he  furnished  the  cop 
per  boilers  for  Robert  Fulton's  Hudson  River  steamboats. 

A  lasting  monument  to  the  ruling  passion  of  his  life  is 
the  Massachusetts  Charitable  Mechanics  Association 
which,  chiefly  through  his  instrumentality,  was  formed  in 
1795.  He  was  its  first  president,  and  continued  in  that 
office  until  1799,  when  he  declined  re-election,  although 
his  interest  in  its  affairs  was  undiminished  and  his  counsel 
its  main  dependence. 

Revere  died  on  May  10,  1818,  at  the  age  of  eighty-three 
years.  His  body  was  placed  in  the  Granary  Burial 
Ground  near  that  of  his  fellow  Huguenot,  Peter  Faneuil, 
almost  under  the  shadow  of  the  State  House  whose  cor 
ner-stone  he  helped  to  set  and  whose  significance  he  had 
laboured  to  establish.  It  is  pleasant  to  know  that  the  last 
years  of  his  useful,  self-sacrificing  life  were  passed  in 
prosperity,  and  in  the  esteem  and  love  of  his  countrymen. 
He  was  a  fine  type  of  the  highly  skilled  artisan  class 
which  formed  so  large  a  part  of  the  Huguenot  emigration. 
He  was  equally  a  true  representative  of  the  Huguenots  in 
his  sturdy  patriotism  and  devotion  to  the  right  as  he  saw 
it.  He  was  a  zealous  and  honoured  member  of  the  Ma 
sonic  fraternity  in  Boston,  as  appears  elsewhere. 




NE  of  the  foremost  families  of  these  early  settlers  Benjamin 
from  France  was  that  of  Faneuil — name  indissol- 
ubly  associated  with  Boston.  In  a  list  of  the 
French  nationality  admitted  into  the  Bay  Colony  by  the 
Governor  and  Council,  on  February  1,  1691,  are  the 
names  of  Benjamin,  John  and  Andrew  Faneuil.  As 
these  brothers  were  among  the  refugees  who  were  fortu 
nate  in  bringing  property  with  them  to  this  country,  it  is 
probable  that  Benjamin  had  a  financial  interest  in  both 
of  the  Huguenot  settlements — that  at  Oxford,  Massachu 
setts,  and  at  New  Eochelle,  New  York,  as  his  name  ap 
pears  in  connection  with  them.  When  the  Oxford  enter 
prise  was  given  up,  after  a  ten  years'  struggle  with 
hardship  and  Indians,  Benjamin  Faneuil  chose  New 
York  for  his  residence,  and  established  a  home  there, 
marrying  one  Anne  Bureau,  a  French  lady  of  that  place. 
On  a  horizontal  slab  in  Trinity  churchyard,  New  York, 
is  the  inscription  :  i  i  Here  lies  buried  the  body  of  Mr. 
Benjamin  Faneuil  of  the  city  of  Eochelle,  France,  who 
died  the  31st  of  March,  1719,  aged  60  years  and  8 

Andrew  Faneuil,  brother  of  Benjamin,  was  one  of  the 
most  prominent  members  of  the  Huguenot  colony  in  Andrew- 
Boston,  and  a  leader  in  the  organization  of  the  French  l 
Protestant  Church.     He  escaped  from  France  and  lived 
for  a  time  in  Holland,  where  he  was  married.     This 
record  is  preserved  :    l  i  The  death  of  Mrs.  Mary  Cather 
ine,  wife  of  Mr.  Andrew  Faneuil,  occurred  in  Boston, 



His  Fine 

July  16,  1724,  a  gentlewoman  of  extraordinary  perfections 
both  in  mind  and  body. ' '  A  portrait,  representing  her 
as  a  beautiful  woman,  was  brought  to  America  and  treas- 
citizen  in  1691  ured  in  the  family.  The  exact  date  of  their  coming  is  not 
known,  but  Andrew's  name  appears  on  the  tax  list  in 
1691,  and  it  is  plain  that  he  was  a  man  of  affairs  in  the 
town  at  that  time.  Like  his  brother,  he  was  doubtless 
one  of  those  fortunate  Huguenots  who,  having  an  estate 
in  France,  had  been  able  to  take  a  goodly  portion  with 
him  when  he  left  his  native  land,  and  had  not  come 
empty  handed  to  Boston.  It  is  evident  that  he  made  an 
early  investment  in  the  city,  for  in  a  petition  dated  Feb 
ruary  20,  1709,  to  build  a  wharf  from  the  bottom  of  King 
(now  State)  Street  to  low  water  mark,  it  is  described  as 
"of  the  width  of  King  Street,  between  Mr.  East  Ap- 
thorp's  and  Mr.  Andrew  Faneiol's."  He  was  soon  well 
established  in  a  lucrative  business,  and  the  owner  of  large 
real  estate  interests.  His  warehouse  was  on  Butler  Square, 
out  of  State  Street,  and  his  mansion,  one  of  the  finest  in 
the  city,  surrounded  by  seven  acres  of  admirably  kept 
gardens,  was  on  Tremout  Street,  opposite  King's  Chapel 
Burying  Ground. 

Andrew  Faneuil  was  a  positive,  peculiar  and  interest 
ing  character.  He  did  not  remarry,  though  he  kept  up 
his  stately  establishment,  and  had  black  and  white  serv 
ants  in  plenty.  His  brother  Benjamin  of  New  York  had 
a  family  of  eleven  children,  and  Andrew  undertook  the 
care  of  three  of  them — Benjamin  and  Peter,  the  oldest 
sons,  and  Mary  Anne,  their  sister.  He  chose  Benjamin, 
his  nephew,  for  his  heir,  on  the  one  freakish  condition 
that  the  young  man  should  never  marry.  Benjamin 
agreed,  and  the  relations  went  on  harmoniously  enough 
until  a  certain  Miss  Mary  Cutler,  a  young  lady  of  many 
personal  attractions,  educated,  refined,  and  a  poetess  to 
boot,  led  the  nephew  to  choose  expulsion  from  his  home, 
with  his  love,  just  as  the  uncle  preferred  exile  with 

Loses  a  For 


religious  liberty  to  France  and  spiritual  enslavement. 
Andrew  was  inflexible,  and  turned  to  Benjamin's  brother, 
Peter,  as  his  hope  for  a  worthy  heir  and  representative. 
Peter  was  without  matrimonial  inclinations  and  accepted  Nephew  Peter 
the  terms,  becoming  heir  presumptive  in  his  turn,  and  Becomes  Heir 
likewise  the  business  partner  of  his  uncle.  The  ousted 
Benjamin,  who  had  gone  into  business  on  his  own  ac 
count,  was  prospering,  and  all  three  Faneuils  were  happy 
and  highly  respected,  and  becoming  rich  and  influential 
as  the  result  of  ability,  integrity,  and  that  sturdy  quality 
of  conscience  that  compels  recognition.  Three  of  the 
New  York  Benjamin's  daughters  had  meanwhile  married 
Boston  citizens — a  clergyman,  a  lawyer,  and  a  prosperous 
merchant — so  that  the  Faneuil  family  was  well  established 
in  the  business  and  social  life  of  Boston. 

Andrew  Faneuil  died  in  February,  1738,  and  the  mag-  A  Great 
nificence  of  his  funeral  gave  evidence  of  the  position  he  1738 
had  attained  in  the  city.  The  newspaper  report  says, 
"Last  Monday  the  corpse  of  Andrew  Faneuil,  Esquire, 
whose  death  we  mentioned  in  our  last,  was  honourable 
interred  here,  above  1,100  persons  of  all  Eanks,  beside 
the  Mourners,  following  the  Corpse,  also  a  vast  number  of 
spectators  were  gathered  together  on  the  Occasion,  at 
which  time  the  half -minute  guns  from  on  board  several 
vessels  were  discharged.  And  'tis  supposed  that  as  the 
Gentleman's  fortune  was  the  greatest  of  any  among  us, 
so  his  funeral  was  the  most  generous  and  expensive  of 
any  that  has  been  known  here." 

Peter  Faneuil  saw  to  it  that  every  propriety  was  ob 
served,  and  three  thousand  pairs  of  mourning  gloves  were 
distributed  to  the  friends  in  attendance,  while  two  hun 
dred  mourning  rings  were  given  to  the  nearer  friends  of 
the  family.  The  business  and  estate  now  fell  to  Peter. 
In  his  will,  however,  Andrew  proved  his  devotion  to  his 
faith  by  first  of  all  leaving  his  warehouse  in  trust  for  the 
support  of  the  ministers  and  elders  of  the  French  church 
in  Boston,  which  he  had  staunchly  supported.  If  the 






A  Good  Liver 

Generous  and 

church  should  cease  to  be,  as  he  foresaw  it  might  through 
the  intermarriage  of  the  Huguenot  with  the  Puritan  ele 
ment,  the  warehouse  was  to  revert  to  his  heirs. 


How  much  property  Andrew  Faneuil  left  was  not  an 
nounced,  but  it  was  commonly  understood  that  he  was 
the  wealthiest  merchant  in  the  province,  and  Peter  now 
succeeded  to  that  proud  position.  He  was  thirty-eight 
years  old  when  he  became  the  i  i  topiniest  merchant  in  the 
town,"  as  Thomas  Hancock  put  it.  He  was  corpulent, 
with  large,  well-rounded  features,  had  a  genial  disposi 
tion,  and  ambitions  and  tastes  in  keeping  with  his  for 
tune.  He  was  fond  of  display  and  good  living,  and  his 
home  was  the  scene  of  open-handed  hospitality.  He  or 
dered  from  London  a  ' l  handsome  chariot  with  two  sets 
of  harness,  with  the  arms  as  inclosed  in  the  same  in  the 
handsomest  manner  that  you  shall  judge  proper,  but  at 
the  same  time  nothing  gaudy,"  and  ordered  also  "two 
sober  men,  the  one  for  a  coachman,  the  other  for  a  gar 
dener  ;  and  as  most  servants  from  Europe  are  apt  when 
here  to  be  debauched  with  strong  drink,  rum,  etc.,  being 
very  plenty,  I  pray  your  particular  care  in  this  article." 
He  sends  for  the  "  latest  best  book  of  the  several  sorts  of 
cookery,  which  pray  let  be  of  the  largest  character  for  the 
benefit  of  the  maid's  reading."  He  refurnishes  and  re 
stocks  the  mansion,  and  among  other  new  articles,  buys 
for  house  use  "as  likely  a  strait  negro  lad"  as  could  be 
found,  "  of  a  tractable  disposition  and  one  that  had  had 
the  smallpox." 

With  the  waning  of  the  French  church,  Peter  Faneuil 
became  a  worshipper  at  Trinity  church,  of  which  his 
brother-in-law,  the  Rev.  Addington  Davenport,  was  rec 
tor.  In  one  of  his  orders  from  London  is  this  item : 
"Purchase  for  me  1  handsome,  large,  octavo  Common 
Prayer  Book  of  a  good  letter,  and  well  bound,  with  one 
of  the  same  in  French  for  my  own  use."  Thus  the  mother 


tongue  remained  dear  to  him.  He  was  one  of  the  early 
members  of  the  Episcopal  Charitable  Society,  and  gave  a 
large  sum  to  Trinity  church  to  support  the  families  of  the 
deceased  clergy.  Indeed,  every  charity  of  the  time  had 
his  name  on  its  subscription  list  for  a  generous  sum. 
While  Peter  Faneuil  was  liberal  to  all  good  objects,  he 
was  scrupulous  in  his  business  transactions,  and  expected 
to  be  dealt  with  justly,  in  the  same  spirit  in  which  he 
dealt  with  others.  He  did  not  like  to  be  wronged  out  of 
any  amount,  however  small,  as  the  following  extract  from 
his  correspondence  shows:  "I  have  been  very  much 
surprised  that  ever  since  the  death  of  Captain  Allen,  you 
have  not  advised  me  of  the  sale  of  a  horse  belonging  to 
my  deceased  uncle,  left  in  your  hands  by  him,  which  I 
am  informed  you  sold  for  a  very  good  price,  and  I  am 
now  to  request  the  favour  you  would  send  me  the  net 
proceeds  in  sweetmeats  and  citron  water,  your  compli 
ance  with  which  will  stop  me  from  giving  some  of  my 
friends  the  trouble  of  calling  you  to  an  account  there.  I 
shall  be  glad  to  know  if  Captain  Allen  did  not  leave 
a  silver  watch  and  some  fish,  belonging  to  a  servant  of 
mine,  with  some  person  of  your  island,  and  with  who? 
I  expect  your  speedy  answer. ' ' 

As  Mr.  Brown,  the  biographer  of  the  family,  puts  it, 
4 1  While  giving  a  pound  with  one  hand,  he  was  holding 
the  other  for  a  penny  that  was  j  ustly  his. ' '  Some  branches 
of  his  business,  although  endorsed  by  the  trade  and  so 
ciety  of  his  time  as  perfectly  legitimate,  would  be  found 
wanting  if  weighed  in  the  balance  of  modern  commercial 
integrity — from  which  we  may  see  that,  after  all,  the 
standards  have  been  raised  instead  of  lowered,  as  is  often 
intimated  by  those  pessimistically  inclined.  Trading  with 
so  many  ports,  he  received  all  kinds  of  merchandise, 
wines  and  other  liquors  seeming  to  predominate,  while 
occasionally  a  negro  slave  was  consigned  to  him.  He 
lived  up  to  his  conscience,  however,  for  he  writes  to  one 
correspondent :  "  I  would  have  you  know  that  I  am  not 

Slave  Trade 

The  Jolly 


so  fond  of  a  commission  as  to  go  a  begging  for  it,  or 
to  do  any  base  thing  to  attain  it.  I  bless  God  I  have 
fortune  enough  to  support  myself  without  doing  any 
base  action."  The  products  of  the  fisheries,  with  to 
bacco,  tar  and  staves,  made  up  the  burden  of  his  out 
going  cargoes.  He  built  sailing  vessels  for  his  own  trade 
and  for  others,  and  in  addition  to  his  trade  with  foreign 
ports  he  carried  on  an  extensive  commerce  with  New 
York  and  Philadelphia.  The  whole  commercial  world 
rated  Peter  Faneuil  as  a  responsible  merchant,  and  he 
never  wanted  for  business. 

The  slave  trade  was  then  not  disreputable,  and  Peter 
Faneuil,  like  his  contemporaries,  was  often  found  en 
gaged  in  it.  "The  merchants  of  Boston  quoted  negroes 
like  any  other  merchandise  demanded  by  their  cor 
respondents."  He  also  did  not  think  it  wrong  on  occa 
sion  to  evade  the  duties  of  the  custom-house,  though  he 
was  honest  in  his  declaration,  "I  value  my  character 
more  than  all  the  money  on  earth."  He  simply  shared 
what  may  be  called  a  common  commercial  conscience  of 
the  times,  which  ever  counted  government  as  a  lawful 
prey,  and  accounted  smuggling  as  skillful  rather  than 

Peter  Faneuil  became  known  in  his  circle  of  intimates 
as  the  "  Jolly  Bachelor,"  which  name  he  gave  to  one  of 
his  ships.  His  sister  Mary  Anne  looked  out  for  the  care 
of  the  household  and  presided  with  grace  over  his  estab 
lishment.  It  is  certain,  however,  that  he  had  his  love 
affair,  and  that  if  a  certain  Miss  Mary  Jekyll  had  not  ac 
cepted  a  Mr.  Eichard  Saltonstall  instead,  she  might  have 
found  a  husband  in  Mr.  Peter  Faneuil.  After  this  break 
in  his  desire  for  a  single  life,  he  had  no  second,  so  far  as 
is  known,  and  his  sister  remained  mistress  of  the  fine 
mansion  and  generally  desirable  situation. 


With  all  his  love  of  display  and  good  living,  Peter 


Faueuil  was  a  public-spirited  citizen.  While  engrossed 
in  the  cares  of  extensive  business,  he  had  vital  inter-  Faneuii  Haii 
est  in  the  welfare  of  his  neighbours  and  friends  and 
in  the  future  good  of  the  town  of  Boston.  From  his  own 
experience  he  realized  the  disadvantages  under  which 
trade  was  conducted  without  a  local  market.  He  desired 
improvement  in  this  direction,  and  was  finally  led  to  test 
the  public  sentiment,  which  had  been  strangely  an 
tagonistic  to  the  establishment  of  a  public  market,  by 
making  a  proposition  which  is  set  forth  in  a  petition, 
sent  to  the  selectmen  with  the  signatures  of  three  hundred 
and  forty  prominent  citizens  attached.  The  petition  de 
clared  that  Peter  Faneuii,  Esq. ,  i  i  hath  been  generously 
pleased  to  offer  at  his  own  cost  and  charge  to  erect  and 
build  a  noble  and  complete  structure  or  edifice  to  be  im 
proved  for  a  market,  for  the  sole  use,  benefit  and  ad 
vantage  of  the  town,  provided  that  the  town  of  Boston 
would  pass  a  vote  for  that  purpose,  and  lay  the  same  un 
der  such  proper  regulations  as  shall  be  thought  necessary, 
and  constantly  support  it  for  the  said  use."  So  the  war 
rant  for  the  town  meeting  was  posted,  and  the  matter  was 
discussed  pro  and  con,  for  there  was  a  great  division 
of  opinion.  There  were  seven  hundred  and  twenty- 
sev^en  ballots  cast,  and  the  yeas  won  by  only  seven  votes. 
Thus  near  did  Boston  come  to  losing  Faneuii  Hall  and 
the  "cradle  of  liberty."  But  Peter  Faneuii' s  plans  in-  TheCradieof 
eluded  a  public  meeting  hall  in  addition  to  a  market,  ] 
and  it  was  due  to  him  that  the  people  had  a  forum.  In 
August,  1742,  after  two  years  spent  upon  the  work,  the 
selectmen  were  informed  that  the  market  was  finished, 
and  on  September  10,  the  keys  were  delivered  to  the  city 
authorities.  There  had  been  a  great  change  in  public 
opinion,  and  now  the  citizens  unanimously  voted  to  "  ac 
cept  this  most  generous  and  noble  benefaction  for  the  use 
and  intention  they  are  designed  for." 

The  name  came  from  no  initiative  of  Peter  Faneuii,  but  source  of  the 
from  an  outside  source.     The  records  show  that  it  was  Name 


voted,  on  motion  of  Thomas  Hutchinson,  later  royal 
governor,  "that  in  testimony  of  the  town's  gratitude  to 
the  said  Peter  Faneuil,  Esq.,  and  to  perpetuate  his  memory, 
the  hall  over  the  market  place  be  named  Faneuil  Hall." 
In  response  Mr.  Faneuil  said,  l  i  I  hope  what  I  have  done 
will  be  for  the  service  of  the  whole  country."  Little  did 
he  realize  how  true  a  prophecy  his  words  were.  And  in 
this  way  this  French  Protestant,  whose  father  came  to 
America  as  a  refugee  on  account  of  his  religious  convic 
tions,  wrote  his  name  indelibly  on  the  pages  of  American 
history.  By  vote  his  picture  was  drawn  at  full  length  at 
the  expense  of  the  town,  and  placed  in  the  hall ;  and  the 
Faneuil  coat-of-arms,  so  much  prized  by  the  merchant, 
was  carved  and  gilded  by  Moses  Deshon,  bought  by  the 
town  and  likewise  set  up  in  the  hall.  The  selectmen  im 
mediately  began  to  meet  in  the  new  and  more  comfortable 
quarters  provided  for  them,  and  selected  one  of  their 
number  to  purchase  i '  two  pairs  of  brass  candlesticks  with 
steel  snuffers,  and  a  poker  for  the  town's  use."  The 
house  given  by  Peter  Faneuil  was  regarded  as  the  greatest 
munificence  the  town  of  Boston  had  received.  It  was 
built  of  brick,  two  stories  high,  and  in  comparison  with 
other  buildings  in  the  vicinity  of  Dock  Square  presented 
a  commanding  appearance.  With  the  exception  of  the 
old  State  House,  all  the  buildings  that  surrounded  Faneuil 
Hall  have  been  replaced.  But  Faneuil  Hall  "  stands  and 
will  remain  as  long  as  the  power  of  patriotic  citizens  can 
retain  it.  The  force  of  sentiment  is  seen  in  its  preserva 
tion  ;  and  many  generations  yet  unborn  will  early  learn  to 
cherish  this  New  England  forum."  The  power  of  the 
sentiment  of  religion  that  led  the  Huguenots  to  America 
is  akin  to  the  sentiment  of  patriotism  that  made  them  of 
so  much  good  to  the  new  world. 

As  for  the  history  of  Faneuil  Hall,  it  can  only  be  said 
here  that  it  was  burned  in  the  destructive  fire  of  January 
13,  1761 ;  was  rebuilt  by  money  secured  by  a  lottery,  the 
tickets  being  signed  by  John  Hancock  ;  was  enlarged  and 


much  altered  in  appearance  in  1805-6  under  direction  of 
Charles  Bulimch,  who  designed  the  State  House  on 
Beacon  Hill ;  and  in  1898  was  practically  rebuilt  with 
steel  walls,  though  the  Bulfinch  appearance  was  retained 
outside  and  within.  While  only  a  small  portion  of  the 
original  hall  given  by  Peter  Faneuil  remains,  it  is  still 
Faneuil  Hall,  with  all  its  sacred  associations.  In  the 
words  of  Lafayette,  the  great  Frenchman  who  did  so 
much  for  America  in  a  critical  period,  and  whose  sympa 
thies  were  with  the  Huguenots,  "May  Faneuil  Hall  ever  words  of 


stand,  a  monument  to  teach  the  world  that  resistance  to 
oppression  is  a  duty,  and  will  under  true  republican  in 
stitutions  become  a  blessing.'7 

Peter  Faneuil  died  the  next  year  after  his  market  and 
hall  had  been  given  to  Boston,  March  3,  1743.  The  Death  1743 
market  bell  was  tolled  from  one  o'clock  until  the  funeral 
was  over,  by  town  order,  and  every  honour  was  paid  to 
his  memory.  According  to  the  obituary  in  the  News 
Letter,  u  he  was  a  most  generous  spirit,  whose  hospitality 
to  all  and  secret  unbounded  charity  to  the  poor,  made  his 
life  a  public  blessing,  and  his  death  a  general  loss  to,  and 
universally  regretted  by,  the  inhabitants  ;  the  most  public- 
spirited  man,  in  all  regards,  that  ever  yet  appeared  on  the 
northern  continent  of  America."  In  addition  to  a  great  Man  of  Public 
funeral  there  was  a  public  memorial  service.  From  Will 
iam  Nadir's  Almanac,  under  date  of  March  10, 1743,  this 
extract  is  taken  :  "Thursday  10,  buried  Peter  Faueuil, 
Esq.,  in  the  43d  year  of  age,  a  fat,  corpulent,  brown, 
squat  man,  hip  short,  lame  from  childhood,  a  very  large 
funeral  went  around  ye  Town  house  ;  gave  us  gloves  at  ye 
funeral,  but  sent  ye  gloves  on  11  day,  his  Coffin  covered 
with  black  velvet,  &  plated  with  yellow  plates." 

John  Lovell,  master  of  the  Boston  Latin  School,  de 
livered  the  funeral  oration  at  the  memorial  service  held  in 
Faneuil  Hall,  and  this  was  the  beginning  of  such  services 


there.  A  single  quotation  must  suffice  :  "It  was  to  him 
the  highest  enjoyment  of  riches,  to  relieve  the  wants  of 
the  needy,  from  which  he  was  himself  exempted,  to  see 
mankind  rejoicing  in  the  fruits  of  his  bounty,  and  to  feel 
that  divine  satisfaction  which  results  from  communicat 
ing  happiness  to  others.  His  alms  flowed  like  a  fruitful 
river,  that  diffuses  its  streams  through  a  whole  country. 
He  fed  the  hungry,  and  he  cloathed  the  naked,  he  com 
forted  the  fatherless  and  the  widows  in  their  afliction, 
and  his  bounties  visited  the  prisoner.  So  that  Almighty 
God  in  giving  riches  to  this  man,  seems  to  have  scattered 
blessings  all  abroad  among  the  people." 

From  this  common  testimony  as  to  his  charity,  he  must 
have  been  entitled  to  large  praise  as  a  benefactor  of  the 
needy.  He  failed  to  make  a  will,  and  the  estate  which 
his  uncle  expressly  withheld  from  his  brother  Benjamin 
now  came  into  the  custody  of  that  individual,  and  a  good 
share  of  it  into  his  possession.  The  estate  was  soon  scat 
tered.  The  Faneuils  during  the  Revolutionary  days  were 
among  the  Tories,  and  fled  either  to  England  or  Nova 
Scotia.  The  Faneuil  tomb  is  in  the  westerly  corner  of  the 
Granary  Burying  Ground.  After  the  Revolution,  the 
family  played  an  unimportant  part  in  the  life  of  Boston  ; 
but  Andrew  and  Peter  Faneuil  will  ever  be  among  the 
noted  names  of  the  Huguenot  settlers  in  the  new  world. 
They  represented  in  many  respects  the  best  traits  of  the 
Huguenot  character,  and  show  what  splendid  material 
France  lost  through  her  misguided  policy. 



JAMES  BOWDOIN,  elder  son  of  Pierre  Baudouin  the 
emigrant,  was  born  in  1676.     He  became  a  highly  l676 
successful   Boston  merchant,  was  for  a  number  of 
years  a  member  of  the  Massachusetts  council,  and  when 
he  died,  in  1747,  was  accounted  to  have  left  the  largest 
estate  ever  owned  by  any  citizen  of  the  province. 

His  son,  James,  was  born  in  Boston  in  1727  and  was  james  Bow- 
graduated  from  Harvard  in  1745.  By  the  death  of  his  doin  Scientist 
father  two  years  later  he  came  into  possession  of  the  great 
estate,  and  for  the  next  few  years  devoted  himself  to  the 
care  of  his  property  and  to  scientific  and  literary  studies. 
When  he  was  twenty-four  years  old  he  paid  a  visit  to 
Benjamin  Franklin,  with  whom  he  afterwards  corre 
sponded  to  such  good  purpose  that  Franklin  read  his  let 
ters  before  the  Eoyal  Society  of  London.  It  is  interest 
ing  to  note  that  in  one  of  these  letters  Bowdoin  suggested 
the  theory,  now  generally  accepted,  that  under  certain 
conditions  the  phosphorescence  of  the  sea  is  due  to  the 
presence  of  minute  animals.  During  his  entire  life  he 
was  greatly  interested  in  natural  science,  and  it  is  highly 
probable  that  he  would  have  made  still  more  valuable 
contributions  to  knowledge  if  patriotism  and  ill  health 
had  not  cut  short  his  studies.  But  although  suffering 
from  consumption  for  many  years,  he  nevertheless  threw 
himself  with  ardour  into  the  turbulent  political  life  of  the 

His  public  career  began  with  his  election  to  the  Massa- 





Defender  of 

Convention  of 


chusetts  General  Court  when  he  was  twenty-six  years  old. 
His  ability  soon  asserted  itself  and  three  years  later  he 
was  made  a  member  of  the  council.  Here  he  distinguished 
himself  by  his  firm  opposition  to  the  royal  governor  and 
to  the  encroachments  of  the  crown  upon  the  popular 
liberty  of  the  colony.  His  popularity  with  the  people 
became  thus  solidly  intrenched,  while  the  royal  officers 
both  hated  and  feared  him.  In  1769  he  was  again  chosen 
as  one  of  the  councillors  and  was  promptly  negatived  by 
Governor  Bernard.  This  aroused  the  resentment  of  the 
Bostonians,  and  they  showed  their  feeling  by  immediately 
electing  him  to  the  assembly  with  an  overwhelming 
majority.  Sickness  alone  prevented  him  from  attending 
the  Continental  Congress  to  which  he  was  delegated  in 
1774,  but  by  the  end  of  the  next  year  he  was  so  far  re 
covered  as  to  be  able  to  act  as  president  of  the  council. 
The  constitutional  convention  which  assembled  in  1779 
chose  him  for  its  presiding  officer,  and  he  took  prominent 
part  in  shaping  the  action  of  that  body.  Shortly  after 
his  election  as  governor  of  the  state  in  1785,  he  was  con 
fronted  by  a  difficult  problem  in  the  shape  of  Shay's  Ee- 
bellion.  His  firmness  and  decisive  action  quelled  the 
rapidly  growing  insurrection  without  resort  to  blood 
shed,  though,  in  taking  his  prompt  measures  he  was  com 
pelled  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  militia  largely  out  of  his 
own  pocket.  In  the  words  of  President  Timothy  Dwight, 
"This  measure  preserved  the  State,  perhaps  the  Union, 
and  deserved  for  the  author  of  it  a  statue."  His  last 
public  service  was  as  a  member  of  the  convention  that 
adopted  the  federal  constitution  in  1788. 

Although  most  of  Governor  Bowdoin'  s  rapidly  decliniog 
energies  were  devoted  to  politics,  he  yet  found  time  to  aid 
and  further  many  charitable  and  scientific  enterprises. 
He  was  one  of  the  founders,  and  the  first  president,  of  the 
American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Letters  ;  and  willed  to 
the  society  his  valuable  library.  He  aided  in  establish 
ing  the  Massachusetts  Humane  Society.  For  many  years 


he  was  a  Trustee  and  Fellow  of  Harvard  College ;  and  Patron  of 
was  a  Fellow  of   the  Royal  Societies  of  London  and  college1" 
Edinburgh.      Bowdoiu   College  has  proved  a  splendid 
memorial  to  his  generosity  and  interest  in  the  public  wel 

His  son,  James,  born  in  Boston  in  1752,  was  graduated  Last  of 
from  Harvard,  travelled  extensively  abroad,  and  then  re 
turned  to  serve  in  the  assembly,  state  senate  and  state 
council.  He  was  a  delegate  to  the  constitutional  conven 
tion,  and  in  1804  was  appointed  minister  to  Spain.  He 
was  a  man  of  fine  tastes  and  scholarship  and  of  an  ardent 
disposition  which  was  constantly  thwarted  by  physical 
weakness.  At  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution  he  had  en 
listed,  and  it  was  the  keenest  regret  of  his  life  that  sick 
ness  had  prevented  him  from  serving.  He  was  a  gener 
ous  patron  of  Bowdoin  College,  giving  it  six  thousand  Bequests  to 

f  ,        ,          ,  ..  &  ,.  ...     the  College 

acres  of  land,  a  large  sum  of  money,  and  bequeathing  it 
his  library  and  collections  of  painting  and  scientific  ap 
paratus.  He  died  without  issue  and  "with  him  the 
name  of  Bowdoin  passed  away  from  the  annals  of  New 

The  excellent  Huguenot  blood  of  the  Bowdoins  persists, 
however,  in  the  descendants  of  Governor  Thomas  L.  Win- 
throp,  who  married  Elizabeth  Temple,  granddaughter  of 
Gov.  James  Bowdoin.  The  late  Robert  C.  Winthrop, 
lawyer  and  statesman,  was  thus  a  great-grandson  of  James 


The  sole  ancestor  of  the  Dana  family  in  America  was  The  pana 
Richard  Dana,  who  came  to  Cambridge,  Mass.,  in  1640.    Familyl6*° 
The  only  record  of  the  name  in  England  is  that  of  the 
Rev.  Edmund  Dana,   a  great-grandson  of  Richard,  who 
went  to  England  from  America  in  1761.     According  to 
the   traditions  of  the  family,    Richard's  father  was  a 
Huguenot  who  fled  from  France  and  settled  in  England 
about  1629.     One  of  Richard's  descendants,  Judah  Dana, 
is  said  to  have  had  a  silver  cup  which  had  once  been 


Richard  Dana 

Resisting  the 
Stamp  Act 

Francis  1743 

Public  Spirit 
and  Service 

among  the  belongings  which  the  refugee  had  carried  with 
him  out  of  France.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  name 
does  not  occur  in  England,  and  that  no  documentary 
proof  has  come  to  light,  the  family  tradition  must  be  ac 

Among  Eichard  Dana's  numerous  descendants  there 
have  been  many  men  of  eminence.  It  will  be  possible  to 
mention  only  a  few  of  them  here.  Eichard  Dana,  grand 
son  of  the  emigrant,  was  born  in  Cambridge  in  1699.  He 
was  graduated  from  Harvard  in  1718  and  practiced  law 
in  Boston,  becoming  one  of  the  two  acknowledged  leaders 
of  the  bar  in  that  city.  He  was  a  staunch  patriot  and 
took  a  prominent  part  in  the  opposition  to  British  oppres 
sion.  All  the  offices  which  lay  in  the  people's  gift  were 
his  if  he  so  desired,  but  he  wished  no  titles.  Between  the 
years  1763  and  1772  he  called  and  presided  over  many 
patriotic  meetings  of  Bostonians.  He  was  one  of  the  first 
members  of  the  Sons  of  Liberty,  and  in  1765  acted  as 
chairman  of  the  citizen  committee  which  devised  ways 
and  means  to  thwart  the  Stamp  Act.  His  death  in  1772 
was  felt  to  be  a  distinct  loss  by  all  the  patriots  of  Massa 

His  son,  Francis,  born  in  1743,  devoted  himself  to  the 
cause  of  colonial  rights.  He  was  a  member  of  the  first 
Provincial  Congress  of  Massachusetts.  In  1775  he  went 
to  England  with  confidential  letters  bearing  on  the  state 
of  feeling  in  America,  in  the  hope  of  persuading  Parlia 
ment  to  retract.  A.  year  later  he  was  elected  to  the  ex 
ecutive  council  "of  the  colony,  and  was  also  sent  to  the 
Continental  Congress,  where  he  became  chairman  of  the 
committee  on  the  reorganization  of  the  army.  He  was 
one  of  the  embassy  which  negotiated  for  peace  in  1779. 
In  1780  he  was  sent  as  minister  to  Eussia,  remaining  there 
in  an  endeavour  to  get  Eussia  to  recognize  the  independ 
ence  of  the  United  States — a  task  in  which  he  was  unsuc 
cessful.  After  further  service  in  the  Continental  Congress 
he  became  a  justice  in  the  Supreme  Court  of  Massa- 


chusetts,  and  was  made  chief  justice  in  1791,  an  office 
which  he  held  until  his  death,  fifteen  years  later. 

His    son,  Eichard  Henry  Dana,  was  for  many  years 
closely  connected  with  American  literature.     He  was  one  Richard 
of  the  founders  of  the  North  American  Review,  and  pub-   Author 
lished  poems,  stories  and  essays  which  made  him  one  of 
the  most  eminent  writers  of  his  day.     His  son,  Eichard 
Henry,  Jr. ,  will  always  be  remembered  as  the  author  of 
that  American  classic,  "  Two  Years  Before  the  Mast." 

James  Dana,  born  in  1735,  was  a  famous  Congrega-  Eminent  sons 
tional  minister.  His  oldest  sou,  Samuel  W.,  was  a 
congressman  for  thirteen  years  and  a  senator  for  eleven. 
Joseph  Dana,  a  grandson  of  the  emigrant,  was  also  a 
well-known  Congregational  preacher,  retaining  his  pas 
torate  at  Ipswich  for  sixty-two  years.  His  grandson, 
Israel  T.,  was  the  leading  surgeon  of  Maine  and  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Maine  General  Hospital.  Judah  Dana 
was  senator  from  Maine  in  1836,  and  his  son,  John  Win 
chester,  was  governor  of  that  State  in  1847.  Samuel  L. 
Dana  was  prominently  identified  with  the  progress  of 
cotton  manufacturing  in  New  England,  making  many  im 
provements  in  the  methods  of  printing,  bleaching,  etc. 
He  also  contributed  to  the  growth  and  knowledge  of 
scientific  agriculture.  Charles  A.  Dana  was  for  many 
years  the  editor  of  the  New  York  Sun,  making  a  record  in 
American  journalism  equalled  only  by  Horace  Greeley's. 
The  works  of  James  Dwight  Dana,  professor  of  miner 
alogy  at  Yale  for  forty-five  years,  are  known  by  every 
geologist  throughout  the  civilized  world. 

This  remarkable  family,  with  its  wide  reaching  in 
fluence  in  professional  lines,  in  public  life,  in  education 
and  religion  is  a  signal  witness  to  the  value  of  the 
Huguenot  contribution  to  American  life. 


About  the  time  that  the  companies  of  destitute  refugees 


Men  of  Estates  were  coming  into  Boston  and  Salem,  other  and  more 
fortunate  Huguenots  made  their  way  to  New  England. 
"  Men  of  estates,"  as  they  were  referred  to  in  Sewall's 
diary,  who  had  been  able  to  save  something  from  the 
wreck  of  their  fortunes  in  France,  began  to  seek  new 
homes  for  themselves  in  the  colonies.  It  has  been  es 
timated  that  one  hundred  and  fifty  families  came  to  New 
England  during  the  last  decade  of  the  seventeenth  cen 
tury.  Such  an  estimate  only  approximates  the  real 
number,  for  the  names  of  many  families  were  never 
entered  on  any  records  that  are  accessible  to  the  historian, 
and  even  of  those  whose  names  were  recorded  many 
have  always  been  regarded  as  of  English  origin,  owing  to 
the  fact  that  their  French  patronymics  had  become 
anglicized  beyond  all  hope  of  recognition. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  some  of  the  more  im 
portant  refugees  who  were  settled  in  and  near  Boston  by 
the  end  of  the  century  : 

Andrew  Sigourney,  who  became  the  ancestor  of  a  well- 
known  New  England  family,  was  a  citizen  of  La  Eochelle 
at  the  time  of  the  Eevocation.  When  the  time  came  for 
a  squad  of  dragoons  to  be  quartered  in  his  house  Sigour 
ney  and  his  wife,  Charlotte  Pairan,  decided  to  hold  to 
their  faith  and  make  their  escape  from  France.  To  this 
end  they  laid  their  plans  carefully,  and  by  making  use  of 
several  ingenious  devices  they  were  able  to  get  a  portion 
of  their  property  on  board  a  friendly  vessel  then  lying  in 
the  harbour.  The  day  set  for  their  attempt  to  escape  was 
a  holiday  which  they  felt  sure  the  soldiers  would  wish  to 
celebrate.  Accordingly  they  made  ready  a  tempting 
feast,  and  while  the  unsuspecting  troopers  were  in  the 
middle  of  their  celebration,  the  family  stole  unobserved 
from  the  house  and  got  aboard  the  ship,  in  which  they 
were  carried  safely  to  England.  From  England  they 
came  to  Boston  in  the  summer  of  1686. 

Daniel  Johonnot,  nephew  of  Andrew  Sigourney,  was  a 
member  of  the  Oxford  settlement  until  1696,  when  he  came 


Escape  from 



to  Boston  and  set  up  a  distillery.  In  the  year  1700  he 
married  his  cousin,  Suzanne  Sigourney,  in  the  Old  South 
Church.  His  business,  which  was  a  prosperous  one,  was 
carried  on  successively  by  his  son  Andrew  and  grandson 
of  the  same  name. 

Anthony  Olivier  (Oliver)  was  a  native  of  Niort,  in 
Poitou.  He  settled  in  Boston  shortly  after  the  Revoca 
tion  and  engaged  in  the  chandlery  trade.  His  daughter, 
Susanna,  married  Andrew  Johounot,  and  the  name  is 
still  found  in  Boston  to-day  in  the  family  of  George  Stuart 
Johonnot  Oliver. 

Peter  Chardon  became  one  of  the  richest  merchants  in 
the  town.  At  the  time  of  the  Revocation  he  was  a  banker 
in  Paris.  He  fled  to  England  and  was  naturalized  in 
1687,  coming  to  America  shortly  afterwards.  His  house, 
a  handsome  mansion  for  that  day,  stood  for  many  years 
at  the  corner  of  the  street  which  was  named  in  his  honour. 
His  son  Peter,  the  last  of  the  family,  died  in  the  West 
Indies  in  1766.  Of  him  John  Adams  spoke  as  being  one 
of  the  few  young  men  of  Boston  who  was  on  * i  the  direct- 
est  road  to  superiority." 

Paix  Cazneau  (Casuo)  was  one  of  the  Oxford  settlers,  cazneau 
Returning  to  Boston,  he  went  into  business  as  a  felt- 
maker  and  built  up  a  fortune.  He  was  active  in  trade 
and  an  influential  citizen  as  late  as  the  year  1738.  He 
had  a  son  Isaac  and  a  daughter  who  married  a  refugee 
named  Adam  de  Chezeau. 

John  Chabot  was  probably  from  Bergerac,  in  Guienne.  chabot 
His  name  is  mentioned  in  1700  as  among  the  leading 
members  of  the  French  Church,  who  are  planning  soon  to 
leave  Boston.  From  Boston  he  undoubtedly  went  to  New 
York,  for  it  is  recorded  that  in  1711  a  John  Chabot  sub 
scribed  to  the  building  of  Trinity  Church  steeple. 

Peter  Canton,  one  of  the  Oxford  men,  was  in  Boston  as  canton 
early  as  1692  making  rosin  in  partnership  with  Gabriel 

Anthony  LeBlond  (Blond),  a  refugee  from  Normandy, 







was  a  prosperous  chandler  in  Boston  before  the  end  of  the 
century.  His  brother  James  must  have  been  established 
in  the  town  before  the  year  1690,  for  in  that  year  his 
wife  Ann  joined  Cotton  Mather's  Church.  James 
was  the  father  of  four  sons,  James,  Peter,  Gabriel  and 
Alexander,  and  three  daughters,  Phillippa,  Ann  and 

John  Eawlings  probably  came  to  Boston  as  early  as 
1684.  In  1683  he  was  one  of  the  "  Euliug  Elders  "  of  the 
French  Church  in  Southampton,  England.  His  name  has 
come  down  to  us  as  the  honoured  i  t  French  schoolmaster 
in  Boston  "  for  a  long  period  of  years,  and  he  was  a  man 
of  marked  piety  and  uprightness  of  life.  In  1696  his 
name  was  recorded  as  one  of  the  elders  of  the  French 

Jean  Beauchamp  was  the  son  of  a  Parisian  lawyer  who 
fled  to  England  and  died  there  in  1688.  Jean  came  to 
Boston  the  year  previous  to  his  father's  death.  After  the 
failure  of  the  Narragansett  settlement  he  became  a  pros 
perous  leather  dresser  and  owned  a  substantial  house  on 
Washington  Street.  In  1720  he  removed  to  Hartford, 
Connecticut,  where  one  of  his  daughters  married  Allan 
McLean,  another  married  Thomas  Elmer,  a  third  became 
the  wife  of  Jean  Chenevard,  while  the  fourth  married  into 
the  Laurens  (Lawrence)  family. 

Louis  Allaire,  of  La  Eochelle,  a  nephew  of  Gabriel 
Bernon,  was  the  founder  of  the  firm  of  "  Louis  Allaire 
and  Company,"  which  carried  on  an  extensive  trade  with 
southern  ports.  A  descendant  settled  in  New  York  and 
founded  the  Allaire  Iron  Works ;  he  was  philanthropic 
and  established  a  model  working  men's  village  in  New 
Jersey,  the  first  settlement  of  its  kind.  The  enterprise 
was  not  financially  successful,  but  Allaire,  the  employer, 
was  recognized  as  a  benefactor. 

Stephen  Boutineau,  a  lawyer  from  La  Eochelle,  became 
one  of  the  leading  French  citizens  of  Boston.  He  settled 
first  in  Casco,  Maine  (now  Portland),  and  came  to  Boston 


in  1690.     In  1708  he  married  Mary  Baudouin,  who  bore 
to  him  six  sons  and  four  daughters. 

A  further  list  of  the  refugees  includes  the  names  of 
Abraham  Tourtellot,  who  married  Marie  Bernon ;  Peter 
Siguac,  who  manufactured  hats  and  carried  on  a  trade  in 
peltries  from  Newfoundland ;  John  Tartarien,  of  Saint- 
onge  ;  David  Basset,  mariner  and  trader,  one  of  the  first 
refugees  to  make  Boston  his  home  ;  Dr.  Peter  Basset,  of 
Marennes ;  Philip  Barger,  who  died  in  1702,  leaving  a  Family 
son  Philip  ;  William  Barbut,  of  Languedoc,  who  was  ad 
mitted  into  Massachusetts  in  1691,  and  soon  afterwards 
became  an  elder  in  the  church  ;  Francis  Legare,  of  Lyons, 
who  practiced  the  goldsmith's  trade,  bought  an  estate  in 
Braintree,  and  founded  a  family  of  whom  the  Hon.  Hugh 
Swintou  Legare  was  an  able  representative ;  Thomas 
Moussett,  who  owned  a  tract  of  land  in  Boxbury  in  1698 
and  was  an  elder  in  the  church ;  Isaac  Biscon,  a  native 
of  the  island  of  Oleron  ;  Francis  Bridon  (Bredon,  Breedon) 
who  fled  from  the  Port  des  Barques  in  1681 ;  Stephen 
Bobineau,  whose  daughter  Mary  married  Daniel  Ayrault 
in  1703 ;  Abraham  Sauvage  (Savage  from  St.  Algis),  in 
Picardy ;  James  Montier,  from  Bouen ;  Jean  Maillet, 
Joseph  Boy,  Bastian  Gazeau,  Deblois  of  Saintonge,  Bene" 
Grignon,  Louis  and  Henri  Guiouueau,  Louis  Boucher, 
Jean  Girote  and  Jean  Petel. 


Boston  as 
Seen  by  a 

The  Ship 


ONE  of  the  best  descriptions  of  Boston  and  its 
surrounding  settlements  in  these  early  days  is  to 
be  found  in  the  "  Narrative  of  a  French  Protes 
tant  Refugee  in  Boston."  Some  extracts  from  that  very 
valuable  document  will  be  of  interest  here,  as  they  show 
the  conditions  by  which  the  Huguenot  settlers  were  sur 
rounded,  and  give  a  hint  as  to  the  kind  of  life  which  went 
on  in  Boston  prior  to  the  opening  of  the  eighteenth  cen 
tury.  As  will  be  gathered  from  the  first  selection,  the 
narrative  was  written  as  a  guide  to  refugees  in  London 
who  contemplated  emigrating  to  America.  Says  the 
author : 

1 l  First,  in  order  to  come  to  this  country,  it  is  necessary 
to  embark  at  London,  from  which  place  a  ship  sails  about 
once  a  month.  The  most  favourable  time  to  embark  is 
the  latter  part  of  March,  or  the  end  of  August  and  the 
beginning  of  September.  These  are  the  proper  seasons ; 
all  the  more  because  the  weather  is  then  neither  too  hot 
nor  too  cold,  and  one  does  not  experience  the  dead  calms 
which  occur  frequently  in  summer,  and  on  account  of 
which  vessels  take  four  months  to  cross  hither :  besides 
which,  the  heat  often  produces  sickness  on  shipboard. 
If  one  will  provide  himself  with  suitable  refreshments  of 
all  kinds,  he  will  not  have  to  endure  any  discomfort. 
With  regard  to  danger,  one  must  be  particular  to  take 
passage  on  a  good  vessel,  well  equipped  with  men  and 
with  cannon,  and  well  provided  with  an  unfailing  supply 
of  bread  and  water. 

i  i  There  is  risk  only  in  approaching  land,  and  on  the 
sand  banks  which  one  finds.  (After  stating  that  l  Cap 



Coot '  was  sighted  some  twenty  leagues  south  of  Boston, 
he  continues)  :  On  the  following  day  we  reached  Boston,  Boston 
after  meeting  a  multitude  of  exceedingly  pretty  islands  in 
front  of  Boston,  most  of  them  cultivated,  and  inhabited 
by  peasants,  and  presenting  a  very  pleasing  appearance. 
Boston  is  situated  within  a  bay  three  or  four  leagues  in 
circumference,  and  shut  in  by  these  islands.  Here  ships 
ride  in  safety,  in  all  kinds  of  weather.  The  town  is  built 
upon  the  slope  of  a  little  hill,  and  is  about  as  large  as  La 
Eochelle.  With  the  surrounding  land  it  measures  not 
more  than  three  miles  around,  for  it  is  almost  an  island. 
It  would  only  be  necessary  to  cut  through  the  sand  about 
three  hundred  paces,  and  in  less  than  twice  twenty -four 
hours  Boston  would  be  made  an  island,  with  the  sea  beat 
ing  upon  it  on  every  side.  The  town  consists  almost  en-  A  wooden 
tirely  of  houses  built  of  wood  :  but  since  the  ravages  made 
by  fires,  it  is  no  longer  allowed  to  build  of  wood,  and 
several  very  handsome  houses  of  brick  are  at  present  go 
ing  up.  .  .  ,  .  There  is  no  other  religion  here  than  the 
Presbyterian,  Anglican,  the  Anabaptist,  and  our  own.  varieties  of 
We  have  no  Papists,  at  least  none  that  are  known  to  us. 

1 '  One  may  bring  with  him  persons  bound  to  service,  of 
whatever  calling  ;  they  are  indispensable  in  order  to  the 
cultivation  of  the  ground.  One  may  also  hold  negroes,  Negro 
male  and  female  ;  there  is  not  a  house  in  Boston,  however 
small  the  means  of  the  family,  that  has  not  one  or  two. 
Some  have  five  or  six,  and  all  earn  well  their  living.  The 
savages  are  employed,  for  the  tilling  of  the  lands,  at  a 
shilling  and  a  half,  or  eighteen  pence  per  day,  with  their 
board.  .  .  .  Negroes  cost  from  twenty  to  forty  pis 
toles,  according  to  their  skill  or  vigour.  There  is  no 
danger  that  they,  or  even  the  bond -servants  will  leave 
you,  for  so  soon  as  one  is  missing  from  the  town,  it  is  only 
necessary  to  give  notice  of  the  fact  to  the  savages,  and 
describe  the  person  to  them,  promising  them  some  re 
ward,  and  the  man  is  soon  found.  But  it  seldom  hap 
pens  that  they  leave  you,  for  they  would  not  know  whither 


to  go,  few  roads  having  been  opened,  and  those  that  have 
been  opened  leading  to  English  towns  or  villages,  which, 
upon  your  writing  to  them,  would  forthwith  send  back 
your  people  to  you. 

High  wages  "  Houses  of  brick  and  of  wood  can  be  built  cheaply,  as 
it  regards  the  materials,  for  as  to  manual  labour  that  is 
very  dear ;  a  man  could  scarcely  be  induced  to  work  for 
less  than  twenty-four  pence  per  day  and  his  board.  .  .  . 
The  rivers  abound  with  fish,  and  we  have  so  much,  both 
of  sea  and  river  fish,  that  no  account  is  made  of  it.  There 
are  persons  here  of  every  trade,  and  particularly  carpen 
ters  for  ship-building.  The  day  after  my  arrival,  I  wit- 

ship  Building  nessed  the  launching  of  a  vessel  of  three  hundred  tons, 
and  since  then,  two  others,  a  little  sinaller,  have  been 
launched.  This  town  carries  on  an  extensive  trade  with 
the  islands  of  America  and  with  Spain.  To  the  islands 
they  take  meal,  salt  beef,  salt  pork,  codfish,  staves,  salt 
salmon,  salt  mackerel,  onions,  and  oysters — a  great  quan 
tity  of  which  are  caught  here — preserved  with  salt  in 
barrels ;  and  upon  their  return  they  bring  sugar,  cotton - 
wood,  molasses,  indigo  and  other  freight.  As  for  the 
trade  with  Spain,  they  carry  thither  nothing  but  dry  fish, 
which  can  be  had  here  at  eight  to  twelve  shillings  per 
quintal,  according  to  the  quality.  Their  return  cargo 
consists  of  oils,  wine,  brandy  and  other  merchandise. 
.  .  .  I  came  in  season  to  see  a  prodigious  quantity  of 
apples,  of  which  they  make  cider  that  is  marvellous.  A 
barrel  costs  only  eight  shillings,  and  in  the  taverns  they 
sell  it  for  twopence  per  quart,  and  beer  for  two 

Good  opening  "  If  our  poor  refugee  brethren  who  understand  farming 
should  come  here,  they  could  not  fail  to  live  very  com 
fortably  and  gain  property ;  for  the  English  are  very 
lazy,  and  are  proficient  only  in  raising  their  Indian  corn 
and  cattle.  .  .  .  With  regard  to  wild  beasts,  we  have 
here  a  quantity  of  bears  and  wolves  in  great  numbers, 
who  commit  many  depredations  among  the  sheep,  when 


due  precautions  are  not  taken.  We  have  also  a  quantity 
of  rattlesnakes,  but  they  are  not  to  be  seen  as  yet. 

"The  English  who  inhabit  these  countries  are,  as  else- 
where,  good  and  bad ;  but  one  sees  more  of  the  latter 
than  of  the  former  class,  and  to  tell  it  to  you  in  a  few 
words,  there  are  all  kinds,  and  consequently  all  kinds  of 
life  and  manners.  It  is  not  that  strife  and  quarrels  occur 
among  them,  but  it  is  that  they  do  not  lead  a  good  life. 
There  are  some  that  practice  no  other  formality  of  mar 
riage  than  that  of  taking  each  other  by  the  hand ;  and 
they  live  together  peaceably  5  there  are  others,  sixty  years 
of  age,  who  have  not  yet  been  baptized  because  they  are 
not  members.  About  a  month  ago,  a  woman  forty-five 
years  of  age  was  baptized  in  our  church,  with  five  of  her 
children.  They  would  not  baptize  her  among  the  Pres 
byterians  because  she  had  not  become  a  member." 

It  will  not  do  to  place  too  much  reliance  upon  the 
writer's  remarks  as  to  the  moral  character  of  the  people. 
His  associations  were  evidently  not  of  the  best.  What 
he  says  about  looseness  of  marriage  ties  does  not  accord 
with  the  Puritan  strictness.  His  narrative  is  to  be  taken 
with  the  same  large  allowance  that  belongs  to  the  tourists 
who  spend  a  few  weeks  in  America  and  then  write  vol 
umes  of  description. 


The  Dresden 



[HE  visitor  to  the  Forest  Grove  Cemetery,  in  the 
village  of  Richmond,  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the 
Kennebec,  finds  a  reminder  of  the  refugee  set 
tlers  in  an  inscription  on  a  tombstone  :  "  Louis  Houde- 
lette  and  Mary  Cavalear,  his  Wife,  French  Huguenots." 
The  Maine  historians,  for  the  most  part,  have  failed  to 
give  credit  to  the  French  settlers,  either  affirming  that 
Dresden  was  settled  by  Germans,  or  passing  lightly  over 
the  French  part  of  the  record.^  But  later  researches  have 
shown  that  the  founders  of  Dresden  were  nearly  all 
French,  who  had  first  fled  to  Germany  after  the  Revoca 
tion,  and  had  thence  emigrated  to  the  new  world  in  com 
pany  with  a  few  German  families.  Dresden  was  settled 
by  these  people  in  1752,  and  in  many  instances  the  fami 
lies  still  retain  the  French  names,  with  such  changes  as 
time  and  new  environment  work  in  nomenclature. 

These  French  Protestants  belonged  to  the  Lutheran 
branch  of  the  Reformed  Church,  and  came  from  the  east 
ern  provinces  of  France.  Of  the  forty-six  French  and 
German  emigrants  who  left  Frankfort  in  1752,  twenty- 
eight  French  names  are  known  and  five  German,  so  that 
the  colony  was  preponderantly  French.  Among  the 
more  important  of  these  families  was  that  of  Charles 
Stephen  Houdelette,  the  father  of  Louis.  He  was  a  lace 
weaver,  and  represented  the  best  type  of  the  French 
skilled  artisan,  and  was  equally  prominent  in  the  civil 
and  spiritual  life  of  the  little  colony.  Some  of  his  de 
scendants  still  remain  in  Dresden,  while  others  are  scat 
tered  throughout  various  parts  of  the  country.  Henry 



Clay  Houdelette,  direct  descendant  of  Louis  Houdelette 
and  Mary  Cavalier,  was  commander  of  a  steamship  ply 
ing  between  San  Francisco  and  the  Sandwich  Islands. 
One  of  the  most  interesting  passages  in  his  career  was  the 
occasion  on  which  he  received  knighthood  at  the  hands  of 
the  potentate  of  that  group  of  islands. 

Another  family  was  that  of  Jean  Pochard,  weaver,  son  jean  Pochard 
of  the  Honourable  Nicholas  Pochard,  mayor  of  Anne-sur- 
1'eau  in  France.  In  May,  1751,  the  ministers  and  elders  A  "Char- 
of  the  church  at  Chenebie  gave  him  a  certificate  for  him 
self  and  family,  comprising  his  wife  and  four  sons,  set 
ting  forth  that  "they  and  their  children  have  lived  up  to 
the  present  time  in  a  Christian  manner,  professing  the 
holy  religion  according  to  the  Confession  of  Augsburg, 
having  committed  no  crime,  at  least  that  has  come  to  our 
knowledge."  The  mental  reservation  at  the  end  shows 
an  admirable  degree  of  caution  on  the  part  of  the  writers, 
to  say  the  least.  Jean  Pochard  with  his  family  sailed 
from  Eotterdam  to  Boston  on  the  ship  Priscilla  in  1751,  ship  Prisciiia 
and  reached  Frankfort  plantation,  the  first  township  or-  I751 
ganized  for  settlement  on  the  Kennebec  after  the  proprie 
tors  of  the  Kennebec  Purchase  came  into  possession,  in 
March  of  1752.  Tradition  says  they  tarried  awhile  at 
Fort  Eichmond,  from  fear  of  the  Indians.  Indeed,  an 
Indian  tragedy  on  Swan  Island  was  then  a  very  recent 
affair.  They  very  soon  built  for  themselves  log  houses  on 
the  banks  of  the  Eastern  Eiver,  the  sites  of  some  of  which 
are  still  distinctly  traceable.  In  1765,  John  Pochard  mort 
gaged  forty  acres  of  land  situated  on  Dresden  neck,  to 
William  Bowdoin,  of  Eoxbury,  in  trust,  to  secure  the 
owners  of  the  ship  Priscilla  the  sum  of  £27,  15s. ,  6d. ,  the 
amount  of  his  passage  money  from  Eotterdam  to  Boston  ; 
and  in  1773,  James  Bowdoin,  administrator  of  the  estate 
of  William,  discharged  that  mortgage.  We  can  gather 
from  this  kindly  action  how  ready  were  the  Bowdoins  to 
aid  their  fellow  countrymen,  and  we  may  be  sure  that 
Bowdoin  College  proceeded  from  the  same  trait  of  char- 



Asking  for  a 

Firm  but  not 

acter  in  the  Bowdoin  family.  The  name  Pochard  became 
corrupted  to  Pushard,  and  one  branch  of  the  family 
petitioned  the  legislature  to  have  their  name  changed  to 


These  settlers  were  ever  mindful  of  their  religion.  In 
1759,  with  the  Houdelettes,  the  Gouds,  the  Stilphens,  and 
others,  John  Pochard  and  three  of  his  sons  were  among 
the  petitioners  who  asked  that  Jacob  Bailey  be  sent  them 
as  missionary.  Of  John  Pochard's  four  sons,  Abraham 
worked  at  Fort  Western  as  a  hewer  of  timber  ;  tradition 
says  George  was  killed  by  the  Indians  while  hunting  up 
river  in  the  vicinity  of  the  wilds  of  Augusta  ;  Christopher 
settled  in  Pownalboro  ;  and  Peter,  the  youngest,  became  a 
shoemaker,  and  after  marrying  Daniel  Malbon's  daughter 
Betsey,  settled  on  the  lot  of  land  where  West  Dresden 
post-office  now  is.  His  cellar  and  well  are  still  to  be  seen, 
and  some  apple  trees  planted  by  his  hand  still  bear  fruit. 
Two  of  his  grandchildren  were  living  in  1892,  and  a  great- 
grandson  preserves  the  old  shoemaker's  lapstone  and  other 
of  his  tools.  A  copy  of  his  will  shows  that  he  was 
thrifty,  like  his  race,  and  died  possessed  of  some  property. 
He  was  a  respected  and  worthy  citizen. 

i  l  Baptized  a  Lutheran  in  France,  he  attended  Episco 
pal  service  until  Eev.  Mr.  Bailey's  departure  for  Halifax 
in  1779  ;  and  when  the  Congregational  Church  was  erected 
in  1801,  Peter  became  its  first  sexton,  purchased  a  gallery 
pew  for  eighteen  dollars,  and  a  floor  pew  for  forty-seven 
dollars.  I  think  these  people  were  piously  inclined  with 
out  being  narrow."  Writing  thus,  Mr.  Charles  E.  Allen 
expresses  a  significant  fact  concerning  their  character. 
They  would  not  abjure  Protestantism  and  embrace  popery, 
though  they  gave  up  life  itself ;  but,  on  the  other  hand, 
they  were  not  bigoted  or  small  sectarians.  They  could 
be  brotherly  in  any  church  that  upheld  the  great  Prot 
estant  principles  of  liberty  of  conscience  and  a  free  Bible ; 


and  in  every  community  they  contributed  to  the  best 

As  a  whole,  these  colonists  of  Dresden  township  were  A  Good  Type 
earnest  and  capable,  though  poor.  Contending  against  c 
poverty,  besides  being  menaced  by  Indians,  snow  and  ice, 
wolves  and  bears,  they  yet  managed  to  wrest  a  fair  degree 
of  prosperity  from  the  wilderness.  By  dint  of  hard  and 
persevering  labour  they  turned  the  forest  into  a  farming 
country.  Among  numerous  other  products,  they  cul 
tivated  flax  with  good  success,  and  so  deftly  did  their 
wives  and  daughters  spin  this  into  linen  that  many  of 
their  fabrics  are  in  existence  to-day.  Among  the  number 
of  these  settlers  whose  names  have  been  preserved  are  the 
following :  Charles  Houdelette,  Louis,  his  son,  John 
Pochard  and  his  four  sons,  Jean  Goud,  Daniel  Goud, 
James  Goud,  Jacques  Bugnon,  Daniel  Malboii,  Amos 
Paris,  Philip  Fought,  John  Stain,  John  Pechin,  John 
Henry  Laylor,  Francis  Eiddle,  Michael  Stilphen,  George 
Jaquin,  James  Frederick  Jaquin. 


The  two  letters  which  follow  are  interesting  documents,   TWO  charac- 
and  not  the  less  so  because  they  show  a  remarkably  rapid  ters8  " 
progress  in  a  new  and  stubborn  language  : 

FRANKFORT,  September  13,  1752. 

SIRS  : — We  have  learnt  from  James  Frederick  Jaquin,  lately  from 
Halifax  and  settled  amongst  us  that  all  those  that  arrived  there  since 
some  short  time  from  Urope,  was  by  means  of  the  letters  we  wrote  to 
our  friends  in  our  country,  and  instead  of  their  being  transported  to 
Boston  according  to  our  intentions,  was  carried  to  Halifax  by  the  ill 
conduct  of  the  commisary  J.  Crelious,  which  is  verified  by  the  wife 
and  children  of  Malbon  being  there,  and  ye  mother,  brothers  and  sisters 
of  Daniel  Jacob  likewise,  and  generally  their  own  brother  and  brothers- 
in-law,  or  other  relations,  which  makes  us  humbly  entreat  of  the  honour 
able  company  to  have  the  goodness  and  regard  for  us,  that  all  those 
the  said  Jaquin  proposed  to  the  gentlemen  he  should  go  and  bring  to 
our  settlement  from  Halifax  by  transporting  himself  to  Boston  in  the 
first  sloop,  the  which  persones  would  be  very  necessary  amongst  us, 


some  being  artist  and  brought  up  to  such  trades  as  we  cant  well  do 
without,  and  it  is  our  generall  request  to  the  company  to  have  them 
if  possible,  and  in  particular  Malbon  and  Daniel  Jacob  ;  and  if  these 
cant  have  their  families  with  them  at  Frankfort,  they  say  of  necessity 
though  much  against  their  inclination  must  go  to  Halifax,  not  being 
able  to  live  with  any  comfort  or  satisfaction  so  near  them  and  not  be 
near  their  dear  relatives ;  therefore  further  humbly  and  earnestly  in- 
treat  of  the  venerable  good  company  to  use  their  utmost  interest  to  ob 
tain  said  persones  for  their  friends  and  for  which  favours  shall  be  ever 
obliged.  Signed  in  behalf  of  all  the  French  settlers  at  Frankfort, 


Malbon's  wife's  name  is  Margaret  Humbart.  If  the  gentleman 
writes  to  Halifax  about  the  above  mentioned  persones,  he  desires  they 
would  let  his  wife  know  he  is  in  good  health,  and  that  he  desires  noth 
ing  more  in  the  world  but  to  have  her  with  him. 

To  Mr.  Peter  Chardon. 

FRANKFORT,  November  2,  1752. 

SIR  : — We  ask  with  great  humility,  pardon  for  our  importunities 
and  trouble  we  give  you,  and  we  take  again  the  freedom  to  write  pray 
ing  Almighty  God  for  the  preservation  of  your  dear  health  and  of  all 
those  that  belongs  to  you.  We  had  great  satisfaction  in  the  grant  of 
fourty  acres  of  land  each  in  this  place,  but  at  the  same  time  the  afflic 
tion  to  see  the  English  quit  their  first  lots  and  settle  upon  the  French 
line  in  such  a  manner  as  to  oblige  some  of  us  to  take  up  with  the  other 
twenty  acres  at  a  great  distance  from  the  first,  although  we  had  almost 
finished  our  settlements  ;  and  further,  we  are  very  much  troubled  to 
see  said  persons  to  our  great  inconvenience  fit  their  houses  in  such  for 
wardness  as  only  to  want  coverings  which  would  been  likewise  done 
if  they  had  the  tools  necessary  for  their  work. 

The  most  honourable  gentlemen  of  the  company  promised  to  settle 
all  the  French  upon  one  line  near  one  another,  so  as  to  enable  them 
hereafter  to  settle  a  minister  for  Divine  Service  and  a  schoolmaster  for 
the  instruction  of  their  children.  We  desire,  dear  sir,  you  would  be 
so  good  as  to  communicate  to  the  honourable  gentlemen  of  the  com 
pany  our  former  requests  for  sundry  articles,  we  are  in  very  great  want 
of,  in  particular  the  provision  our  three  men  that  went  to  Boston  lately 
desired,  not  have  half  enough  to  carry  us  through  the  winter,  and  as 
for  other  necessaries  every  one  asks  for  himself,  besides  what  each  de 
sired  some  time  ago,  namely  for  George  Gout  2  hatts,  1  a  half  castor, 
the  other  a  felt,  3  shaves  to  shave  wood,  black  pepper,  smoak  tobaca. 
For  John  Pochard,  2  hats,  1  shaver  for  wood,  1  hand  saw,  2  gimlets,  1 
large,  1  small  ;  smoak  tobaca,  black  pepper,  sewing  thread  for  cloth,  2 



chisels,  small  hatchet.  For  John  Bugnont — barrel  vinegar,  bushel  of 
onions,  black  pepper,  felt  hat,  blanket  or  rugg,  thread  for  clothes, 
smoak  fx>baca,  barrel  of  rum  for  him,  George  Gout  &  Peter  Gout.  For 
Daniel  Jalot,  5  yards  middlin  coarse  cloth  for  clothes,  hats,  axe, 
thread,  black  pepper.  For  Peter  Gout,  hats,  sewing  thread,  hand 
saw,  chisel,  shaver,  bushel  of  onions.  For  Joseph  Bas,  shaver,  hat, 
bushel  of  onions,  black  pepper,  tobaca  to  smoak,  cive  for  flower. 

Signed  by 


I  have  received  3  barrels,  1  of  flour,  1  of  Indian  corn,  &  one  of 
pork.  I  humbly  intreat  of  you,  dear  sir,  to  ask  the  favour  of  those 
gentlemen  to  have  the  goodness  to  send  me  3  barrels  more  of  flour,  3 
of  Indian  corn,  and  2  of  pork,  1  of  rum,  and  1  of  molasses,  these  last 
two  for  Daniel  Jacob  and  Joseph  Bas ;  and  for  me,  James  Frederick 
Jaquin,  the  last  comer,  a  small  quantity  of  the  best  flax  for  a  piece  or 
two  of  linen,  19  Ibs.  of  tobaca,  1  Ib.  black  pepper,  bushel  of  onions, 
bushel  of  good  peas.  This  signed  only  by 


View  of  New  Amsterdam 




E  are  led  constantly  to  wonder  at  the  radical 
difference  between  the  men  and  women  of  Eng 
land  and  of  New  England.  Of  the  same  race, 
the  same  stock,  they  are  yet  so  unlike  as  to  occasion  in 
vestigation  into  the  causes  of  such  wide  divergence.  No 
speedy  Differ-  sooner  were  the  Pilgrims  and  Puritans  established  on  this 
side  the  sea  than  they  began  to  differentiate  from  their 
forebears  on  the  other  side.  And  the  peculiarities  which 
distinguish  the  New  Englanders  are  not  merely  in  dress, 
accent,  speech  or  customs,  they  extend  to  face  and  figure, 
physique  and  manner.  Where  the  Englishman  is  phleg 
matic,  the  New  Englander  is  alert  and  wiry ;  where  the 
former  is  burly,  the  latter  is  slight  and  quick  by  compar 
ison.  Perhaps  nowhere  does  the  difference  stand  out 
more  conspicuously  than  in  the  treatment  of  women  by 
the  men — a  treatment  that  has  made  the  American  hus 
band  and  father  a  standard  of  excellence  and  genuine 

This  wide-reaching  change  which  came  over  the  trans 
planted  Puritans  is  of  great  interest  to  the  student  of 
race  development  and  of  the  influence  of  mixed  bloods. 
Whence  came  the  greater  flexibility  of  the  Yankee  intel 
lect,  the  larger  spirit  of  liberality,  that  great  hospitality 
towards  men  and  ideas?  What  produced  the  livelier 
and  more  cheerful  temperament,  and  that  darker  and 
warmer  physical  colouring,  so  that  the  ruddy-cheeked, 
blue-eyed  Saxon  type  became  rarer  among  the  New  Eng- 


"Whence  the 


landers,  and  the  brown  skin  and  dark  eyes  common! 
This  subject  is  considered  philosophically  by  Horace 
Graves,  of  whose  study,  "The  Huguenot  in  New  Eng 
land,"  we  make  free  use  in  this  chapter. 

So  keen  an  author  as  Hawthorne,  who  had  full  chance  contrast 
to  observe,  in  his  English  Note  Book  sets  forth  in  strong  HawtEonne 
colours  the  characteristics  of  the  Englishmen  who  have 
remained  at  home,  and  of  those  who  are  the  product  of 
two  or  three  centuries  of  life  in  America.  "We,  in  our 
dry  atmosphere,"  he  wrote  in  1863,  "are  getting  nervous, 
haggard,  dyspeptic,  extenuated,  unsubstantial,  theoretic, 
and  need  to  be  made  grosser.  John  Bull,  on  the  other 
hand,  has  grown  bulbous,  long-bodied,  short- legged, 
heavy-witted,  material,  and,  in  a  word,  too  intensely 
English.  In  a  few  centuries  he  will  be  the  earthiest 
creature  that  the  earth  ever  saw." 

He  speaks  still  more  candidly  of  the  British  woman,  as  ungaiiant  but 
contrasted  with  her  American  sister.  "I  have  heard  a  Graphl 
good  deal  of  the  tenacity  with  which  the  English  ladies 
retain  their  personal  beauty  to  a  late  period  of  life  ;  but 
it  strikes  me  that  an  English  lady  of  fifty  is  apt  to  become 
a  creature  less  refined  and  delicate,  so  far  as  her  physique 
goes,  than  anything  that  we  western  people  class  under 
the  name  of  woman.  She  has  an  awful  ponderosity  of 
frame,  not  pulpy,  like  the  looser  development  of  our  few 
fat  women,  but  massive,  with  solid  beef  and  streaky  tal 
low  ;  so  that  (though  struggling  manfully  against  the  idea) 
you  inevitably  think  of  her  as  made  up  of  steaks  and 
sirloins.  When  she  walks,  her  advance  is  elephantine. 
When  she  sits  down,  it  is  on  a  great  round  space  of  her 
Maker's  footstool,  where  she  looks  as  if  nothing  could 
ever  move  her.  Her  visage  is  unusually  grim  and  stern, 
seldom  positively  forbidding,  yet  calmly  terrible,  not 
merely  by  its  breadth  and  weight  of  feature,  but  because 
it  seems  to  express  so  much  well-founded  self-reliance." 

Hawthorne  and  others  attributed  this  great  difference  climate  as 
in  the  men  and  women  of  the  two  countries  to  climate,   Cause 




Not  a  Suf 
ficient  Cause 

The  True 

and  this  theory  has  been  largely  accepted  as  sufficient  to 
account  for  all  dissimilarities.  It  has  been  generally  be 
lieved  that  a  clearer,  sunnier  air  has  browned  the  race 
permanently,  and  begotten  nervousness  of  physical  and 
mental  constitution.  It  is  assumed  that  there  could  have 
been  no  more  powerful,  and  indeed  no  other  intervening 
cause.  In  support  of  this  conclusion  it  is  pointed  out 
that  the  New  England  colonists  were  purely  and  ex 
clusively  English.  Palfrey  contends  that  the  population 
"  continued  to  multiply  for  a  century  and  a  half  on  its 
own  soil,  in  remarkable  seclusion  from  other  communi 
ties.'7  John  Fiske  accepts  Palfrey's  statement,  and  cites 
Savage  as  demonstrating,  after  painstaking  labours,  that 
ninety-eight  out  of  every  hundred  of  the  early  settlers 
could  trace  their  descent  directly  to  an  English  ancestry. 
These  authorities  would  leave  us  no  alternative  but  to 
conclude  that  climate  alone  must  have  wrought  the  re 
markable  transformation  of  mind,  character  and  body, 
through  which  have  been  evolved  and  fixed  the  idiosyn 
crasies  of  the  New  Euglander. 


But  if  climate  was  the  potent  cause,  why  did  not  the 
changes  appear  in  the  first  century  of  colonial  life  ?  In 
1776  the  portraits  of  the  men  who  won  our  liberties  show 
us  veritable  Englishmen.  Yet  in  1863  the  change  had 
come  about,  and  Hawthorne  found  the  two  peoples  rad 
ically  different.  Climate  is  much  slower  in  its  effects  than 
this.  The  truth  is,  it  is  impossible  that  the  Yankee  could 
have  been  so  greatly  differentiated  from  the  Englishman 
in  three  or  four  generations  merely  from  exposure  to  a 
climate  but  little  unlike  that  of  Great  Britain.  Having 
disposed  of  this  fallacious  theory,  the  search  for  an  ef 
fective  cause  begins,  and  later  historical  researches  have 
made  it  plain.  This  transformation  came  from  mixture 
of  bloods,  from  intermarriage  between  the  early  English 
colonists  and  some  race  of  a  slighter  build,  a  less  sombre 


disposition,  a  more  active  mind  and  an  intenser  nature. 
There  is  no  race  which  at  once  combined  proximity  and 
the  other  requisites  except  the  French  ;  and  in  the  French 
—with  their  clearness  and  quickness,  their  bright  dispo-  The  French 
sition — were  to  be  found  every  required  element.  There 
are  two  classes  of  French ;  and  that  which  came  to 
America  to  seek  a  home  and  religious  liberty  possessed 
a  remarkable  combination  of  traits — a  mingling  of  the 
sanguine,  light,  cheerful,  witty,  sincere,  devout,  and  ami 
able.  Disposed  to  enjoy  life,  even  under  hardest  circum 
stances,  the  Frenchman  was  the  best  of  companions.  As 
Lavater,  the  great  physiognomist,  says:  "His  counte 
nance  is  open  and  at  first  sight  speaks  a  thousand  pleasant, 
amiable  things.  His  eloquence  is  often  deafening,  but  his 
good  humour  casts  a  veil  over  his  failings." 

This  is  the  stock  that  intermingled  with  the  Puritan 
and  wrought  the  change,  and  it  is  strange  that  historians 
should  not  have  given  them  larger  credit  for  their  racial 
influence.  It  is  equally  strange  that  only  recently  has  the 
extent  of  the  Huguenot  immigration  been  recognized  in 
any  adequate  degree.  One  reason  given  is  that  the  French  A  strong 
refugees  came  to  New  England  from  motives  so  much  like 
those  which  brought  the  early  settlers  that  these  strangers 
did  not,  on  arriving,  exhibit  the  strong  contrast  with 
their  English  predecessors  which  appeared  on  the  entry 
of  the  French  exiles  into  other  parts  of  our  country.  The 
Huguenots  and  the  Puritans  had  both  suffered  bitter  per 
secution.  They  had  faced  death  from  devotion  to  the 
same  religious  principles.  Moreover  they  were  not 
strangers  to  one  another  ;  for  when  the  little  congregation 
from  Scrooby  sought  refuge  in  Holland,  they  found  Ley- 
den  full  of  Frenchmen  who  had  fled  from  their  native 
country.  For  a  time  both  bodies  of  people  were  allowed 
to  worship  in  the  same  edifice,  and  both  were  eagerly 
waiting  the  opportunity  to  put  the  ocean  between  them 
selves  and  their  enemies.  In  one  particular  they  differed 
radically,  and  that  favoured  the  loss  of  recognition  by  the 


French  at  the 

The  French 

Huguenots.  The  English  were  fearful  lest  they  should 
lose  their  English  name  and  tongue ;  while  the  French 
seemed  indifferent  to  their  native  speech,  and  were  ready 
to  translate  their  names  into  equivalent  Dutch  or  English, 
according  to  the  predominant  population  of  the  commu 
nity  in  which  they  happened  to  be.  They  soon  merged 
into  New  Englanders.  Before  the  first  ships  reached  shore, 
indeed,  the  French  Molines  had  become  plain  English 
Mullins,  as  we  have  seen. 

The  English  got  away  from  Holland  first,  and  those  of 
the  French  Protestants  who  cast  lots  in  with  them  speedily 
assimilated  with  their  fellow  voyagers.  This  was  done  so 
unobtrusively  that  only  in  recent  days  has  the  truth  been 
realized  that  the  Plymouth  colony  was  not  of  unmixed 
English  blood,  but  contained  an  element  that  was  pro 
foundly  to  affect  the  English  stock.  Thus  right  at  the 
base  of  the  first  effort  to  settle  New  England  is  this  reve 
lation  of  the  stealthy  introduction  of  the  Huguenot  to  the 
hearthstone  and  into  the  very  hearts  of  the  New  England 
ancestors.  It  is  no  surprise,  after  this,  to  find  that  many 
of  the  eminent  men  of  our  early  history  were  in  some  de 
gree  at  least  of  Huguenot  descent. 

What  did  the  Huguenots  contribute  to  the  change  in 
English  character  t  All  the  lighter,  happier,  more  refin 
ing  and  spiritual  qualities,  the  joyous  temperament.  The 
thrift  of  the  Protestant  French  is  proverbial.  It  found 
speedy  expression  in  New  England  in  commerce  And  in 
devising  new  subjects  of  manufacture  and  exportation. 
We  have  noted  how  the  Faneuils  and  Gabriel  Bernon  and 
their  French  fellows  were  of  the  mercantile  and  manu 
facturing  class  that  built  up  Boston.  As  the  exiled 
French  were  founders  of  many  British  industries  when 
they  settled  in  England,  so  they  were  most  efficient  in 
developing  the  resources  of  the  new  country  in  which 
they  were  heartily  given  asylum.  But  they  were  never  so 
engrossed  in  trade  that  they  allowed  their  passion  for 
civil  and  religious  liberty  to  expire.  It  was  a  Huguenot, 


Paul  Kevere,  who  was  the  trusted  messenger  of  the  Boston 
patriots  on  the  night  before  the  conflict  at  Lexington. 
There  is  no  name  of  traitor  in  all  the  list,  though  many 
of  them,  owing  everything  to  England  and  regarding  her 
as  their  deliverer,  could  not  see  it  right  to  rebel  against 
her  authority,  and  remained  on  the  Tory  side. 


It  is  all  the  more  singular  that  Palfrey  did  not  recog-  LOSS  of 
nize  the  Huguenot  influence  upon  the  Puritan  life,  since  l 
he  knew  of  their  presence.  In  his  "  History  of  New  Eng 
land  "  he  makes  the  extremely  conservative  statement  that 
at  least  one  hundred  and  fifty  Huguenot  families  came  to 
Massachusetts  after  the  Eevocation  in  1685.  He  makes 
no  account  of  those  already  here,  nor  of  those  who  did 
not  come  directly  from  France,  nor  of  those  who  kept 
coming  from  time  to  time,  even  down  to  1776.  Nor  does 
he  take  account  of  the  number  who  have  names  that 
seem  to  be  English  or  Dutch,  but  which  are  French  trans 
lated,  as  in  the  case  of  some  of  the  Duboises,  living  in 
Leyden,  who  allowed  themselves  to  be  called  Van  den 
Bosch,  and  came  to  America  under  that  name.  Gerneau 
became  Gano  in  English  mouths,  and  at  last  the  owners 
of  the  name  let  it  go  at  that.  Thus  Erouard  became 
Heroy,  Bouquet  is  now  spelled  Bockee,  Tissau  became 
Tishew,  and  Fleurri  is  hid  in  Florence.  Olivier  has  been 
confused  with  the  English  Oliver,  and  Burpo  was  origin 
ally  Bonrepos.  Nor  was  the  assent  to  this  distortion  due 
to  ignorance  on  the  part  of  the  Frenchmen  ;  for  Bonrepos 
was  a  learned  pastor  of  the  French  church  in  Boston,  and 
the  refugees  were  generally  of  the  higher  and  culti 
vated  classes  of  their  native  land. 

The  merchants   of  the  Huguenot  seaports  of  France  French-Swiss 
were  already  familiar  with  the  New  England  seaports, 
and  fled  to  Boston  and  Salem  when  the  time  of  peril  came. 
Many  of  them  found  shelter  in  neighbouring  countries  be 
fore  coming  to  America,  and  sometimes  for  that  reason 



were  not  recognized  as  French.  In  this  way  families  like 
those  of  Agassiz  and  Audubou  are  known  as  Swiss,  while 
there  is  little  doubt  that  their  origin  was  French.  When 
the  Cabots,  the  Lefavours,  the  Beadles,  the  Valpys  and 
Philip  English  had  established  themselves  in  Salem,  they 
began  to  bring  over  their  fellow  countrymen.  English, 
whose  real  name  was  L?  Anglois,  became  owner  of  a  large 
Philip  English  number  of  ships  and  a  great  deal  of  other  property.  For 
years  he  imported  young  men  to  be  apprenticed  as  sailors 
and  young  girls  to  be  employed  as  domestics.  They  were 
all  of  Huguenot  ancestry  and  their  descendants  to-day 
disclose  their  French  origin  in  their  personal  appearance. 
Between  the  Connecticut  Eiver  and  Massachusetts  Bay, 
young  men  of  that  line  of  ancestry  are  by  no  means  rare, 
with  large  brown  eyes,  black  hair  and  slender,  graceful 
figures,  which  proclaim  them  Frenchmen  in  everything 
except  speech ;  and  yet  their  forefathers  have  been  in 
habitants  of  eastern  Massachusetts  since  the  beginning  of 
the  seventeenth  century.  In  a  little  seaport  near  Salem 
there  are  to  be  found  to-day  at  least  fifty  family  names 
which  are  distinctly  French  ;  yet  those  who  bear  them 
now  have  never  suspected  that  they  were  of  other  than 
English  origin. 

In  this  connection,  it  may  be  asked  how  many  New 
Englanders  would  at  first  thought  suppose  or  admit  that 
Mrs.  Julia  Ward  Howe,  American  of  the  Americans,  and 
author  of  the  "Battle  Hymn  of  the  Eepublic,"  had 
Huguenot  blood  in  her  ancestry.  Yet  she  was  the  great- 
graudniece  of  General  Francis  Marion,  which  explains 
the  strain  that  made  a  battle  hymn  her  natural  expres 
sion.  Her  mother  had  the  high  type  of  French  beauty, 
and  through  all  the  French  side  of  the  family  ran  the 
best  traits  of  the  Huguenot  blood. 

How  extended  may  have  been  this  influence  flowing 
into  our  national  life  may  be  inferred  from  the  fact  that  of 
the  twenty-five  thousand  or  more  English  who  were  to  be 
found  in  New  England  towards  the  middle  or  latter  part 

Julia  Ward 

An  Estimate 


of  the  seventeenth  century,  the  descendants  are  reckoned 
by  Mr.  Fiske  at  fifteen  millions.  To  these  few  thousands 
of  English,  the  Huguenots,  as  admitted  by  Palfrey,  made 
an  accession  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  families, — which 
means  nearly  a  thousand  persons,  as  families  went  then  ; 
but  after  this  first  flood  had  spent  its  strength,  nearly 
every  ship  from  London,  according  to  Baird,  for  many 
years  brought  additions  to  those  who  had  come  in  the 
past.  The  exodus  from  France  continued  for  full  fifty 
years  from  1666,  and  within  that  time  at  least  a  million 
Frenchmen  were  expatriated,  and  those  the  flower  of  the 
nation.  It  is  not  possible  that  less  than  four  or  five 
thousand  came  to  dwell  in  New  England. 

The  gain  for  New  England  is  distinctly  revealed  in  the 
development  of  Yankee  enterprise  along  those  very  lines 
in  which  it  was  started  by  the  French  colonists.  But 
these  were  present  in  the  requisite  number  j  and  when  the 
eye  is  once  trained  and  the  ear  attuned  to  detect  the 
names  which  indicate  Huguenot  ancestry,  it  is  astonish 
ing  how  frequently  they  reveal  themselves.  If  New 
Euglanders  are  closely  questioned  concerning  their  an 
cestry,  there  are  few  who  do  not  confess  to  some  trace  of 
French  blood,  though  it  be  slight.  This  is  peculiarly 
true  of  the  eastern  half  of  Massachusetts. 


When  the  Huguenots  contributed  their  genial  presence  common 
to  our  population,  it  was  like  the  influx  of  a  gladdening 
river  into  a  thirsty  land,  carrying  joy  wherever  it  goes. 
At  first,  like  all  foreigners,  they  were  reserved,  and  mar 
riages  were  mostly  confined  to  their  own  nationality ;  but 
the  second  or  third  generation,  under  American  influences 
which  break  down  race  barriers,  found  alliances  that 
made  Americans  of  them  all.  How  rapidly  nationalities 
merge  in  this  country  is  seen  in  the  case  of  a  young  man 
whose  father  was  a  Frenchman  and  whose  mother  was  an 
American  of  English  descent.  His  wife's  mother  is  an 


An  Illustra 

A  Social 

Irishwoman,  and  her  father  a  German.  Thus  that  mar 
riage  rolled  four  nationalities  into  one  within  two  genera 
tions.  But  between  the  Huguenot  and  Puritan  there  was 
no  stream  to  bridge  over.  They  had  in  their  common 
Calvinism  and  love  of  freedom  a  bond  of  sympathy  and 
union  that  brought  them  into  harmony  as  soon  as  their 
tongues  had  learned  to  speak  a  common  language. 

It  is  evident  that  the  absorption  of  the  Huguenots 
would  occur  more  rapidly  after  the  Revolution,  and  would 
manifest  itself  unmistakably  during  the  first  half  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  the  time  when  the  contrast  between 
the  New  Englanders  and  the  Old  Englanders  made  such 
an  impression  upon  Hawthorne  and  Emerson.  The 
result  is  so  noteworthy  that  it  is  marvellous  that  we  did 
not  long  ago  recognize  the  method  of  the  brewing  of  that 
race  of  men  and  the  material  which  entered  into  it. 
"  There  is  a  substance  known  to  chemistry  as  diastase, 
which  is  an  active  element  in  the  germination  of  every 
seed,  and  which,  on  being  sprinkled,  never  so  sparingly, 
over  a  great  mass  of  the  brewer's  cloudy,  pasty  '  mash,7 
clears  it  instantly  and  leaves  it  a  sweet,  pure,  transparent 
liquid.  Such  an  office  might  the  introduction  of  the 
Huguenot  into  New  England  seem  to  have  performed,  in 
dissipating  the  heaviness  and  dogged  prejudice  of  our 
insular  kinsmen."  That  is  Mr.  Graves'  conclusion,  and 
it  is  justified  by  the  facts  continually  coming  to  light. 

The  Huguenot  element,  not  only  in  New  England,  but 
equally  in  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  and  the  Caroliuas, 
was  a  powerful  social  factor.  Not  numbers  but  character 
made  them  so  effective  in  changing  conditions.  Every 
record  we  have  of  them  in  persecution  and  suffering  and 
torture  displays  the  same  disposition  to  endure  bravely 
and  to  make  the  best  of  the  worst  situations.  Shipwreck, 
stormy  voyages,  homelessness,  deprivations  and  perils  of 
every  kind — these  circumstances  only  bring  out  the 
courage  and  cheer  and  uprightness  and  dauntless  spirit  of 
the  Huguenots.  And  when  circumstances  improved, 


their  genial  and  lovable  temperament  always  became  a 

wholesome  quality  in  a  life  that  was  far  too  sombre  and 

grim  and  gloomy  when  the  Puritan  had  it  to  himself. 

Where  the  French  were,  there  was  the  wise  admixture  of 

grave  and  gay,  the  enjoyment  of  life.     And  these  much 

needed  elements  entered   into  the  New  England  social  A  High  Type 

development,  and  far  exceeded  climate  in  altering  the  New 

Englander  and  creating   on  our  continent  a  new  type, 

comprising  the  best  qualities  of  Protestant  English  and 

Protestant  French — the  best  type  of  American  perhaps 

yet  to  be  found.     Certain  it  is  that  New  England  character 

cannot  be  explained  without  the  presence  of  the  French 


In  an  exceedingly  interesting  article  on  "The  Brain  of 
the  Nation, "  M.  Gustave  Michaud  says  that  the  immi 
grants  who  peopled  New  England  during  the  seventeenth 
century  may  be  roughly  divided  into  two  categories : 
those  who  emigrated  because  they  wished  to  improve 
their  position  through  the  acquisition  of  property,  audj 
those  who  wished  above  all  to  enjoy  religious  liberty.  I 
The  latter  contained  among  them  an  unusual  number  of 
men  of  talent.  Lombroso  has  demonstrated  the  close  ' 
connection  which  exists  between  exalted  religious  ideas 
and  ideals  and  the  nervous  temperament  characteristic 
of  genius.  In  our  country  examples  of  that  connection 
are  abundant.  Henry  Clay,  Lowell,  Bancroft,  Park- 
man,  Samuel  F.  B.  Morse,  Cyrus  W.  Field,  were  sons  of 
clergymen.  Cooper,  Howells  and  Whittier  were  sous  of 
Quakers.  Agassiz  was  the  son  of  a  Swiss  pastor,  himself 
of  Huguenot  descent.  The  Huguenots— in  America  still 
more  than  in  England — were  a  hotbed  of  talent.  And 
study  reveals  the  curious  influence  which  the  blood  of 
thousands  of  Huguenots  who  were  among  the  very  first 
settlers  of  South  Carolina,  now  exerts  upon  the  intellec 
tuality  of  the  state. 




WHILE  the  Dutch  long  had  all  the  credit  of 
founding  New  Amsterdam,  which  afterwards 
became  New  York,  later  historical  researches 
have  brought  to  light  the  fact  that  French  Protestants 
had  an  important  part  in  the  early  settlement,  and  were 
among  the  original  company  that  established  a  colony  on 
Manhattan  Island.  The  Walloons  were  French  who  had 
fled  from  the  province  of  that  name,  on  the  northern 
boundary  of  France,  to  escape  religious  persecution,  and 
had  taken  up  their  residence  in  Holland,  where  other 
French  Protestant  refugees  came  at  one  time  and  another 
during  the  century  that  followed  the  massacre  of  St. 
jesse  de  Forest  Bartholomew.  The  same  Jesse  de  Forest  that  proposed 
to  the  Virginia  Company  to  bring  a  French  colony  to 
America,  when  that  offer  was  declined  so  far  as  material 
aid  was  concerned,  repeated  the  proposition  to  the  Dutch 
West  India  Company,  just  then  forming.  It  was  ac 
cepted,  and  as  a  result  the  French  Protestants  made  up  a 
large  part  of  the  expedition  of  thirty  families  which 
sailed  in  March,  1623,  in  the  ship  New  Netherland,  to 
found  a  Dutch  colony  at  the  mouth  of  the  Hudson. 
Under  the  ordering  of  Providence,  what  strange  results 
follow  apparently  slight  causes.  The  English  Puritans 
offered  to  establish  a  colony  for  the  Dutch  on  the  Hud- 



son  ;  but  the  Dutch  not  being  ready  to  move,  found  a 
home  at  Plymouth  instead  ;  while  the  French  Protestants, 
who  offered  to  establish  a  colony  in  Virginia,  since  the 
Virginia  Company  was  not  wise  enough  to  accept  the 
offer,  went  to  the  Hudson  instead  of  the  James,  and 
helped  found  a  Dutch  commonwealth. 

After  a  specially  favoured  voyage,  early  in  May,  four 
teen  years  after  Henry  Hudson  had  discovered  the  noble 
river  which  perpetuates  his  name,  the  ship  New  Nether-  N 
land  sailed  into  the  "most  beautiful  bay"  that  now  shel-  Ife3 
ters  the  commerce  of  the  world.  At  that  very  moment  a 
French  ship  lay  in  the  harbour,  on  errand  to  take  pos 
session  of  the  country  in  the  name  of  France,  on  the 
ground  of  Verrazzano's  discovery  a  century  before ;  and 
thus  French  Eomau  Catholic  and  French  Protestant  met 
again.  Fortunately  for  the  newcomers,  a  Dutch  "  vessel 
of  several  guns ' '  chanced  to  lie  a  little  further  up  the 
river  ;  and  between  the  remonstrances  of  the  colonists  and 
a  show  of  force  from  the  Mackerel,  the  French  ship  sailed 
away,  leaving  the  Dutch  and  Walloons  free  to  land  and 
make  their  settlement.  They  found  a  few  huts  near  the 
southern  end  of  the  island,  where  a  trading-post  had  been 
maintained  by  Amsterdam  merchants.  With  this  excep 
tion  the  country  was  a  wilderness. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  little  trading-post  were  not  all 
Dutch,  however,  for  in  1614  a  child  was  born  of  Hugue-  1614 
not  parents.  This  baby,  named  Jean  Vigne,  disputes  the  First  child 
right  with  Virginia  Dare  of  being  remembered  as  the 
first  white  child  to  see  the  light  on  the  continent  of  North 
America.  The  second  birth  to  take  place  within  the 
limits  of  the  Dutch  province  was  that  of  Sarah  Eapalie, 
likewise  of  Huguenot  blood,  who  was  born  at  Orange. 
The  names  of  her  parents,  indeed,  George  Eapalie  and 
Catalina  Trico,  were  the  only  ones  definitely  known  hith 
erto  of  the  French  colonists  brought  over  in  the  New 
Netherland.  They  went,  with  seventeen  other  families, 
up  the  North  Eiver,  landed  and  built  a  fort  called  Orange, 


The  French 

A  Happy  Set 

near  what  is  now  Albany.  Of  the  other  families,  eight 
remained  on  Manhattan  and  took  possession  there  for  the 
West  India  Company  ;  four  newly  married  couples  went 
westward  and  established  a  little  post  on  the  Delaware  ; 
while  two  families  pushed  eastward  through  the  wilds  of 
Connecticut  and  built  homes  on  the  banks  of  the  Hartford. 

There  is  no  list  of  names  of  these  first  Huguenot  set 
tlers,  but  by  comparing  the  names  affixed  to  Jesse  de 
Forest's  petition  to  the  Virginia  Company  with  the 
records  of  Manhattan  about  fifteen  years  after  the  settle 
ment  (no  records  being  kept  during  the  first  fifteen  years 
of  the  colony),  the  following  names  are  gleaned  :  Kapalie, 
De  la  Mot,  Du  Four,  Le  Eou,  Le  Eoy,  Du  Pon,  Chiselin, 
Cornille,  De  Trou,  De  Crenne,  Damont,  Campion,  De 
Carpentier,  Gille,  Catoir,  de  Croy,  Maton,  Lambert,  Mar 
tin,  and  Gaspar. 


The  settlement  was  prosperous  from  the  start,  and  the 
colonists  happy.  A  ship  which  returned  to  Holland  car 
ried  glowing  accounts  of  the  new  country.  An  extract 
from  one  of  the  letters  is  as  follows  : 

We  were  much  gratified  on  arriving  in  this  country.  Here  we  found 
Extract  from  a  beautiful  rivers,  bubbling  fountains  flowing  down  into  the  valleys  ; 
basins  of  running  waters  in  the  flatlands,  agreeable  fruits  in  the  woods, 
such  as  strawberries,  walnuts,  and  wild  grapes.  The  woods  abound 
with  venison.  There  is  considerable  fish  in  the  rivers,  good  tillage 
land ;  here  is,  especially,  free  coming  and  going,  without  fear  of  the 
naked  natives  of  the  country.  Had  we  cows,  hogs,  and  other  cattle 
fit  for  food — which  we  expect  in  the  first  ships— we  would  not  wish  to 
return  to  Holland. 

Peter  Minuit 

The  effect  of  such  accounts  was  to  bring  over  new 
colonists,  among  whom  were  many  Huguenots.  A 
Huguenot,  Peter  Minuit,  was  the  second  director  or  gov 
ernor  of  the  settlement.  He  reached  Manhattan  Fort  in 
1626  when  the  colony  comprised  about  thirty  houses 
closely  grouped  about  the  block-house,  and  tenanted  by 


Dutch,  French,  and  a  few  English.  Minuit's  family  had 
taken  refuge  in  Wessel  some  fifty  years  before  this  date, 
and  there  is  a  record  in  the  Walloon  Church  of  that  place  1626 
which  shows  that  he  acted  for  a  time  as  deacon.  He  was 
an  active,  energetic  man,  firm  in  temper,  friendly  in  dis 
position,  just  and  honourable,  and  granted  religious  lib 
erty  and  a  fair  amount  of  political  freedom. 

De  Rasieres,  his  secretary,  was  likewise  a  Huguenot  Religious 
and  a  man  of  parts.     Minuit  sent  him  to  visit  Governor  Granted 
Bradford,  of  Massachusetts,  regarding  the  relations  of  the 
two  colonies,  and  Bradford  alludes  to  him  as  "  a  man  of 
fair  and  genteel  behaviour. "     He  proved  himself  as  a 
diplomat,  concealing  from  the  English  the  fact  of  the  val 
uable  fur  trade,  a  knowledge  of  which  would  surely  have 
brought  the  English  in  force  against  the  Dutch  possessions. 

Among  the  other  Huguenots  who  were  prominent  in 
the  first  days  of  New  Amsterdam  was  Johannes  La  Mon-  First  Doctor  a 
tagne,  the  first  doctor  to  settle  on  Manhattan.  He  came  LaMontagne 
from  Leyden  in  1637,  from  whence  the  family  of  his  first 
wife,  Rachel  De  Forest,  had  already  emigrated  to  New 
Amsterdam.  Previous  to  his  coming  the  Zieckentroosters 
(comforters  of  the  sick)  were  the  only  props  which  the 
unfortunate  sick  of  the  colony  had  to  lean  upon.  Dr.  La 
Montague  was  a  man  of  varied  gifts,  who  subsequently 
occupied  several  stations  of  trust  under  the  government. 
His  name  appears  as  a  member  of  the  council,  and  as 
official  schoolmaster,  and  after  a  few  years  of  practice  he 
seems  to  have  given  up  the  medical  profession  and  de 
voted  himself  entirely  to  the  civil  and  military  service. 
It  is  quite  probable  that  the  colonists  found  the  fresh  air  A  Man  of 
and  outdoor  life  of  the  new  world  too  healthy  to  make  Affairs 
the  practice  of  medicine  in  New  York  as  profitable  as  it 
has  since  become.  He  must  have  prospered  in  his  new 
work,  however,  for  he  became  the  owner  of  a  "  bouwery  " 
located  at  what  is  now  the  northern  end  of  Central  Park. 
His  daughter,  Marie,  married  Jacob  Kip  in  1654.  His 
farm  comprised  two  hundred  acres,  for  which  he  paid 



bockers  a 
Mixed  Blood 

Wife  a 

Island  Named 
After  Isaac 

$720  ;  it  was  situated  on  Eighth  Avenue  between  Ninety- 
third  Street  and  the  Harlem  Eiver.  He  named  it  i  i  Vre- 
dendal "  or  "  Valley  of  Peace."  Its  value  to-day  is  high 
in  the  millions. 


The  French  and  Dutch  mingled  together  harmoniously, 
setting  each  other  off  to  great  advantage.  How  excellent 
was  the  result  produced  by  the  infusion  of  the  facile 
French  blood  with  that  of  the  stolid  Dutch  may  be  seen 
in  the  great  Knickerbocker  families.  Nearly  every  New 
Yorker  who  can  trace  his  ancestry  back  to  the  founders 
of  New  Amsterdam  will  find  traces  of  Huguenot  blood  in 
his  veins,  for  both  in  the  earlier  and  later  days  the  inter 
mixture  of  races  was  the  almost  constant  rule.  So  evenly 
matched  were  the  two  nationalities  in  point  of  numbers 
by  the  year  1656,  that  all  government  and  town  procla 
mations  were  issued  in  French  as  well  as  in  Dutch. 

Peter  Stuyvesant,  the  famous  director-general,  had  a 
Huguenot  wife,  Judith  Bayard,  daughter  of  a  refugee 
minister ;  and  during  his  administration  he  had  living 
with  him  his  sister,  who  was  the  widow  of  a  Huguenot, 
Samuel  Bayard.  It  was  her  son  who  founded  the  illustri 
ous  Bayard  family  of  America.  For  these  reasons,  if  for 
no  others,  he  took  much  interest  in  the  French  exiles 
who  sought  refuge  within  his  dominions.  He  not  only 
kindly  received  those  who  came,  but  went  further,  and  in 
1664  offered  flattering  prospects  to  a  company  of  Protes 
tants  in  La  Eochelle  who  were  on  the  point  of  emigrating, 
carrying  out  his  promises  by  presenting  them  with  grants 
of  land.  Small  bodies  of  French  colonists  kept  coming, 
mostly  from  the  northern  provinces  of  France  and  Nor 
mandy.  Among  them  was  Isaac  Bethlo,  a  native  of 
Calais,  who  arrived  in  1652,  and  gave  his  name  to  the 
island  in  New  York  harbour  known  as  Bedloe's.  It  is 
among  the  strange  coincidences  that  this  island,  named 
after  a  French  Huguenot  refugee,  should  become  the 
site  for  that  colossal  statue,  "Liberty  Enlightening  the 


World,"  the  gift  of  France  to  the  United  States  nearly 

two  and  a  half  centuries  later.     From  the  outstretched  Liberty 

arm  of  that  figure  gleams  the  light  that  illuminates  the  the  wodd  ng 

harbour,  typical  of  the  light  of  religious  liberty  which 

the  persecuted  of  all  lauds  were  here  to  enjoy. 

The  French  did  not  confine  themselves  to  the  town  of 
New  Amsterdam  entirely,  but  formed  settlements  on 
Staten  Island,  the  upper  end  of  Manhattan,  Long  Island, 
and  in  Westchester  County. 

Stateu  Island,  in  the  bay  of  New  York,  was  one  of  their  French  on 
favourite  asylums.  a  It  might  properly  have  been  called  island 
Huguenot  Island."  A  considerable  number  of  refugees 
settled  there  in  1657,  locating  their  dwellings  near  the 
site  of  the  present  town  of  Richmond.  The  names  of 
Guion,  Dissosway,  Bedell,  Fontaine,  Reseau,  La  Tourette, 
Rutan,  Puillon,  Mercereau,  La  Conte,  Butten,  Mancey, 
Perrin,  Larselene,  De  Pue,  Corssen,  Martineau,  Tuenire, 
Morgan,  Le  Guine,  and  Jouerney,  have  been  preserved. 
Like  the  descendants  of  the  emigrants  to  Ulster  County, 
the  progeny  of  the  refugees  to  Staten  Island  still  occupy, 
in  many  cases,  the  land  held  by  their  ancestors.  The 
number  of  the  island  colony  was  constantly  increased  by 
the  coming  of  little  groups  of  refugees.  Any  complete 
ness  of  record  is  out  of  the  question,  but  it  is  possible  to 
add  a  few  names  to  the  above  list.  In  1662  came  Pierre 
Martin,  Gerard  Ive,  and  Juste  Grand  ;  the  year  following, 
Jerome  Bovie,  Pierre  Noue,  and  Pierre  Parmentier  had 
the  distinction  of  arriving  on  a  vessel  called  the  Spotted 



At  the  period  just  preceding  the  Revocation,  and 
especially  during  the  few  years  following  that  royal  in-  increasing 
vitation  to  exile,  the  emigration  to  New  York  was  greatly 
accelerated.  From  France  direct,  from  England,  from 
the  Antilles,  the  refugees  came  in  a  steady  stream  to  the 
growing  metropolis  which  afforded  them  all  a  welcome. 
It  would  neither  be  desirable  nor  possible  to  recount  the 


names  of  all  who  came,  but  in  the  following  pages  will  be 
found  a  brief  record  of  some  of  the  refugees  who  estab 
lished  homes  here,  founding  a  posterity  which  has  given 
to  America  many  men  of  eminence  and  a  multitude  of 
those  citizens  who,  though  less  noted,  go  to  make  up  the 
bone  and  sinew  of  the  nation. 

The  LeContes  Guillaume  Le  Conte,  of  Eouen,  a  descendant  of  the 
barons  of  Nonant  on  his  mother' s  side,  was  one  of  these 
refugees.  By  his  first  marriage  he  had  a  son,  Guillaume, 
and  by  his  second  marriage,  a  son,  Pierre.  Guillaume' s 
descendants  are  to  be  found  among  the  well-known  Seton 
and  Bayley  families,  while  the  honoured  name  of  Le 
Conte  survives  through  Peter's  offspring.  As  the  Bay 
ards,  the  Danas,  and  the  Bowdoins  have  been  publicists, 
so  the  descendants  of  the  elder  Le  Conte  have  been  men 
of  science.  Pierre  was  a  noted  surgeon  of  his  day.  His 
grandsons,  Lewis  and  John  LeConte,  living  together  on 
their  large  plantation  in  Georgia,  devoted  themselves  to 
the  study  of  natural  history,  making  contributions  to  our 
knowledge  of  the  Georgia  flora  and  fauna.  Of  Lewis's 
sons,  John  is  among  the  front  rank  of  American  students 
of  physics,  while  Joseph  is  probably  our  foremost  geolo 
gist.  John  LeConte' s  son,  John  Lawrence  LeConte,  who 
died  in  1883,  was  a  brilliant  naturalist,  and  is  ranked  as 
the  "greatest  entomologist  this  country  has  yet  pro 

Of  a  different  family  were  Pierre  and  Jean  Le  Conte, 
who  came  to  New  York  in  1687  and  acquired  an  estate  on 
the  western  side  of  Staten  Island. 

Gabriel  Minvielle,  a  native  of  Bordeaux,  came  to  New 
York  by  way  of  Amsterdam  in  1673.  He  took  a  high 
station  in  the  province  at  once,  being  elected  alderman 
within  two  years  after  his  arrival.  In  1684  he  was  mayor 
of  the  city,  and  served  under  four  administrations.  He 
was  married  to  Judith  Van  Beack  in  1674  but  had  no 
issue  ;  the  family  name  was  perpetuated,  however,  by  the 
children  of  his  brother  Pierre. 



In  1688  Jean  Barbarie  and  his  sons  Pierre  and  Jean 
settled  in  New  York.  Barbarie  acquired  considerable  Barbaric 
wealth,  was  active  in  politics,  and  distinguished  himself 
by  taking  the  lead  in  the  organization  of  the  French 
church.  His  son  Pierre  became  one  of  the  prominent 
members  of  Trinity  Church,  and  served  at  various  times 
as  warden  and  vestryman. 

Jean  Fouchart  (Fouchard)  a  native  of  Duras,  settled  in 
New  York  in  1704.  Denis  Lambert,  of  Bergerac,  came 
in  1691.  Lewis  Lyron  came  in  1696,  but  made  his  final 
home  in  Milford,  Conn.  At  his  death  he  gave  £200  to  the 
French  Church  of  Boston  and  £100  to  the  church  in  New 
Rochelle.  Pierre  Moutels,  of  Canet,  was  naturalized  in 
England  and  came  to  New  York  in  1702.  He  had  been  a 
prosperous  iron  manufacturer,  and  before  leaving  home 
he  had  deeded  his  property  to  his  son-in-law,  Noe  Cazalet, 
who  was  outwardly  a  * t  new  convert. ' '  When  Cazalet  was 
examined  by  the  priests  as  to  his  orthodoxy,  he  replied 
that  he  had  told  his  children  to  attend  the  mass,  but  that 
as  for  himself  "  it  must  come  from  God."  Shortly  after 
making  this  declaration  he,  too,  found  it  best  to  come  to 
New  York. 

From  Sedan  came  Jacques  Tiphaine,  the  ancestor  of  the 
Tiffany  family,   distinguished  merchants  of  New  York. 
Henry   Collier,  who   founded   the   important   American 
family  of  Colliers,  was  a  native  of  Paris.     He  reached 
England  in  1681,  but  setting  out  on  a  trading  voyage  in  Coiner 
1686  he  had  the  misfortune  to  be  shipwrecked  on  the 
French  coast  and  was  promptly  put  in  prison.     He  made 
good  his  escape  a  second  time,  however,  and  subsequently 
came  to  New  York.     Claude  Requa,  the  ancestor  of  the 
Requa  family  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  was  a  child  Requa 
when  his  parents  decided  to  come  to  America.     The  story 
of  his  emigration,  which  is  not  unlike  that  of  thousands 
of  others,  is  as  follows  :     i  c  They  departed  in  the  night,  to  The  Escape 
save  their  lives,  leaving  the  greater  part  of  their  property, 
which  they  could  not  convert  into  money.     There  were 


Peril  of 




eleven  other  families  that  went  at  the  same  time.  The 
priests  used  to  search  every  house  where  they  imagined 
that  Bibles  were  concealed  or  meetings  held.  They  con 
cealed  their  Bible  for  some  time,  but  finally  it  was  dis 
covered  and  taken  away.  They  managed,  however,  to  re 
tain  some  leaves,  which  were  concealed  under  the  bottom 
of  a  chair.  The  twelve  families  fled  by  night  from  Paris 
to  La  Eochelle,  where  they  continued  for  some  time.  But 
intelligence  from  Paris  to  La  Eochelle  soon  detected  their 
several  abodes.  Their  houses  were  to  be  broken  into  on 
a  certain  night.  They  would  all  have  been  cut  off,  had  it 
not  been  for  a  good  man,  a  Catholic,  who  had  become  ac 
quainted  with  them.  He  gave  them  notice,  so  they  fled 
the  night  before,  at  about  one  or  two  o'clock.  The  twelve 
families  muifled  the  wheels  of  their  wagons,  so  as  not  to 
make  any  noise,  but  they  were  discovered  on  the  way  and 
pursued  to  a  river,  before  they  were  overtaken.  Ten 
families  got  over  the  stream  in  safety,  but  two  were  taken. 
The  others  succeeded  in  getting  aboard  a  ship  which 
sailed  for  America.'7  During  the  voyage  over  a  plague 
broke  out  on  shipboard  and  many  of  the  passengers  died, 
among  them  being  both  of  Claude  Eequa's  parents. 

Pierre  Legrand,  native  of  Hahain,  was  naturalized  in 
England  in  1682.  In  1684  he  was  in  New  York,  as  his 
application  for  membership  in  the  Dutch  Eeformed 
Church  shows.  He  seems  to  have  lived  for  a  year  or  so  in 
Kingston,  N.  Y. ,  and  then  returned  to  New  York  to  engage 
in  the  tobacco  trade. 

Among  those  who  accepted  the  articles  of  capitulation 
by  which  New  Amsterdam  became  New  York  we  find  the 
name  of  Jacques  Cousseau,  one  of  the  French  citizens, 
who  had  attained  prominence. 

The  well-known  Crommelin  family  is  descended  from 
Daniel  Crommelin,  son  of  a  wealthy  manufacturer  of  Saint 
Quentin.  He  fled  to  England,  from  thence  to  Jamaica, 
and  finally  settled  in  New  York.  His  sons  Charles  and 
Isaac  established  the  ancient  country-seat  of  the  family  in 

John   Jay 
First   President 

Frederick  J.  De  Peyster 
Third    President 

T.   J.    Oakley   Rhinelander 

Henry  G.   Marquand 
Second  President 

William    Jay 
Fourth  and  Present  President 

Mrs.   James    M.    Lawton 



Ulster  County,  named  "Gricourt"  after  the  old  home  in 

The  New  York  Chevaliers  are  descended  from  Jean  le 
Chevalier,  who  was  probably  related  to  the  other  emi-   chevaliers 
grants  of  that  name  who  settled   in  Philadelphia  and 
Charleston.     He  married  Marie  de  la  Plaine  in  the  Dutch 
Church  in   1692.      From   Normandy    came  Fran§ois  le 
Comte,  who  was  married  to  Catharine  Lavandier  in  1693. 
He  seems  to  have  been  one  of  the  victims  of  the  laws  LeComte 
which  allowed  the  priests  to  bring  up  Huguenot  children  in 
the  Eoman  faith,  for  before  his  marriage  he  was  compelled 
to  make  abjuration. 

From  Eouen  came  Jean  Gancel,  Pierre  Chapron,  and 
Abraham  Dupont  before  the  close  of  the  century.  Daniel 
Marchand.  of  Caen,  came  before  1692.  Andre*  Foucault,  Foucauit 
descended  from  a  family  of  Poitou  that  was  noted  for  the 
sufferings  it  had  endured  in  the  cause  of  religion,  was  in 
New  York  by  the  year  1691.  In  1703  the  governor 
authorized  him  to  open  a  French  and  English  school  in 
the  city  of  New  York.  About  the  same  time  came 
Zacharie  Angevin,  likewise  of  Poitou.  In  1701  he  moved 
out  of  the  city  to  New  Eochelle,  where  his  descendants 
were  numerous  for  many  years.  Jacob  Baillergeau,  of 
Loudoii  in  Touraine,  was  naturalized  in  New  York  in  1701, 
and  in  1704  was  licensed  to  practice  medicine  in  New 
York  and  New  Jersey.  Thomas  Bayeux,  of  Caen,  came 
to  New  York  shortly  after  the  E  evocation,  and  became 
one  of  the  leading  merchants  of  the  city.  He  married 
Madeleine  Boudinot  in  1703  and  left  a  large  posterity. 

Daniel   Targe,  of  Port  des  Barques,  was  among  the  Other 
Narragansett  settlers,  and  on  the  breaking  up  of  the  set-   Families 
tlement  removed  to  New  York,  where  his  descendants 
survive  under  the  transformed  names  of  Targer  and  Tar 
get.     Fran£ois  Bouquet,  a  ship   captain  from  the  same 
port,  fled  to  England  in  1681,  coming  to  New  York  to 
wards  the  close  of  the  century.     He  was  a  man  of  prop 
erty   and  well -known  in  shipping  circles.     The  Tillou 






family,  of  which  the  late  Francis  E.  Tillou  was  a  member, 
was  established  by  Pierre  Tillou,  who  fled  from  Saintonge 
in  1681.  Jean  Elizee  was  a  fellow  townsman  of  Fran 9013 
Bouquet,  and  married  his  daughter  Jeanne  in  New  York 
in  1701. 

Other  immigrants  with  earliest  known  dates,  were 
as  follows :  Marc  Boisbelleau,  1685 ;  Andre  Jolin, 
1686 ;  Louis  Carre",  1686 ;  Gilles  Gaudineau,  1686 ;  John 
Pelletreau,  1687 ;  Peter  Eeverdy,  1687 ;  John  de  Neuf- 
ville,  1687 ;  Jacques  Dubois,  1688 ;  Jean  Pinaud,  died 
1688 ;  Aman  and  Gousse  Bonnin,  1688 ;  Daniel  Mer- 
ceveau,  1689 ;  Jean  Equier,  1689 ;  Paul  Drouhet, 
1869  ;  Andre  Paillet,  1690 ;  Daniel  Lambert,  1691  ; 
Daniel  Coudret,  1691  ;  Jean  Piervaux,  1692 ;  Louis 
Geneuil,  1692;  Elie  Eembert,  1692;  Jean  Eoux,  1692; 
Charles  Lavigue,  1692 ;  Jacques  Many,  1692 ;  Elie 
Chardavoinne,  1692  ;  Jean  Coulon,  1692 ;  Jean  Chadaine, 
1693  ;  Elie  Charrou,  1693  ;  Estienne  Archambaud,  1693  ; 
Isaac  Quintard,  1693  ;  (removed  later  to  Stamford,  Conn., 
where  his  descendants  are  still  to  be  found ;  Bishop 
Quintard,  of  Tennessee,  is  a  member  of  this  family)  ; 
Pierre  Girrard,  1694  ;  Jean  Doublet,  1695  ;  Jean  Boisseau, 
1698 ;  Isaac  Boutineau,  1698 ;  Elie  Badeau,  1698 ;  David 
Fume,  1698  ;  Jacques  Yinaux,  1699  ;  Jean  Faget,  1699  ; 
Pierre  Trochon,  1700  ;  Andre  Lamoureux,  1700  ;  Jacques 
Dosbrosses,  1701 ;  Pierre,  Jean  and  Abraham  Eolland, 
1702 ;  Pierre  Arondeau,  1703 ;  Pierre  Durand,  1706 ; 
Jacques  Bergeron,  1712 ;  Jean  Dragaud,  1729 ;  Daniel 
Gillard,  1792  ;  Pierre  Euslaud,  1792. 

These  names  indicate  that  in  the  early  life  of  New 
York  the  French  played  a  more  prominent  part  than  in 
any  other  centre,  not  excepting  Boston.  Socially  they 
were  a  most  effective  factor,  tempering  the  tone  of  society, 
and  in  large  measure  creating  it.  That  so  many  of  the 
streets  of  the  city,  as  Desbrosses,  Lispenard,  etc.,  were 
named  after  the  French  citizens,  shows  that  they  were 
men  of  note  in  the  business  and  public  life  of  the  time. 


The  intermingling  of  the  French  and  Dutch  produced  a 
strong  and  charming  type  of  character,  in  which  the  best 
traits  of  both  races  appear.  Indeed,  wherever  the  Hugue 
not  blood  entered,  it  improved  the  type.  In  some  the 
blood  was  mixed  before  coming  to  this  country.  Such 
cases  are  illustrated  by  Professor  Johann  Daniel  Gros, 
minister  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church  in  New  York, 
and  later  occupant  of  the  chair  of  intellectual  and  moral 
philosophy  in  Columbia  College  (now  Columbia  Uni 
versity),  and  author  of  the  first  text-book  on  moral  phi 
losophy  published  in  America.  His  family  was  French 
and  German  from  the  Alsace-Lorraine  section  where 
French  and  German  commingled.  His  brother,  Lorenz 
Gros,  pushed  on  beyond  Albany  up  the  Mohawk  Valley, 
and  built  near  Fonda  the  first  gentleman's  mansion  west 
of  Albany,  using  brick  and  tile  imported  from  Holland  ;  a 
mansion  still  standing  as  strong  as  when  built,  and  long  a 
landmark  in  its  section.  He  was  a  captain  in  the  Conti 
nental  Army,  and  also  an  officer  in  the  War  of  1812. 
From  the  fact  that  these  families  spoke  German,  they 
were  indiscriminately  classed  among  the  Dutch  element 
and  their  French  descent  was  obscured.  Without  dates 
of  coming  are  the  names  of  Crucheron,  Martiline,  Ganne- 
pains,  Begrenier,  Casses  and  Cannon. 

Huguenots  were  the  first  settlers  in  that  part  of  Man-   Huguenots 
hattan  now  known  as  Harlem  (an  account  of  their  settling 

being  given  in  the  sketch  of  the  De  Forest  family)  ;  and 
when  the  village  of  New  Harlem  was  laid  out  in  1658, 
nearly  one  half  of  the  thirty  -two  heads  of  families  in  the 
settlement  were  Huguenots.  Other  of  the  hardier  souls 
among  the  French  likewise  pushed  out  from  the  original 
settlement  ;  fourteen  families  joined  in  founding  Bush- 
wick,  others  went  to  Flushing,  where  they  introduced  the  on  Long 
fine  fruit  culture  which  distinguished  that  Long  Island  l 
city  for  so  many  years.  Later,  in  1677,  David  Demarest 
gathered  together  a  few  families  and  formed  the  settle 
ment  that  has  since  become  Hackensack,  New  Jersey. 



The  French 


After  the  Eevocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  the  immi 
gration  to  New  York  was  so  considerable  that  the  French 
became  an  important  factor  in  politics.  Governor  Lord 
Bellomont  wrote  to  the  Board  of  Trade  in  1698  :  "I must 
acquaint  your  lordships  that  the  French  here  are  very 
factious  and  their  numbers  considerable.  At  the  last  elec- 
vtion  they  ran  in  with  the  Jacobite  party,  and  have  been 
since  so  insolent  as  to  boast  they  had  turned  the  scale  and 
could  balance  the  interests  as  they  pleased."  That  Gov 
ernor  Bellomont,  who  was  not  in  good  favour  with  the 
people,  did  not  despise  this  French  influence  in  public 
affairs  is  proved  by  the  fact  that  he  tried  to  gain  them  to 
his  side,  and  to  this  end  invited  Gabriel  Bernon,  one  of 
the  most  influential  Huguenots  in  the  country,  a  resident 
of  Providence,  to  come  to  his  aid.  Bernon  did  his  best 
in  this  direction,  with  but  partial  success.  The  French 
were  disposed  to  independence  and  to  choose  for  them 
selves  in  politics  as  in  religion. 

Among  the  considerable  social  factors  of  the  city  in  its 
day  was  the  French  Club,  which  was  established  largely 
through  the  influence  of  the  Bayards,  the  family  of  which 
the  long  time  United  States  Senator  from  Delaware  was  a 
descendant.  French  became  the  fashionable  language  of 
the  new  community.  From  1648  to  1658  the  French  ele 
ment  of  North  America  had  become  so  important  that, 
according  to  Bancroft,  the  public  documents  were  issued 
in  French  as  well  as  in  Dutch  and  English.  It  is  esti 
mated  that  by  1688  some  two  hundred  Huguenot  families 
had  found  a  home  in  New  York,  or  about  one  quarter  of 
the  population.  In  1661  half  the  inhabitants  of  Harlem 
were  Huguenots. 




TJEING  the  earlier  years  of  the  colony  the  French  The  Earlier 
had  no  church  of  their  own.     In  1628,  when  the 

first  minister,  Eev.  Jonas  Michaelius,  of  the  Ee- 
forined  Church  of  Holland,  came  to  New  Amsterdam, 
services  were  conducted  for  both  the  French  and  the 
Dutch.  Of  the  two  elders  who  were  chosen,  one  was  a 
Huguenot,  the  "honourable  director"  Peter  Minuit. 
Pastor  Michaelius  himself  left  the  following  account  of 
this  first  organization  :  i  i  We  have  had,  at  the  first  ad 
ministration  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  full  fifty  communi 
cants,  Walloons  and  Dutch :  not  without  great  joy  and 
comfort  for  so  many.  Of  these,  a  portion  made  their  first 
Confession  of  Faith  before  us  (he  probably  is  referring  to 
some  of  the  unregenerate  traders),  and  others  exhibited 
their  church  certificates.  Some  had  forgotten  to  bring 
their  certificates  with  them,  not  thinking  that  a  church 
would  be  formed  and  established  here ;  and  some,  who 
had  brought  them,  had  lost  them  unfortunately  in  a  gen 
eral  conflagration  ;  but  they  were  admitted  upon  the  sat 
isfactory  testimony  of  others  to  whom  they  were  known, 
and  also  upon  their  daily  good  deportment.  We  admin 
ister  the  Holy  Sacrament  of  the  Lord  once  in  four  months, 
provisionally,  until  a  larger  number  of  people  shall 
otherwise  require.  The  Walloons  have  no  services  on 
Sundays,  other  than  that  in  the  Dutch  language,  of  which 
they  understand  very  little.  A  portion  of  the  Walloons 
live  far  away,  and  could  not  come  on  account  of  the  heavy 
rains  and  storms,  so  that  it  was  neither  advisable,  nor 
was  it  possible,  to  appoint  any  special  service  for  so  small 




Founded  by 

a  number  with  so  much  uncertainty.  Nevertheless,  the 
Lord's  Supper  was  administered  to  them  in  the  French 
language,  and  according  to  the  French  mode,  with  a 
preceding  discourse,  which  I  had  before  me  in  writing, 
as  I  could  not  trust  myself  extemporaneously." 


Dutch  Aid  The  Dutch  are  to  be  highly  commended  for  the  aid  they 

gave  the  French  in  their  religious  services.  In  1652  Eev. 
Samuel  Drisius,  a  German,  was  called  to  be  a  colleague 
to  Eev.  Joannes  Megapolensis,  of  the  Dutch  Eeformed 
Church,  for  the  reason  that  he  was  able  to  preach  both  in 
Dutch  and  French.  The  French  were  thus  kindly  pro 
vided  for  until  they  had  a  fully  organized  church  and  a 
preacher  of  their  own,  which  was  not  later  than  1659. 
In  1682  there  came  a  new  era  for  them  religiously  with 
the  arrival  of  Eev.  Pierre  Daille.  He  was  a  rare  spirit. 
He  applied  himself  at  once  to  the  difficult  task  of  preach 
ing  the  gospel  to  his  brethren  scattered  through  the 
province  of  New  York.  He  reorganized  the  French 
Church  of  New  York,  which  prospered  under  his  care 
until  1692.  Even  Governor  Andros,  who  spoke  and  un 
derstood  both  Low  Dutch  and  French,  became  an  attend 
ant  at  the  French  services,  which  were  held,  like  the 
English,  in  the  Dutch  Church  within  the  fort.  Mr.  Daille 
next  revived  the  church  on  Staten  Island,  then  visited 
New  Paltz  and  established  a  church  there.  He  also 
founded  a  church  near  Hackensack,  and  repeatedly  vis 
ited  all  the  Huguenot  settlements,  like  a  modern  Paul 
visiting  the  churches.  He  was,  says  Selyns,  his  colleague, 
"full  of  fire,  godliness  and  learning,  and  maintained  the 
cause  of  Jesus  with  untiring  zeal." 

First  House          It  was  in  the  year  1688  that  the  French  first  built  a 
1688  house  of  worship  for  their  exclusive  use.     This  was  a 

very  humble  chapel  on  Marketfield  Street,  near  the  Bat 
tery,  and  it  ' t  was  here  that,  every  Sabbath  day,  the  peo 
ple  assembled  from  twenty  miles  around,  from  Long 


Island,  Staten  Island,  New  Eoclielle,  and  other  points, 
for  public  worship.  Every  street  near  was  filled  with 
wagons  as  early  as  Saturday  evening,  and  in  them  many 
passed  the  night  and  ate  their  frugal  Sunday  repast,  pre 
senting  a  touching  spectacle  of  purity  and  zeal." 

This  house  proved  too  small,  and  they  were  allowed  to 
buy  land  for  a  second  and  larger,  a  plain  stone  edifice 
nearly  square,  which  was  built  in  1704,  directly  opposite  Pine  street 
the  Custom  House  on  Pine  Street.  This  was  the  same 
year  in  which  the  French  in  Boston  bought  the  land  for 
their  church,  but  were  not  permitted  by  the  Congrega 
tional  authorities  to  build.  The  church  in  New  York 
was  named  "  L'Eglise  du  St.  Esprit"  (  The  Church  of  the 
Holy  Spirit ),  and  still  bears  the  name.  The  congrega 
tion  worshipped  in  Pine  Street  until  1831,  and  then  re 
moved  to  what  was  the  upper  part  of  the  city  at  the  time, 
the  corner  of  Church  and  Franklin  Streets,  where  a  white  church  street 
marble  edifice,  noted  in  its  day,  was  erected.  Mean 
while,  in  1804,  the  church  had  become  Episcopalian  in 
affiliation,  and  as  such  still  exists  in  the  present  Church 
du  St.  Esprit,  which  has  its  fourth  home  in  a  fine  stone 
edifice  in  Twenty -seventh  Street,  near  Madison  Avenue,  Twenty- 

.,        __  Seventh  Street 

where  the  French  service  is  maintained.     Slow  in  its  or-  site 
ganization,  the  church  reached  its  highest  point  of  devel 
opment  in  the  sixty  years  from  1690  to  1750,  declining  in 
the  next  half  century,  largely  because  of  the  Eevolutioii- 
ary  War.     After  1804  there  was  a  new  lease  of  life. 

Among  the  names  of  the  members  are  such  fam 
ilies  as  Quintard,  Pintard,  Maynard,  LeConte,  Lorillard, 
Lamoureaux,  Iselin,  Guion,  Girard,  Galaudet,  Dupuy 
(Depew),  Anne  Bureau,  Basset,  Bayard,  Badeau  and 
Allaire,  which  have  figured  in  the  professional,  com 
mercial  and  social  life  of  the  metropolis. 


For  over  forty  years  Eev.  Louis  Eou  was  pastor  of  the  pastor  ROU 
French  Church.     In  this  period  trouble  arose  over  the 


absorption  of  the  French  Church  in  New  Rochelle  by  the 
Episcopalians.  Gradually  the  influences  were  working 
in  this  direction,  and  in  1804  the  Episcopal  liturgy  was 
adopted  in  New  York  as  the  only  means  of  saving  the 
church.  Among  the  names  of  the  pew  owners  at  that 
time  are  Jacob  Schieffelin,  John  R.  Livingston,  C.  Low, 
John  Pintard,  Gulian  Verplanck,  all  names  thoroughly 
identified  with  the  growth  of  the  city,  and  some  of  them 
still  prominent,  as  that  of  Low,  the  family  from  which 
came  the  reform  Mayor  of  New  York,  Honourable  Seth 
Lowe,  formerly  president  of  Columbia  University.  But 
the  most  eminent  name  on  the  roll  was  that  of  Jay,  which 
ranks  high  in  American  history. 

During  Mr.  Ron's  pastorate  also,  a  great  excitement 
was  occasioned  by  a  party  question.  The  merits  of  the 
case,  according  to  Waldron,  were  as  follows :  Stephen 
De  Lancey,  a  wealthy  merchant,  and  among  the  chief 
patrons  of  the  church,  was  dissatisfied  with  Mr.  Rou,  and 
procured  his  dismissal  for  his  want  of  zeal,  and  some  in 
novations  which  he  had  introduced  to  the  church  dis- 
cipliue.  The  deposed  minister  appealed  from  the  decision 
of  the  congregation  to  Governor  Burnet  and  his  council, 
who  sustained  the  appellant.  Both  parties  published  in 
dignant  memorials  on  a  dispute  which  had  proceeded  so 
far  that,  when  De  Lancey  was  elected  to  the  Legislative 
Assembly,  the  governor  refused  to  administer  to  him  the 
oath  of  office,  alleging  that  he  was  not  a  British  subject. 
De  Lancey  contended  that  he  had  left  France  previous  to 
the  Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes,  and  had  received 
denizenship,  under  the  great  seal  of  Great  Britain,  from 
James  the  Second,  previous  to  his  abdication.  De  Laucey 
was  proved  to  be  right,  and  the  Assembly  sustained  his 
claims  against  the  governor.  Mr.  Rou's  assistant,  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Mouliuard,  took  part  against  his  superior.  The 
consistory  stated  that  they  had  paid  Mr.  Rou  in  full  of 
all  demands,  and  could  dismiss  him  when  they  pleased. 
Still,  the  council  decided  in  Mr.  Rou's  favour,  and  directed 

Original  Bayard  House,   1800,   noth   Street,  Harlem,   near  First  A 
Home    of   the   Bayard    Family   in    New    York 

The   Rappelyea  Estate,   foot  of  Thirty- fifth    Street,   North   River 


that  the  ministers  who  should  officiate  on  the  following 
Sabbath  in  the  church,  must  proclaim  the  same  decision 
publicly,  after  divine  service  in  the  forenoon.  All  these 
efforts,  however,  did  not  produce  reconciliation,  as  Mr. 
Moulinard  was  much  opposed  to  the  Church  of  England. 
A  feature  of  the  case  was  the  proving  of  citizenship  on 
the  part  of  the  French  claimant.  It  should  be  said,  in 
praise  of  Mr.  De  Lancey  and  his  following  that  they  ac 
cepted  the  adverse  decision,  and  did  not  obstruct  the 
pastor  in  his  work.  Few  churches  in  the  state  or  country 
have  had  a  longer  or  more  honourable  history  than  the 
French  Church  in  New  York,  which  has  enrolled  so 
many  influential  men  and  women,  known  for  uprightness 
and  philanthropy. 

The  church  is  at  present  actively  engaged  in  philan-  The  church 
thropic  effort.  But  recently  it  purchased  the  property 
adjoining  its  fine  house  of  worship,  on  the  corner  of 
Fourth  Avenue  and  Twenty-seventh  Street,  for  $150,000, 
as  an  investment.  The  title  will  be  held  in  the  name  of 
some  of  the  prominent  members.  The  object  is  to  pro 
cure  sufficient  funds  from  rentals  to  found  an  institution 
for  homeless  men.  If  this  investment  results  as  success 
fully  as  others  which  the  astute  members  of  the  church 
have  made  in  the  past,  ample  provision  will  be  made  for 
the  proposed  charity.  This  movement  is  one  of  the 
many  good  movements  instituted  by  the  present  pastor, 
Rev.  Alfred  V.  Wittmeyer,  who  has  been  in  charge  nearly 
thirty  years.  For  a  long  time  the  church  has  been  the 
real  friend  of  homeless  men.  Every  Sunday  evening  a 
company  of  the  park  bench  loungers  attend  the  evening 
services,  the  collection  at  which  is  used  to  provide  bed 
and  supper  for  the  homeless  and  destitute.  The  work 
among  this  class  has  led  to  the  founding  of  an  institution 
which  will  be  to  many  a  means  of  reformation  and  new 
beginning.  It  is  peculiarly  fitting  that  such  work  should 
be  done  by  a  church  which  dates  back  to  the  days  of 
homelessness,  exile  and  persecution,  and  whose  first 


members  knew  well  the  meaning  of  a  helping  hand  in 
time  of  need. 


The  harmony  of  the  French  colony  was  much  disturbed 
by  reports,  carefully  circulated,  that  they  were  inviting 
an  invasion  of  New  York  by  their  compatriots  in  Can 
ada.  In  order  to  avoid  the  odium  which  must  neces 
sarily  arise  from  this  scandal,  they  called  a  meeting  and 
framed  the  following  address  : 

To  His  Excellency  Lord  Cornbury,  Governor  of  New  York  : 

We,  the  undersigned,  pray  your  Excellency  to  inquire  into  the  re 
port  that  we  were  inviting  our  countrymen  to  invade  this  province ; 
the  report  has  been  spread  throughout  the  whole  State,  and  proves 
pernicious  to  all  the  French  Refugees  in  general,  and  disturbs  their 
peace  and  quiet,  as  it  obstructs  that  affection  and  familiarity  which 
they  had  formerly  enjoyed  with  the  other  inhabitants  of  this  province, 
to  their  grief  and  resentment.  We  pray  your  Excellency  to  instruct 
your  printer  to  publish  the  result,  for  the  pleasure  and  vindication  of 
our  reputation  in  this  respect.  And  your  Petitioners,  as  in  all  duty 
bound,  will  ever  pray. 

The  Huguenots  also  had  some  connection  with  Trinity 
parish,  through  one  of  their  ministers.  In  1685,  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Neau,  with  his  wife  and  daughter,  left  France  for 
America,  accompanied  by  other  Huguenots.  The  Rev. 
Mr.  Vesey,  the  first  rector  of  Trinity  Church,  appointed 
Mr.  Neau  his  catechist,  which  office  he  filled  for  several 
years,  and  he  might  be  considered  the  founder  of  Trinity 
School — an  institution  distinguished  among  the  noble 
charities  of  the  city.  This  excellent  man  closed  his  prof 
itable  life  in  1722,  and  was  buried  near  the  northern 
porch  of  old  Trinity,  where  he  had  long  worshipped  and 
served.  A  granddaughter  of  his  married  the  brave  Cap 
tain  Oliver  H.  Perry,  who  was  ever  ready  to  defend  his 
country ;  and  their  only  daughter,  Elizabeth  Mason 
Perry,  married  the  Rev.  Francis  Viuton,  D.  D.,  long 
time  rector  of  Trinity. 


IN  the  year  1689  the  lord  of  Pelham  Manor,  Mr.  John 
Pell,  deeded  6,000  acres  of  land  to  Jacob  Leisler,  a 
prominent  Dutch  merchant  of  New  York.  Leisler, 
who  had  the  misfortune  to  be  hung  a  couple  of  years  after 
this  transaction,  on  a  charge  of  high  treason,  made  the 
purchase  on  behalf  of  a  band  of  refugees  from  La  Rochelle, 
and  the  6,000  acres  of  land  which  he  took  over  form  the 
present  township  of  New  Rochelle,  in  Westchester  County. 
Some  of  the  Huguenots  who  joined  in  the  settlement 
had  lived  in  New  York  for  some  years  previously,  while 
others  came  from  the  West  Indies,  where  they  had  hastily 
sought  refuge  ;  but  the  greater  part  of  the  colonists  came 
from  England,  as  tradition  has  it,  in  one  of  the  King's 
ships.  They  were  Rochellese  who  left  their  city  four 
years  before  the  Revocation,  fled  to  the  neighbouring  Isle 
of  Rhe,  and  thence  on  British  ships  to  hospitable  Eng 
land.  The  exact  date  of  their  landing  in  America  is  not 
known,  but  it  must  have  been  during  the  year  1689  ;  local 
tradition  points  out  their  landing  place  as  Bonnefoy's 
Point,  on  what  is  now  known  as  Davenport's  Neck.  The 
Rochelle  colonists  were  not  the  first  Huguenots  to  settle 
within  the  limits  of  the  Pell  Grant,  for  in  1686  we  find 
Maria  Graton,  widow  of  William  Cothouueau,  conveying 
a  tract  of  land  to  Alexander  Allaire  in  what  is  now  New 
Rochelle,  and  Allaire  himself  sold  a  piece  of  land  to 
Theophilus  Forestier  one  year  later. 

During  the  year  following  the  arrival  of  the  refugees  Early 
there  was  much  suffering  in  the  settlement,  as  the  follow-   ] 



ing  "  humble  petition  of  ye  inhabitants  of  New  Eochelle, 
humbly  showeth." 

That  your  petitioners  having  been  forced  by  the  late  persecutions  in 
France  to  forsake  their  country  and  estates,  and  flye  to  ye  Protestant 
Princes.  Their  Majestyes  by  their  proclamation  of  ye  25th  of  Aprill, 
1689,  did  grant  them  an  azile  (asylum)  in  all  their  dominions,  with 
their  Riyall  protection ;  wherefore  they  were  invited  to  come  and  buy 
lands  in  the  province,  to  the  end  that  they  might  by  their  labour  help 
the  necessityes  of  their  familyes,  and  did  spend  therein  all  their  smale 
store,  with  the  help  of  their  friends,  whereof,  they  did  borrow 
great  sums  of  money.  They  are  above  twenty  (Ms.  torn)  poor  and 
needy,  not  able  .  .  .  ties  and  clothing,  much  .  .  .  they  did 
hitherto  beare  above  their  .  .  .  thereby  reduced  to  a  lamentable 
condition,  as  having  been  compelled  to  sell  for  that  purpose  the  things 
which  are  most  necessary  for  their  use.  Wherefore  your  petitioners 
humbly  pray,  that  your  Excellency  may  be  pleased  to  take  their  case 
in  serious  consideration,  and  out  of  Charity  and  pity,  to  grant  them 
for  some  years  what  help  and  priveleges  your  Excellency  shall  think 
convenient,  and  your  petitioners  in  duty  bound  shall  ever  pray,  etc. 



Among  the  number  of  those  who  had  lived  in  New 
York  a  year  or  so  previous  to  the  coming  of  the  main  band 
of  settlers,  and  who  later  joined  them  in  New  Eochelle, 
were  Theroulde,  Allaire,  Le  Vilain,  Machet,  Bongraud, 
Thauver,  Mercier,  Mastier  and  Jouneau.  The  town  rec 
ords,  which  were  begun  in  1699,  give  us  the  names  of  the 
freeholders  at  several  different  periods.  In  1708  the  land 
was  divided  among  the  following  :  Daniel  Lambert,  Elie 
Badeau,  Daniel  Giraud,  Gregoire  Gougeou,  Daniel  Bon 
net,  Elie  de  Bonrepos,  Jean  Magnon,  Besly,  Isaac 
Mercier,  Bartholomew  Le  Eoux,  Pierre  Valleau,  Jacob 
Scurman,  Ambroise  Sycart,  Benjamin  Faneuil,  Alexander 
Allaire,  Jean  Pemeau,  J.  Levillain,  Daniel  Eayneau, 
Guilleaume  Le  Counte,  Frangois  Le  Counte,  Zacharie 
Angevin,  and  Frederick  Schormau.  The  next  sixteen 
years  must  have  seen  many  changes  in  the  growing  town, 
for  the  list  of  freeholders  for  1724  has  a  totally  different 


complexioD.  The  following  names  were  signed  to  a  deed 
* '  granting  to  Anthony  Lespinard  a  portion  of  land  for 
the  erection  of  a  mill"  :  Besly,  Oliver  Besly,  Simon 
Mabe,  Francis  Ganyard,  Frederick  Scurmau,  Gilleaume 
Clapp,  John  Clark,  John  Martin,  Estienne  Guerin,  Benj. 
Petit,  Josias  Le  Conte,  Abel  Devoux,  Samuel  Barnard, 
John  Moras,  Peter  Samson,  John  Coutant,  F.  Bolt,  Jr., 
Zaccarie  Angevin,  Pierre  Elisse  Gallaudet,  Isaac  Mercier, 
Lancinie  Thauvet,  Anani  Guion,  Andre  Naudain,  Alex 
ander  Allaire,  Gregoire  Gougeon,  James  Eoubet,  Henry 
Shaddeu,  Bachel  Neufille. 

In  1695  letters  of  deuization  were  issued  to  Francis  Le 
Count,  David  de  Bonrepos,  Alexander  Allaire,  Henry 
Beignou,  Esaye  Valleau,  Andrew  Thaunet,  David  Bonne- 
foy,  Louis  Guion,  and  Louis  Guion  his  son,  Pierre  Das, 
Pierre  Pal  cot,  Andrew  Naudin,  and  Andrew  and  Louis 
his  sons,  Theophile  Fourrestier,  Charles  Fourrestier,  Am- 
broise  Sycard,  and  Ambroise,  and  Daniel  and  Jacques  his 
sons,  Guilliaume  Landriu,  Guilliaume  Cothouneau,  Isaac 
Caillard,  Marie  Cothouneau,  and  Guilliaume  Cothouneau 
her  son,  Jean  Neufuille,  Estensie  Lavinge  and  Jean 
Coutanti,  of  foreign  birth. 

Emigrants  continued  to  come  to  New  Eochelle  up  to 
1700.  One  of  these  was  Daniel  Bonnet,  perhaps  the  last  Bonnet 
to  come.  He  purchased  land  from  Bartholomew  Le 
Eoux,  and  the  property  is  still  held  by  his  descend 
ants.  The  following  incident  is  related  of  his  flight  from 
France : 

"  Daniel  and  his  wife  were  attempting  to  reach  the 
French  coast  with  two  small  children  concealed  in  the  story  o$ 
paniers  of  a  donkey,  covered  with  fresh  vegetables.  The 
mother  having  enjoined  upon  the  children  to  keep  perfect 
silence,  no  matter  what  might  occur,  they  had  scarcely 
commenced  their  journey  when  they  were  overtaken  by  a 
gendarme  who  demanded  to  know  what  the  paniers  con 
tained.  The  mother  replied,  'fresh  vegetables  for  the 
market.'  As  if  doubting  her  words,  the  rough  soldier 


rode  up  to  the  side  of  the  donkey,  and  thrust  his  sword 
into  the  nearest  panier,  exclaiming  as  he  rode  away,  '  Bon 
voyage,  mes  amis  ! '  The  agony  of  the  parents  may  be 
conceived,  until  the  soldier  was  well  out  of  sight,  when 
the  panier  was  immediately  opened,  and  one  child  was 
found  to  have  been  pierced  through  the  calf  of  his  leg." 
The  Another  of  the  later  arrivals  was  Margaret  Lepperner, 

who  came  with  her  two  children,  Anthony  and  Susanna. 
Anthony  became  the  founder  of  a  well-known  family,  the 
Lispenards  ;  Lepperner  being  merely  a  malformation  of 
the  name  due  to  the  peculiar  orthographic  methods  then 
in  vogue.  A  French  diary  in  the  possession  of  the 
Lispenard  family,  dating  back  to  the  days  before  the 
Revocation,  contains  many  interesting  and  pious  entries 
of  which  the  two  following  are  fair  examples  : 

From  a  "  September  20th,  1671.— I  have  been  married  to  Abel  de  Forge.     I 

Family  Diary  beg  tne  gOO(j  Lonl,  that  He  gives  us  the  grace  to  live  a  long  time  in 
His  holy  fear,  and  that  it  will  please  Him  to  give  us  a  good  paradise 
at  the  end." 

"  October  2d,  1672.— My  wife  has  been  confined  of  a  girl  Margaret, 
at  about  ten  o'clock  of  the  day,  on  a  Wednesday.  Margaret  died,  and 
has  given  her  spirit  to  God,  between  six  and  seven  o'clock  of  the  after 


A  Description  From  the  pen  of  Madame  Knight,  who  passed  through 
New  Rochelle  in  the  year  1704,  conies  the  following  brief 
description  of  the  village  at  that  time  :  "On  the  22d 
of  December  we  set  out  for  New  Rochelle,  where  being 
come,  we  had  good  entertainment,  and  recruited  ourselves 
very  well.  This  is  a  very  pretty  place,  well  compact, 
and  good,  handsome  houses,  clean,  good  and  passable 
roads,  and  situated  011  a  navigable  river,  abundance  of 
land,  well  fenced  and  cleared  all  along  as  we  passed,  which 
caused  in  me  a  love  to  the  place,  which  I  could  have 
been  content  to  live  in  it.  Here  we  rid  over  a  bridge 
made  of  one  entire  stone,  of  such  a  breadth  that  a  cart 
might  pass  with  safety,  and  to  spare.  It  lay  over  a  pas- 

of  the  Place 

Berrian    House 

Jean   Machet   House 


sage  cut  through  the  rock  to  convey  water  to  a  mill  not 
far  off.  Here  are  three  fine  taverns  within  call  of  each 
other,  and  very  good  provision  for  travellers. " 

Very  early  in  its  history  New  Eochelle  became  a  place  A  Resort 
of  some  resort,   i  i  not  only  for  the  acquirement  of  the 
French  language,  but  on  account  of  the  hospitality  and 
politeness  of  its  inhabitants.'7     And  although  there  were 
no  regular  schools  in  the  town  for  some  time  after  its  es 
tablishment,  the  children  receiving  their  instruction  at 
home,  New  Eochelle  became  rather  famous  for  the  number  Good  schools 
of  sous  of  well-to-do  citizens  who  sent  them  there  to  be 
educated.     The  most  illustrious  of  the  boys  who  were 
thus  trained  in  the  homes  of  New  Eochelle  were  John 
Jay,  who  is  treated  of  elsewhere  in  this  volume,  General  jay 
Philip  Schuyler,  the  Eevolutionary  soldier,  and  Wash-  schuyier 
ington  Irving— three  pupils  whom  the  lay  schoolmaster  Irving 
of  New  Eochelle  might  well  have  been  proud  of.     When 
we  remember  that,  in  spite  of  their  poverty  for  a  short 
period  during  the  first  trying  days  of  settlement  in  the 
New  World,  these  founders  of  New  Eochelle  were  not 
mere  fortune  seekers,  but  men  of  birth  and  breeding  and 
of  good  estate  in  France — of  a  far  higher  average  of  centre  of 
wealth  and  culture  than  the  English  and  Dutch  of  New  Cul 
York — we  need  not  be  surprised  that  the  little  village  on 
the  Sound  soon  gained  a  reputation  for  elegance  and  cul 
ture  which  far  surpassed  that  of  its  neighbours. 


The  settlers  of  New  Eochelle  were  not  able  to  build  a 
church  for  themselves  at  once.     For  the  first  three  years  church  Going 
they  attended  communion  service  at  the  French  church  in 
New  York  which  stood  on  Marketfield  Street.     From 
New  Eochelle  to  New  York  was  a  distance  of  twenty-three 
miles  by  road,  and  the  refugees  admirably  evinced  their 
devotion  to  their  faith  by  walking  the  entire  distance 
there  and  back  in  order  to  take  part  in  the  Lord's  Sup-   Genuine 
per.     Some  of  the  women  and  the  weaker  children  were 


placed  in  the  few  rude  carts  which  the  emigrants  pos 
sessed,  and  then  the  picturesque  caravan  set  out  on  its  long 
journey  to  church,  the  men  and  the  remainder  of  the 
women  walking  beside  the  carts,  many  of  them  bare 
footed,  yet  all  rejoicing,  and  showing  by  their  happy 
faces  and  the  ringing  hymns  they  sang  that  they  took 
their  privations  lightly.  All  lesser  evils  were  swallowed 

joy  in  Liberty  up  in  the  great  good  for  which  they  were  never  tired  of 
giving  thanks  to  God — the  freedom  to  worship  God  openly 
and  without  a  shadow  of  misgiving,  and  the  knowledge 
that  they  were  laying  up  for  their  children  and  their 
children's  children  a  like  heritage.  But  it  must  not  be 
thought  that  these  exiles  did  not  love  their  native  land. 
They  left  France  with  regret  in  their  hearts,  and  often 
turned  towards  their  old  home  with  pity  and  with  long 
ing.  Of  one  old  man  it  is  related  that  every  evening  at 
sunset  he  would  go  down  to  the  shore  of  the  Sound,  look 
off  across  the  water  in  the  direction  of  France  and  sing 
one  of  Marotf  s  hymns,  while  the  slow  tears  fell  upon  the 
sand  at  his  feet.  Gradually  others  met  with  him,  until 
there  gathered  daily  a  little  group  of  exiles  to  pray  and 
As  to  this  attendance  upon  church  in  New  York,  the 

True  to  their  fac^  js  attested  by  the  celebrated  Huguenot,  Dr.  John 
Pintard,  the  founder  of  the  Historical  Society,  who  says 
in  his  Recollections:  "  The  holy  sacrament  was  ad 
ministered  to  the  Huguenots,  at  New  Eochelle,  four  times 
a  year,  namely,  Christmas,  Easter,  Whitsuntide,  and  the 
middle  of  September.  During  the  intermissions  that 
occurred,  the  communicants  walked  to  New  York  for  that 
purpose.  Prior  to  their  departure  on  Sunday,  they  always 
collected  the  young  children,  and  left  them  in  the  care  of 
friends,  while  they  set  off  early  in  the  morning,  and 
walked  to  the  city  barefooted,  carrying  their  shoes  and 
stockings  in  their  hands.  They  were  accustomed  to  stop 
at  a  rock,  about  twelve  miles  from  the  city,  to  rest  and 
take  refreshments,  where  they  put  on  their  shoes  and 


pursued  their  journey,  and  arrived  at  the  French  church 
in  time  for  service.  The  earliest  French  church  in  New 
York  was  in  Marketfield  Street,  near  the  Battery.  It 
was  a  very  humble  edifice,  but  still,  being  the  house  of 
God,  sufficient  to  attract  the  worshippers  from  States- 
Island  and  New  Eochelle  on  the  Sabbath,  where  they 
used  to  chant  Marot's  hymns — those  animating  strains 
that  had  so  often  cheered  their  pious  fathers  at  the  stake 
in  the  time  of  the  bloody  persecution  of  their  fatherland. 
With  these  hymns  in  their  heads,  and  the  little  Testa 
ments  which  they  brought  from  France  concealed  in 
their  hair,  they  enjoyed  that  peace  of  mind  which  passeth 
knowledge,  unknown  to  their  persecutors." 

The  first  church  building  was  erected  in  1692,  and  was  The  First 
a  small  edifice  constructed  of  wood.  Provision  for  a 
church  had  been  made  in  the  grant  of  laud  to  Jacob  l692 
Leisler,  it  being  there  declared  that  John  Pell,  lord  of 
the  manor,  with  the  consent  of  Eachel,  his  wife,  did  (be 
sides  the  six  thousand  acres)  give  and  grant  l  i  to  the  said 
Jacob  Leisler,  the  further  quantity  of  one  hundred  acres 
of  land  for  the  use  of  the  French  church,  erected,  or  to 
be  erected  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  said  tract  of  laud." 
The  church  stood  on  the  old  Boston  post  road,  near  the 
location  of  the  present  Presbyterian  church.  About  the 
time  that  the  church  was  built  Louis  Bongrand  donated 
a  piece  of  land  forty  paces  square  to  be  used  as  a  "  church 
yard  to  bury  their  dead."  And  subsequently  a  house  church  Yard 
and  about  three  and  a  half  acres  of  land  were  given  "  by 
the  town  to  the  church  forever." 

It  would  seem  that  the  emigrants  had  a  pastor  two  Notes  from 
years  before  they  had  a  church,  as  is  shown  by  the  fol-  the  Pastor 
lowing  note  to  Governor  Leisler  : 

SIR  :  I  have  too  much  respect  for  your  orders  not  to  execute  them 
punctually,  so  that  pursuant  to  what  you  did  me  the  honour  lately  to 
give  me,  I  spoke  to  the  principals  of  this  new  colony  about  the  nomi 
nation  of  some  persons  for  the  vacant  office  of  Justice  of  the  Peace  ; 
but  as  the  condition  you  require — that  is  a  knowledge  of  the  English 


The  French 
in  Citizenship 

tongue — has  precluded  them  from  making  the  election  of  two  or  three 
according  to  your  order,  they  cannot  pitch  upon  any  except  Mr. 
Strang,  saving  your  approbation  which,  if  you  will  have  the  goodness 
to  accord  them,  you  will  oblige  them  infinitely.  Mr.  Pinton  has  also 
delivered  me,  this  day,  an  order  to  be  communicated  to  the  sd  (said) 
inhabitants  relative  to  the  election  and  nomination  of  Assessors,  Col 
lectors,  and  Commissaries,  for  levying,  imposing,  and  receiving  taxes 
for  his  Majesty's  service.  The  time  is  very  short,  since  it  is  the 
twenty-seventh  inst.,  they  must  be  at  Westchester;  but  they  look  for 
some  forbearance  and  delay  from  your  goodness  in  case,  notwithstand 
ing  their  diligence,  they  may  not  be  able  punctually  to  answer.  It  is 
not  through  any  unwillingness  to  exert  themselves  to  meet  it,  but  you 
know  their  strength  as  well  as  I.  Notwithstanding,  despite  their 
poverty  and  misery,  they  will  never  lack  in  submission  to  the  orders 
on  behalf  of  his  Majesty,  both  for  the  public  good  and  interest.  This 
they  protested  to  me,  and  I  pray  you  to  be  persuaded  thereof.  I  am 
with  respect,  and  I  pray  God  for  your  prosperity,  sir, 

Your  very  humble  and  very  obedient  servant, 


Pastor  of  this  French  Colony. 
N.  Rochelle,  29  Octob.,  1690. 




The  period  of  Dr.  David  Bonrepos'  pastorate  in  New 
Rochelle  was  a  short  one,  for  in  1694  he  went  to  the 
church  at  Staten  Island.  In  1695  the  Rev.  John  Miller, 
describing  the  province  of  New  York,  says,  "There  is  a 
meeting  house  at  Richmond  (Staten  Island)  of  which  Dr. 
Bourepos  is  pastor."  This  charge  he  retained  until  his 
death  in  1734. 

His  brother,  Elias  Bonrepos,  lived  in  New  Rochelle, 
and  like  the  pastor  was  a  man  of  learning  and  attain 
ments.  In  1705  he  was  licensed  to  keep  school,  as  the 
following  shows : 

Edward  Visco't  Cornbury,  Capt. -General  and  Governor-in-Chief  of 
ye  provinces  of  New  York,  New  Jersies  and  Terr'es  depending  thereon 
in  America  and  vice-admiral  of  ye  same,  &c.  To  Elias  Bon  Repose 
greeting  you  are  hereby  impowered  and  lycen'd  to  keep  school  within 
ye  town  of  New  Rochelle  in  ye  county  of  Westchester  and  carefully 
and  diligently  to  instruct  ye  children  under  yo'  care  and  tuition  in  ye 
art  of  reading  and  writing  during  my  pleasure,  given  under  my  hand 



and  seal  at  New  York  this  23d  day  of  June,  1705,  and  in  ye  4th  year 
of  her  uia'tys  Reign.  COENBURY. 

The  next  minister  at  New  Rochelle  was  the  Rev.  Daniel  Pastor  Bondet 
Bondet.  He  had  been  a  student  of  the  seminary  at  Geneva, 
and  upon  the  Revocation  fled  into  England  where  he  was 
received  into  orders  by  the  Bishop  of  London.  He  ac 
companied  the  settlers  to  New  Oxford,  where  he  was  en 
gaged  in  missionary  work  among  the  Indians,  and  came 
to  New  Rochelle  probably  during  the  fall  of  1695.  He 
soon  took  a  high  place  among  the  provincial  clergy,  and 
in  1704  we  find  the  clergy  of  New  York  writing  of  him 
as  follows:  "Mr.  Daniel  Bondet  has  gone  further  and 
done  more  in  that  good  work  (converting  the  heathen) 
than  any  Protestant  minister  that  we  know ;  we  commend 
him  to  your  pious  consideration  as  a  person  industrious 
in  ye  service  of  the  church  and  his  own  nation,  ye  French, 
at  New  Rochelle." 

In  1709  the  French  Reformed  Church  of  New  Rochelle  Becoming 
conformed  to  the  Church  of  England.     The  following  is  1709 
an  extract  from  a  letter  of  Colonel  Heathcote,  who  was 
instrumental  in  bringing  the  change  to  pass  : 

At  first  Mr.  Bondet  used  the  French  prayers,  according  to  the 
Protestant  churches  of  France  ;  and  subsequently  on  every  third  Sun 
day,  as  appears  by  the  above  letter,  the  Liturgy  of  the  Church  of  Eng 
land  ;  but  in  1709  his  congregation,  with  the  exception  of  two  indi 
viduals,  followed  the  example  of  their  Reformed  brethren  in  England, 
by  conforming  to  the  English  Church.  This  memorable  event  is  thus 
recorded  in  the  charter :  "  That  on  the  12th  day  of  June,  in  the  year 
of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  nine,  all  the  inhabitants 
of  the  township  of  New  Rochelle,  who  were  members  of  the  said 
French  Church,  excepting  two,  unanimously  agreed  and  consented  to 
conform  themselves,  in  the  religious  worship  of  their  said  Church,  to 
the  Liturgy  and  rites  of  the  Church  of  England  as  established  by  law  ; 
and  by  a  solemn  act  or  agreement  did  submit  to,  and  put  themselves 
under  the  protection  of  the  same." 

Since  the  first  wooden  church  had  been  built  the  num 
ber  of  communicants  had  greatly  increased,  and  in  1709 

New  Stone 
Church  171° 


A  Church 




A  Missionary 



a  license  was  procured  for  building  a  new  one.  The  new 
church  was  begun  in  the  summer  of  the  following  year 
and  was  completed  that  same  autumn.  It  was  of  stone, 
nearly  square  in  shape,  and  perfectly  plain  both  outside 
and  in.  Of  the  building  of  this  church  a  pious  chronicler 
records  that  u  so  anxious  were  all  to  contribute  something 
towards  its  completion,  that  even  females  carried  stones 
in  their  hands,  and  mortar  in  their  aprons,  to  complete 
the  sacred  work." 

Shortly  after  the  conformation  to  the  Episcopal  Church, 
a  schism  arose  to  rend  the  harmony  of  New  Eochelle. 
"  The  seceders  erected  a  meeting-house,  styled  themselves 
'The  French  Protestant  Congregation/  and  remained 
violently  opposed  to  their  lawful  pastors ;  and  not  only 
so,  but  in  opposition  to  their  own  founders,  proscribed 
the  Church  of  England  in  her  doctrine,  discipline,  ordi 
nances,  usages,  rites  and  ceremonies,  as  popish,  rotten 
and  unscriptural."  Those  were  "  parlous  times,"  and 
if  we  may  read  between  the  lines,  religious  discussion 
waxed  extremely  warm  in  the  otherwise  peaceful  village. 
The  present  Presbyterian  Church  is  the  flourishing 
progeny  of  the  "  seceders." 

Concerning  Pastor  Bondet  the  same  active  layman, 
Colonel  Heathcote,  writes :  * l  He  is  a  good  man,  &  preaches 
very  intelligibly  in  English,  which  language  he  uses  every 
third  Sabbath,  when  he  avails  himself  of  the  Liturgy  ;  he 
has  done  a  great  deal  of  service  since  his  arrival  in  this 
country.  His  pay  is  only  thirty  pounds  ($150)  per 
anum."  In  1714  this  good  man  took  the  spiritual  charge 
of  the  Mohegans,  or  Eiver  Indians.  In  his  reports  he 
states  that  there  were  fifty  communicants  in  his  church. 
After  labouring  here  twenty-seven  years,  he  died  in  his 
sixty-ninth  year,  in  1722. 

The  third  minister  was  Eev.  Pierre  Stouppe,  A.  M.  He 
gives  some  interesting  information  in  a  letter  dated  Decem 
ber  11,  1727,  about  the  early  settlement  of  New  Eochelle. 
He  writes  :  l  k  The  present  number  of  inhabitants  is  about 


four  hundred  ;  there  is  one  dozen  houses  round  the  church, 
near  each  other,  which  gives  the  place  the  appearance  of 
a  town.  There  are  several  French  families  settled  within 
bounds  of  the  settlement,  who  worship  with  the  congrega 
tion.  Such  was  the  commencement  of  the  beautiful  and 
picturesque  village  of  New  Rochelle.  More  than  a 
century  and  a  half  have  passed  away  since  its  founders 
immigrated  to  America,  and  their  noble  and  holy  princi 
ples  have  left  good  influences,  evidently  discernible  in 
the  refinement,  morals  and  religion  of  their  descendants, 
still  bearing  their  patronymics.  Let  it  not  be  forgotten 
that  the  Bible  came  with  these  early  settlers,  &  was 
the  foundation  of  their  legislation.  The  Dutch  and 
Lutheran  families  generally  unite  with  the  church  when 
the  service  is  performed  in  English,  &  they  bring  their 
children  to  be  baptized  by  the  French  ministers."  There 
was  no  school  in  the  place,  and  the  parents  supplied  the 
deficiency  by  instructing  their  children.  There  were 
about  one  hundred  slaves  in  the  settlement,  who  were 
taught  to  read  by  their  masters,  and  were  baptized  and 
admitted  to  the  communion. 

In  July,  1760,  the  revered  and  venerable  Pierre  1760 
Stouppe  rested  from  his  labours  on  earth,  leaving  behind 
him  a  reputation  unsullied  by  a  stain,  after  having,  for 
the  long  period  of  thirty-seven  years,  faithfully  discharged 
the  duties  of  his  mission.  He  w^as  greatly  respected  by 
his  people,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  the  number  of 
his  communicants  amounted  to  eighty.  As  a  mark  of 
respect  his  remains  were  interred  under  the  chancel 
where  he  had  so  long  officiated. 

His  successor  was  Rev.  Michael  Houdin,  the  last 
French  preacher  in  New  Rochelle.  This  zealous  mission 
ary  was  born  in  France,  in  1705.  At  the  beginning  of 
war  between  France  and  Great  Britain  he  quitted  Canada, 
where  he  first  settled,  and  went  to  New  York,  where  he 
read  his  recantation,  being  previously  a  member  of  the 
Church  of  Rome.  Mr.  Waldron  tells  us,  in  his  Hugue- 


Service  as 
and  Guide 

A  Tribute 

nots  of  Westchester,  that  when  Mr.  Houdin  and  his 
wife  reached  New  York,  in  June,  1744,  Governor  Clinton, 
suspicious  of  all  Frenchmen,  confined  the  strangers  to 
their  lodgings,  and  set  two  sentinels  to  guard  them.  His 
Excellency  summoned  them  before  him,  when  Mr.  Houdin 
first  informed  him  that  the  French  intended  to  attack 
Oswego  with  eight  hundred  men,  being  long  desirous  of 
possessing  that  town.  After  filling  the  office  of  mission 
ary  for  some  years  in  Trenton,  New  Jersey,  he  was  em 
ployed,  in  1759,  as  a  guide  to  General  Wolfe,  in  his  expedi 
tion  against  Quebec.  Before  he  undertook  this  business, 
he  preached  to  the  Provincial  troops  destined  for  Canada, 
in  St.  Peter's  Church,  Westchester,  from  St.  Matthew 
10  :  28:  "Fear  not  them  which  kill  the  body."  This 
church,  at  that  time,  was  the  only  parochial  place  of 
worship  in  a  district  of  many  miles,  including  Fordham, 
New  Eochelle,  West  Farms,  etc.  The  chaplain  escaped 
the  danger  of  the  war  ;  but  the  gallant  Wolfe  fell,  mor 
tally  wounded,  at  the  moment  of  victory,  on  the  Heights 
of  Abraham,  September  13,  1759.  After  the  reduction 
of  Quebec,  Mr.  Houdin  asked  permission  to  return  to  his 
mission  again,  but  General  Murray  would  not  consent,  as 
there  was  no  other  person  who  could  be  relied  on  for  in 
telligence  concerning  the  French  movements. 

Eeturning  to  New  York  in  1761,  he  was  appointed  to 
New  Bochelle,  which  village,  as  well  as  Fordham,  was 
considered  within  the  spiritual  jurisdiction  of  West- 
Chester  Village,  then  the  only  parish  in  the  county.  The 
French  church  was  named  Trinity,  and  received,  at  this 
time,  a  charter  from  George  the  Third,  dated  1762.  Mr. 
Houdin  served  until  his  death  in  1766.  i  t  He  was  a  man 
of  considerable  learning  and  research,  as  well  as  of  irre 
proachable  character.  He  was  not  excelled  in  zeal  and 
energy  by  any  of  his  predecessors,  and  was  followed  to  the 
grave  by  the  regrets  of  his  numerous  parishioners.  He 
was  interred  under  the  chancel  of  the  old  French  church, 
in  the  same  grave  with  Bondet  and  Stouppe.  Since  the 



removal  of  the  sacred  edifice,  to  make  way  for  the  high 
road  to  Boston,  the  mortal  remains  of  these  faithful  and 
pious  labourers,  in  the  service  of  their  Master,  repose 
beneath  the  public  way,  and  not  a  memorial  stone  marks 
the  spot  where  they  lie,  or  commemorates  their  useful 
ness,  excellence,  or  piety.1' 

While  our  interest  in  the  church  as  a  French  church 
ceases  largely  at  this  point,  since  it  lost  its  distinctive 
character,  it  is  to  be  noted  that  among  the  later  rectors 
of  the  parish  was  Eev.  Louis  Pintard  Bayard,  a  descend 
ant  of  two  of  the  best  known  Huguenot  families. 

New  Eochelle  still  retains  something  of  a  French  char 
acter.  Here  and  there  a  house  with  a  Huguenot  history 
can  be  found,  and  many  of  the  old  families  are  repre 
sented  by  their  descendants.  The  growth  of  New  York, 
however,  has  made  New  Eochelle  one  of  the  favourite 
suburban  sections,  and  it  will  soon  take  on  a  metropolitan 
character  that  will  obliterate  what  is  left  of  its  early 
French  atmosphere. 



THE  most  eminent  of  the  Huguenot  descendants 
in  our  early  history  as  a  nation  was  John  Jay, 
who,  as  one  of  his  biographers  says,  by  reason  of 
his  character,  u  conscientious,  upright,  just  and  wise,  like 
Washington,  survives  in  the  popular  imagination  as  an 
abstract   type  of  propriety."     He  was  exceptional  in 
character  as  in  statesmanship. 

John  Jay  was  the  eighth  child  and  sixth  son  of  Peter 
Jay  and  Mary,  daughter  of  Jacobus  Van  Cortlandt,  and 
thus  united  the  French  and  Dutch  blood  and  two  dis 
tinguished  New  York  families,  to  which  a  third,  the  Liv 
ingstons,  was  to  be  added.  John  was  born  December  12, 
1745.  His  father  was  a  rich  merchant.  His  great-grand 
father,  Pierre  Jay,  was  a  Huguenot  merchant  of  Kochelle, 
who  left  France  on  the  Eevocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes, 
when  the  greater  part  of  his  property  was  confiscated. 
In  the  Life  of  John  Jay,  by  his  son,  some  account  is  given 
of  the  fortunes  of  this  ancestor. 

"  Pursuant  to  an  order  passed  in  January,  1685,"  says 
this  account,  "the  Protestant  Church  at  Eochelle  was 
demolished.  The  ensuing  summer  a  number  of  troops 
were  marched  into  the  city  and  quartered  on  the  Protes 
tant  inhabitants,  and  these  troops  were  soon  followed  by 
four  companies  of  dragoons.  The  attempt  made  to  con 
vert  or  intimidate  Mr.  Pierre  Jay  proving  fruitless,  some 
of  these  dragoons  were  sent  to  his  house  to  live  and  act 
at  their  discretion."  There  is  no  evidence  that  they  of 
fered  personal  violence  to  Mr.  Jay  or  his  family,  but  in 




other  respects  they  behaved  as  it  was  intended  they 
should.  Such  a  situation  was  intolerable,  and  Mr.  Jay 
lost  no  time  in  relieving  his  family  from  it.  He  found 
means  to  withdraw  them,  together  with  some  articles  of 
furniture,  secretly  from  the  house,  and  succeeded  in 
putting  them  on  board  a  vessel  which  he  had  engaged 
for  the  purpose.  They  fortunately  set  sail  without  being 
discovered,  and  were  safely  landed  at  Plymouth  in  Eng 
land.  He  thought  it  advisable  to  remain  behind,  doubt 
less  with  the  design  to  save  what  he  could  from  the 
wreck  of  his  fortune.  It  was  not  long  before  the  absence 
of  his  family  excited  attention  and  produced  investiga 
tion.  After  some  time  he  was  arrested  and  committed  to 
prison.  Being  closely  connected  with  some  influential 
Roman  Catholics,  he  was,  by  their  interposition  and  good 
offices,  set  at  liberty.  He  was  fortunate  enough  to  escape 
to  England  in  one  of  his  own  vessels  that  arrived  from 
Spain.  As  soon  as  his  departure  was  known,  his  estate 
was  seized,  and  no  part  of  it  afterwards  came  to  the  use 
of  either  himself  or  his  family.  He  died  in  England.  Augustus  jay 
His  son  Augustus,  after  many  adventures,  settled  in  New 
York  in  1686,  where  he  married  Anna  Maria  Bayard, 
descendant  of  the  Protestant  professor  of  theology  at 
Paris,  who  had  left  his  country  on  account  of  his  religion, 
like  so  many  others,  and  made  his  home  in  Holland. 
Through  his  wife's  relatives,  the  Bayards  and  Stuyve- 
sants  (Peter  Stuyvesant's  wife  being  a  Huguenot),  and 
his  brother-in-law,  Stephen  Peloquin,  a  merchant  of 
Bristol,  England,  Augustus  Jay  soon  formed  a  profitable 
business  connection.  His  son  became  partner  in  his 
firm  ;  and  in  1740  his  name  appears  as  alderman,  while 
the  family  became  allied  with  the  manorial  families  of 
Van  Cortlandt,  Phillipse,  and  Livingston. 


From  his  father,  Peter  Jay,  who  was  a  typical  New 
York  merchant  of  the  time,  a  gentleman  of  opulence, 


character  and  reputation,  John  inherited  many  marked 
traits.  Peter  was  a  very  pious  man.  In  letters  to  his 
son  James  in  England  he  writes  :  ' '  Let  us  endeavour  to 
adhere  to  the  worship  of  God,  observing  His  holy  ordi 
nances  as  the  rule  of  our  lives,  let  us  disregard  the 
wicked  insinuations  of  libertines,  who  not  only  deride 
our  most  holy  religion  and  the  professors  of  it,  but  also 
endeavour  to  gain  proselytes  to  their  detestable  notions, 
and  so  rob  the  Almighty  of  the  honour  and  adoration 
that  is  due  to  Him  from  His  creatures."  And  again, 
"Don't  forget  to  bring  me  Bishop  Patrick's  Devout 
Christian,  a  book  you  doubtless  will  remember,  as  it  con 
tains  the  family  prayers  we  always  use." 

Peter  Jay  was  a  colonist  and  not  a  Eoyalist,  and  his 
son  came  naturally  by  his  Whig  notions.  u  I  have  noth 
ing  to  ask  or  fear  from  any  man,  and  will  not  be  com 
pelled  into  measures. ' '  That  was  the  man,  and  that  was 
his  son  John.  Firmness  of  character  that  in  excess  would 
have  been  obstinacy  was  a  notable  trait  in  them.  John 
was  brought  up  in  Eye,  in  the  old  Jay  house,  a  long  low 
building  only  one  room  deep  but  eighty  feet  long,  that 
grew  as  the  family  required.  He  was  taught  by  his 
mother  the  rudiments  of  English  and  the  Latin  grammar. 
"  Johnny  is  of  a  very  grave  disposition  and  takes  to 
learning  exceedingly  well,"  wrote  his  father  when  the 
lad  was  seven.  He  was  sent  to  grammar  school  at  eight, 
a  school  kept  by  Eev.  Peter  Stouppe,  pastor  of  the 
French  Huguenot  Church,  then  lately  joined  to  the  Epis 
copal  communion  at  New  Eochelle.  French  was  then 
spoken  generally  at  the  school. 

In  1760  he  entered  King's  College  (Columbia  Univer 
sity  of  to-day),  when  a  little  over  fourteen.  After  grad 
uation  in  1764,  he  studied  law,  in  1768  receiving  admis 
sion  to  the  bar.  Family  and  ability  combined  to  gain 
Marriage  1774  him  a  large  practice.  In  1774  he  was  married  to  Sarah 
Livingston,  whose  father  later  became  governor  of  New 



The  Revolution  gave  him  opportunity  to  serve  his 
country  in  most  conspicuous  manner,  and  opportunity 
found  him  ready  and  eager.  He  took  an  active  part  in 
the  measures  that  led  to  independence.  In  the  year  of  his  Active  Patriot 
marriage  he  was  one  of  the  committee  of  fifty  appointed 
by  the  citizens  of  New  York  to  correspond  with  other 
colonial  committees  concerning  the  Boston  Port  Bill.  His 
talents  were  recognized  and  his  advancement  was  rapid. 
In  September,  1774,  he  was  elected  a  delegate  to  the  Con 
tinental  Congress  in  Philadelphia,  and  took  a  leading 
position  in  that  body,  although  one  of  the  youngest  mem 
bers.  It  is  sufficient  proof  of  his  position  that  he  was 
charged  with  drawing  up  the  Address  to  the  People  of 
Great  Britain,  and  the  utmost  confidence  was  placed  in 
his  judgment. 

He  was  a  member  also  of  the  second  Congress,  in  1775,  Member  of 
and  wrote  the  addresses  to  the  people  of  Canada  and  Ire 
land.  He  rendered  most  useful  service  on  the  secret 
committee  which  corresponded  with  the  friends  of  Amer 
ica  in  Europe.  His  pen  was  able  and  eloquent,  and  none 
could  more  forcibly  present  the  cause  of  the  colonies. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  committee  that  drew  up  the 
Declaration  of  Independence,  and  doubtless  had  full 
share  in  that  document,  although  he  was  not  among  its 
signers,  owing  to  the  fact  that  it  was  deemed  essential  to 
the  cause  of  liberty  that  he  take  the  seat  in  the  provincial 
Congress  of  New  York,  to  which  he  was  elected  in  April, 
1776.  In  that  body  he  was  a  leader,  and  it  was  his  hand  constitution 
which  drafted  the  constitution  adopted  by  the  State. 


It  should  not  be  forgotten  that  it  was  the  descendant  of 
a  French  Huguenot  refugee  who,  as  chairman  of  the  com-   Resolution  for 
mittee  of  the  New  York  Congress  to  which  the  Declara-   IndePendence 
tion  of  Independence  had  been  referred,   wrote  and  re 
ported  this  resolution,  which  was  unanimously  adopted  : 

* '  That  the  reasons  assigned  by  the  Continental  Con- 

248        THE  FEENCH  BLOOD 


Chief  Justice 

President  of 

Spain  1780 

Peace  1781 

gress  for  declaring  the  United  Colonies  free  and  independ 
ent  States  are  cogent  and  conclusive  ;  and  that  while  we 
lament  the  cruel  necessity  which  has  rendered  that 
measure  unavoidable,  we  approve  the  same,  and  while  at 
the  risk  of  our  lives  and  fortunes,  join  with  the  other 
colonies  in  supporting  it." 

Then  the  New  York  delegates  at  Philadelphia  were 
authorized  to  sign  the  Declaration.  Jay  served  as  one 
of  the  Council  of  Safety  in  New  York,  and  later  accepted 
provisional  appointment  as  Chief  Justice  of  the  State. 
This  appointment  was  confirmed  under  the  constitution, 
when  adopted,  but  he  was  prohibited  from  holding  any 
other  office  except  that  of  Congressional  delegate  "on 
special  occasion."  Events  now  moved  rapidly  and  the 
special  occasion  soon  came  in  the  secession  of  Vermont 
from  New  Hampshire  and  New  York.  In  December, 
1778,  Jay  was  sent  to  Congress,  and  elected  its  president. 
He  was  the  author  of  the  letter,  written  in  1779  in  the 
name  of  the  Congress,  to  the  people  of  the  States  on  the 
subject  of  currency  and  finance.  Then  came  a  stress  in 
foreign  affairs,  and  it  was  necessary  to  send  abroad  the 
ablest  men  to  be  found.  Jay  was  accordingly  despatched 
as  plenipotentiary  to  Spain,  arriving  there  in  January, 
1780.  He  resigned  his  chief  justiceship  and  the  presi 
dency  of  Congress  to  undertake  a  mission  that  proved 
unsatisfactory,  though  through  no  fault  of  his  5  he  suc 
ceeded  in  gaining  material  help  from  Spain. 

In  1781  he  was  commissioned  to  act  with  Franklin, 
Adams,  Jefferson  and  Laurens  in  negotiating  peace  with 
Great  Britain.  Thus  two  of  the  five  members  of  that 
most  important  diplomatic  body  were  Huguenot  descend 
ants.  Jay  arrived  in  Paris  from  Spain  in  June,  1782, 
the  provisional  articles  were  signed  November  30,  1782, 
and  the  formal  treaty  on  September  3,  1783.  During 
this  period  Jay  was  the  one  who  *'  evinced  a  jealous  sus 
picion  of  the  disinterestedness  of  France  and  a  punctil 
ious  attention  to  the  dignity  of  his  country" — perhaps 


remembering  the  treatment  which  France  had  given  to 
his  forebears.  When  the  peace  treaty  had  been  signed, 
Jay  resigned  all  his  commissions  and  came  back  to  New 
York  in  1784  as  a  private  citizen,  after  ten  years  of  most 
arduous  and  brilliant  service  for  his  country  —  a  service 
that  had  contributed  as  much  as  that  of  any  other  man  to 
the  shaping  of  the  policies  and  course  of  the  young  Re 



But  he  could  not  remain  in  private  life  ;  he  was  too 
valuable  to  the  state.  He  was  presented  with  the  freedom  offices  and 
of  the  city,  and  at  once  elected  delegate  to  Congress. 
Before  he  reached  America,  indeed,  that  body  had  chosen 
him  to  be  foreign  secretary,  and  he  held  that  position 
until  the  beginning  of  the  Federal  Government  in  1789. 
He  was  foremost  in  the  organization  of  that  government, 
and  joined  Hamilton  and  Madison  in  issuing  the  Feder 
alist.  He  published  an  address  to  the  people  of  New 
York,  in  vindication  of  the  Constitution,  and  worked 
zealously  with  Hamilton  for  its  adoption  by  New  York. 
From  his  legal  acquirements  and  judicial  temperament  it  First  chief 

was  natural  and  fitting  that  under  this  new  government 

he  was  appointed,  September  26,  1789,  the  first  Chief  Court 
Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States.  The 
two  men  who  through  their  ability  and  influence  swung 
New  York  into  line  for  the  Federal  Constitution  were  of 
French  blood. 

None  of  the  great  statesmen  who  founded  the  Republic 
escaped  detraction  at  some  period,  and  Jay  was  in  the  jay's  Treaty 
company  of  Washington  and  others  in  this  respect.  It 
was  necessary  to  'make  a  commercial  treaty  with  Great 
Britain,  if  war  was  to  be  averted,  and  Chief  Justice  Jay 
was  appointed  envoy  to  England  for  that  purpose  in  1794. 
He  signed  a  treaty  with  Lord  Grenville  November  19th, 
after  four  months  spent  in  negotiations,  and  landed  in 
New  York  again  in  May,  1795.  "  Jay's  Treaty"  was 
fiercely  attacked,  particularly  because  of  the  article  de- 



Governor  of 
New  York 

Death  in  1829 



claring  that  a  free  ship  did  not  make  free  cargo.  In  spite 
of  the  fact  that  by  the  treaty  provisions  the  eastern 
boundary  of  Maine  was  determined,  that  American  citizens 
recovered  over  ten  millions  for  illegal  captures  by  British 
cruisers,  and  that  the  western  posts  held  by  British  gar 
risons  were  surrendered,  Jay  was  accused  of  having  be 
trayed  his  country,  and  his  effigy  was  burned  together 
with  copies  of  the  treaty.  Washington,  however,  ratified 
the  treaty,  with  the  approval  of  the  Senate,  and  its  ben 
eficial  effects  were  subsequently  recognized. 

Two  days  before  he  arrived  in  New  York  from  this 
foreign  mission,  Jay  had  been  elected  Governor  of  New 
York  ;  and  in  spite  of  the  violent  denunciation  of  his 
treaty  was  re-elected,  serving  six  years.  At  the  close  of 
his  second  term,  in  1801,  he  resolutely  withdrew  from 
public  life,  living  on  the  ancestral  estate  at  Bedford, 
Westchester  County,  for  a  quarter  century.  He  died 
May  17,  1829.  He  declined  a  second  appointment  by 
President  Adams  as  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States 
Supreme  Court,  and  kept  himself  free  from  politics. 

The  characteristics  of  his  ancestry  now  appeared  prom 
inently.  He  was  devoted  to  religious  and  philanthropic 
movements,  and  his  public  utterances  in  his  later  years 
were  chiefly  as  president  of  the  American  Bible  Society. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Episcopal  church,  in  which  most 
of  the  Huguenot  churches  in  this  country  became  merged, 
and  maintained  the  highest  character  for  moral  purity, 
philanthropy,  patriotism,  and  unyielding  integrity.  He 
was  long  in  advance  of  the  latter-day  abolitionists.  As 
early  as  1785  he  was  president  of  a  New  York  society  for 
the  emancipation  of  the  slaves,  and  it  was  largely  due  to 
his  efforts  that  slavery  was  abolished  in  New  York  in 
1799.  As  a  private  citizen  his  influence  was  scarcely  less 
marked  than  when  he  was  in  public  life.  In  his  eighty - 
fourth  year  closed  a  life  whose  purity  and  integrity  are 
summed  up  in  a  sentence  by  Daniel  Webster  that  forms  a 
fitting  epitaph  :  "  When  the  spotless  ermine  of  the  judi- 


cial  robe  fell  on  John  Jay,  it  touched  nothing  less  spot 
less  than  itself."  America  owes  a  lasting  debt  of  grati 
tude  to  this  great  jurist  and  statesman,  one  of  the  greatest 
gifts  France  made  to  this  country  through  the  persecution 
of  her  Protestant  citizens. 

The  following  a  Befleetion  of  John  Jay 


ancestry  is  given  in  his  biography  : 

concerning  his  J*y  on  hi« 


After  what  has  been  said,  you  will  observe  with  pleasure  and  grati 
tude  how  kindly  and  how  amply  Providence  was  pleased  to  provide 
for  the  welfare  of  our  ancestor,  Augustus.  Nor  was  his  case  a  soli 
tary  or  singular  instance.  The  beneficent  care  of  heaven  appears  to 
have  been  evidently  and  remarkably  extended  to  all  those  persecuted 
exiles.  Strange  as  it  may  seem,  I  have  never  heard  of  one  of  them 
who  asked  or  received  alms  ;  nor  have  I  any  reason  to  suspect,  much 
less  to  believe,  that  any  of  them  came  to  this  country  in  a  destitute 
situation.  The  number  of  refugees  who  settled  here  was  considerable. 
They  did  not  disperse  and  settle  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  but 
formed  three  societies  or  congregations,  one  in  the  city  of  New  York, 
another  at  Paltz,  and  a  third  at  a  town  which  they  purchased  and 
called  New  Rochelle.  At  New  Rochelle  they  built  two  churches,  and 
lived  in  great  tranquillity.  None  of  them  became  rich,  but  they  lived 




A  Huguenot 



I  IDE  by  side  with  John  Jay  among  the  great  figures 
of  the  Eevolutionary  period  stands  Alexander 
Hamilton,  who  had  in  his  veins  Huguenot  blood, 
on  his  mother's  side.  No  more  brilliant  genius  has  our 
country  known.  Many  have  ranked  him  next  to  Wash 
ington.  Commonly  he  is  placed  in  the  eminent  group 
that  includes  Franklin,  Jay  and  Adams.  He  was  second 
to  none  in  the  character  and  importance  of  his  services  to 
his  country.  To  his  commanding  abilities  as  a  financier 
the  new  Eepublic  owed  its  financial  salvation,  and  for  his 
achievements  in  this  difficult  line  he  received  as  high 
praise  as  language  could  bestow.  It  was  Daniel  Webster 
who  said  of  him  :  "  He  touched  the  dead  corpse  of  pub 
lic  credit,  and  it  sprang  upon  its  feet."  And  this  was  no 

His  career  was  romantic  and  remarkable.  He  was  born 
January  11,  1757,  on  the  island  of  Nevis,  in  the  West  In 
dies,  where  his  father,  an  English  officer  of  Scotch  blood, 
met  and  took  for  wife  the  descendant  of  a  French  refugee, 
one  of  the  considerable  number  that  found  an  asylum  in 
the  West  Indies.  The  boy  was  destined  to  know  little  of 
home  life.  In  1772,  when  he  was  fifteen,  a  hurricane 
swept  over  the  island.  A  newspaper  account  of  the 
disaster  was  so  graphic  in  description  that  its  unknown 
author  was  sought  for,  and  found  to  be  the  lad  Hamilton. 
So  impressed  was  the  governor  of  Nevis  with  the  boy's 
talents  that  he  was  sent  to  the  American  colonies,  where 
he  could  find  wider  field.  He  was  placed  in  a  grammar 



school  at  Elizabethtown,  New  Jersey,  and  in  less  than  a  Racing ^ 
year  was  declared  ready  for  college.  Princeton  would 
not  allow  him  to  advance  as  rapidly  as  he  was  able,  re 
gardless  of  the  established  four  years,  so  he  applied  for 
this  privilege  at  King's  College  in  New  York,  and  was  ac 
cepted.  He  went  through  college  at  an  amazing  pace, 
taking  such  extra  studies  as  he  desired. 

Meanwhile  the  storm  of  the  Eevolution  was  approach 
ing.  As  a  British  subject  the  young  man's  sympathies 
were  at  first  with  England.  But  in  1774,  when  he  was 
seventeen,  he  visited  Boston,  where  the  "tea  party"  and 
its  consequences  were  the  absorbing  topic.  This  led  him 
to  study  with  the  thoroughness  that  marked  him  the 
whole  subject  of  the  relations  of  the  colonies  to  the 
mother  country  and  the  questions  at  issue.  As  a  result 
he  returned  to  New  York  an  American.  A  mass  meeting 
of  patriots  was  held  in  July  of  that  same  year,  and 
Hamilton  heard  the  speeches.  Suddenly,  uninvited  and 
unannounced,  he  took  the  platform  and  began  to  speak. 
M  first  surprise  kept  the  people  silent,  as  this  youthful  Maiden 
and  slender  student  went  on.  Soon  they  forgot  his  age, 
and  listened  to  one  who  knew  his  subject  and  was  en 
lightening  as  well  as  enchaining  them.  That  incident, 
which  reminds  us  of  Wendell  Phillips'  first  anti-slavery 
speech,  introduced  Alexander  Hamilton  to  the  American 
public.  From  that  day  Hamilton  used  his  voice  and  pen 
with  telling  effect.  A  recent  writer  says  : 

During  the  winter  of  1774-5,   a  coterie  of   Tory  writers,  mostly    Tory 
clergymen  and  educators,   issued  a  series  of    essays  presenting  the    Essayists 
British  side  so  strongly  as  to  threaten  great  harm  to  the  popular  cause, 
unless  ably  answered.     These  essays  were  soon  met  by  anonymous 
replies  so  exhaustive  and  convincing  as  to  excite  the  admiration  of  the 
Tories  themselves.     On  every  hand  eager  search  was  made  to  discover 
this  new  "  Juniua. "     The  reputation  of  John  Jay  and  of  Governor 
Livingston  was  augmented  in  no  small  degree  by  the  supposition  that 
they  were  the  authors  of  the  patriotic  answers.     Great  was  the  sur 
prise  at  the  discovery,  after  some  weeks,  that  the  real  author  was  the 


youthful  student  from  the  island  of  Nevis.  Oddly  enough,  it  turned 
out  that  one  of  the  Tories  with  whom  the  lad  had  been  conducting  his 
newspaper  controversy  was  Dr.  Cooper,  president  of  King's  College. 

A  Soldier 

Camp  to 

The  Little 

But  now  the  time  for  action  came,  and  Hamilton,  who 
had  leaped  from  boyhood  into  manhood,  devoted  himself 
to  the  study  of  war.  So  apt  a  scholar  was  he  that  when 
the  New  York  Convention  ordered  the  raising  of  an  ar 
tillery  company,  he  was  made  its  captain.  His  company 
was  brought  to  a  high  state  of  discipline  so  rapidly  that 
it  attracted  the  attention  of  General  Greene,  who  brought 
the  young  officer  to  the  attention  of  Washington. 

Nothing  could  hold  this  precocious  genius  back.  He 
was  with  the  Continental  Army  on  Long  Island  and  in 
New  Jersey.  At  Princeton  and  Trenton  he  shared  in  the 
laurels.  He  constructed  some  earthworks  with  such  un 
usual  skill  that  they  were  noticed  by  Washington,  who 
traced  them  to  their  author.  So  drawn  was  the  great 
commander  to  the  youth  that  he  appointed  him  aide-de 
camp  to  himself  with  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel,  and 
made  him  secretary  and  confidential  adviser.  This 
when  he  was  twenty,  in  1777.  Washington  was  forty- 
five,  and  members  of  his  staff  were  old  enough  to  be 
Hamilton's  father,  yet  he  won  them  all  by  his  modesty 
and  genuineness  and  ability.  For  four  years  he  served 
on  Washington's  staff,  and  then  their  official  relationship 
came  to  an  end  through  a  misunderstanding.  Hamilton, 
however,  remained  with  the  army,  preferring  life  on  the 
line.  At  Yorktown,  commanding  a  corps  under  Lafay 
ette,  he  led  an  assault  upon  a  British  redoubt  with 
such  gallantry,  taking  the  redoubt  at  the  point  of  the 
bayonet,  that  Lafayette  was  high  in  his  praise,  while 
Washington  said,  "Few  cases  have  exhibited  greater 
proof  of  intrepidity,  coolness  and  firmness  than  were 
shown  on  this  occasion."  By  his  courage  Hamilton  won 
the  name  of  "the  Little  Lion."  He  had  the  military 
instinct,  and  would  have  made  a  great  general,  had  his 


life  so  developed ;  but  he  was  destined  for  something 

When  the  end  of  the  war  was  in  sight,  Hamilton  re 
signed  his  commission,  took  up  the  study  of  law  at 
Albany,  and  in  four  mouths  was  admitted  to  the  bar. 
In  the  fall  of  1782  he  was  elected  to  the  Continental 
Congress,  where  he  devoted  his  genius  to  the  financial 
and  political  problems  that  threatened  the  destruction 
of  the  new  Confederation.  He  adopted  the  national  or 
republican  principle,  as  against  the  strictly  democratic 
idea.  He  believed  that  the  best  people  must  rule.  He 
felt  that  unless  a  stronger  central  government  was  formed 
the  people  must  lose  what  they  had  gained  by  the  long 
war.  To  create  such  a  government  became  his  passion. 
He  did  more  than  any  other  man  to  secure  the  conven 
tion  that  wrought  out  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States,  and  in  that  convention  he  was  a  leading  spirit  creating  the 
and  power.  Then  he  threw  himself  into  the  struggle  to 
secure  the  adoption  of  the  constitution  by  the  States. 
His  ends  were  gained,  and  two  Huguenot  descendants — 
Jay  and  himself — had  much  to  do  with  the  success 
achieved,  which  meant  stability  for  the  new  Eepublic,  if 
not  existence  itself. 

Washington  as  president  made  Hamilton  the  first 
secretary  of  the  treasury,  and  in  this  office  his  genius 
blossomed.  He  was  secretary  of  a  treasury  that  had  no  secretary  of 
treasure  in  it.  The  government  was  not  only  moneyless  * 
but  in  debt.  Public  credit  had  to  be  created.  And 
Hamilton  created  it.  He  caused  the  adoption  of  the 
dollar  first  used  by  the  United  States  in  1793.  He  in 
duced  Congress  to  assume  the  whole  of  the  war  indebted 
ness  and  pledge  the  resources  of  the  United  States  for  its 
payment.  In  the  process,  to  secure  the  necessary  votes, 
he  made  the  famous  bargain  with  Jefferson  whereby  the 
national  capital  was  located  on  the  Potomac,  a  wise 
choice.  By  financial  measures  which  evoked  the  admira 
tion  of  foreign  statesmen,  he  bound  the  States  into  a 


From  Public 
Life  to  Law 

The  Duel  and 
the  End 

union  of  such  cohesive  force  that  a  half  century  later  the 
fibres  of  civil  war,  burning  with  increasing  fury  for  four 
years,  could  not  naelt  it. 

Broad  and  deep  he  laid  the  foundation  principles. 
And  then,  having  done  his  duty  at  personal  sacrifice,  he 
left  public  life  to  practice  his  profession  and  make  a 
living  for  his  family.  New  York  never  had  a  more 
brilliant  lawyer.  Chancellor  Kent  said,  "Hamilton  rose 
to  the  loftiest  heights  of  professional  eminence,  He  was 
a  very  great  favourite  with  the  merchants  of  New  York, 
and  was  employed  in  every  important  and  every  com 
mercial  case."  He  was  marked  by  profound  penetration, 
power  of  analysis,  comprehensive  grasp,  strength  of  un 
dertaking,  firmness,  frankness,  and  integrity.  It  was 
said  he  could  win  any  case  he  undertook,  right  or  wrong  ; 
but  he  took  only  the  case  he  considered  right.  Socially 
he  was  as  popular  as  professionally.  He  was  fascinating 
in  his  personality,  was  generous,  polished,  a  brilliant 
conversationalist.  In  the  prime  of  life,  only  forty-four, 
a  great  career  seemed  to  lie  before  him,  with  no  height 
that  he  might  not  reach. 

Then  came  the  tragic  end.  Aaron  Burr,  longtime  a 
political  opponent,  made  cause  of  offense,  and  challenged 
Hamilton  to  a  duel.  Burr  thirsted  for  revenge,  Hamil 
ton  felt  no  ill-will,  tried  to  avoid  the  duel,  but  at  length 
felt  compelled  to  accept  the  challenge,  which  resulted  in 
his  death.  It  was  nothing  less  than  cold-blooded  murder, 
and  Burr  the  assassin.  It  is  well  said  that  not  until  Lin 
coln  fell  was  the  country  again  so  shocked  and  stricken 
with  horror.  Burr,  like  Booth,  fled,  pursued  by  the 
anathemas  of  his  countrymen.  He  had  robbed  the  coun 
try  of  one  of  its  greatest  men,  one  who  had  rendered  in 
valuable  service  at  a  critical  time,  and  who  deserves  the 
honour  and  enduring  remembrance  of  Americans.  On 
his  monument  in  Boston  are  carved  these  words,  "  Alex 
ander  Hamilton,  Orator,  Writer,  Soldier,  Jurist,  Finan 
cier."  Senator  Henry  Cabot  Lodge  says  of  him,  "  In 



founding  a  government  he  founded  a  nation.  His  versa 
tility  was  extraordinary.  He  was  a  great  orator  and 
lawyer,  and  he  was  also  the  ablest  political  and  constitu 
tional  writer  of  his  day,  a  good  soldier,  and  possessed  of 
a  wonderful  capacity  for  organization  and  practical  ad 
ministration.  He  was  a  master  in  every  field  he  entered 
and  never  failed. "  Such  was  the  man  who  inherited  his 
keen,  intellectual  powers  from  his  Scotch  father,  and  his 
fascinating  vivacity  and  ardent  temperament  from  his 
Huguenot  mother. 

The  Grange,  as  it  appeared  in  Hamilton's  time.    From  an  old  print 



In  Old  New 

A  Fine 




TIENNE  DE  LANCEY,  born  in  Caen  in  Octobei 
of  the  year  1663,  came  to  New  York  in  1686,  ar- 
f  riving  on  the  seventh  day  of  June.  He  had  brought 
with  him  some  of  his  family  jewels  and  these  he  disposed 
of  for  the  sum  of  £300.  With  this  money  (which  in  those 
days  of  scarce  currency  represented  a  far  greater  degree 
of  value  than  would  fifteen  hundred  dollars  to-day)  he  set 
himself  up  as  a  merchant.  He  proved  to  be  a  shrewd  and 
bold  trader,  and  so  well  did  his  business  ventures  prosper 
that  in  the  year  1700  he  was  enabled  to  marry  the  aristo 
cratic  Anne  van  Cortland.  For  her  he  built  a  brick  man 
sion  on  Broadway  between  the  present  Thames  and  Cedar 
Streets.  It  was  one  of  the  fine  houses  of  the  city,  and 
from  its  windows  a  striking  panorama  of  life  and  death 
could  be  seen ;  for  on  the  one  hand  lay  the  Mall  where 
New  York's  fashionable  set  was  wont  to  walk  of  a  sunny 
afternoon,  and  on  the  other  lay  Trinity  churchyard  where 
fashionable  folk  rested.  There  was  a  broad  veranda  at 
the  rear  of  the  house  which  commanded  a  view  of  the 
North  Eiver,  and  there  were  stately  gardens  which  sloped 
gently  down  to  the  edge  of  the  water.  Half  a  century 
later  the  fine  old  residence  was  turned  into  a  tavern  under 
the  sign  of  the  Province  Arms,  and  for  nearly  fifty  years  it 
flourished  as  the  fashionable  hostelry  of  the  town,  and 
was  the  scene  of  many  famous  social  and  patriotic  occa 
sions.  The  Boreel  building  of  to-day  marks  the  site  of 
^tienne  De  Lancey's  once  elegant  mansion. 



Before  moving  into  their  new  home  the  De  Lanceys 
lived  for  a  time  in  the  house  which  Etienne  had  first  built 
for  himself  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Broad  and  Pearl 
Streets.  Afterwards  it  was  used  for  a  time  as  a  store, 
and  then,  like  the  other  De  Lancey  residence,  it  was  con 
verted  into  a  tavern.  Samuel  Fraunces  was  the  first  inn- 


keeper,  and  Fraunces'  Tavern  it  has  ever  since  been 
called.  Here  it  was,  in  the  long  room  which  had  once 
been  Mrs.  De  Lancey' s  drawing-room,  that  George  Wash 
ington  said  farewell  to  the  officers  of  his  army  on  the 
4th  of  December,  1783.  Many  other  hallowed  memo 
ries  cluster  about  the  old  building,  as  well  befits  the  oldest 
landmark  in  the  city  of  New  York.  It  is  pleasing  to 
know  that  the  De  Lancey  homestead  has  recently  (1904) 
passed  into  the  keeping  of  a  patriotic  society  and  will  be 
preserved  to  future  generations  :  nor  is  it  without  signifi 
cance,  as  showing  the  important  part  played  by  Huguenot 
blood  in  the  founding  of  the  city,  to  note  that  the  oldest 
and  most  historic  edifice  in  the  metropolis  to-day  was 
once  the  home  of  a  French  refugee. 

But  fitienne  De  Lancey  did  not  confine  his  energies  to 
laying  up  a  fortune  and  building  fine  residences.     He  Alderman 
took  a  keen  interest  in  all  the  affairs  of  the  city  and  of  Spirited 
the  province.     For  several  years  he  was  a  member  of  the 
board  of  aldermen,  and  for  a  long  period,  covering  twenty- 
four  years,  he  represented  the  city  in  the  provincial  as 
sembly.    It  was  through  his  generosity  that  the  first  town 
clock  was  set  up  in  the  city  ;   and  the  first  fire-engine  to 
be  imported  into  America  was  brought  over  by  De  Lancey 
and  presented  to  the  people  of  New  York.     In  these,  and 
in  a  hundred  other  ways  did  he  show  himself  a  public- 
spirited  citizen  ;  and  as,  when  he  came  to  die  in  1741, 
none  had  amassed  a  greater  fortune  than  he,  so  none  had  Death  in  1741 
won  a  better  title  to  the  love  and  respect  of  his  fellow- 

James,  the  eldest  son  of  Stienne  De  Lancey,  was  born 
in  New  York  on  the  27th  of  November,  1703.  As  a  boy 



City  Charter 



he  gave  evidence  of  powers  far  above  the  ordinary,  and 
everything  was  done  for  him  which  might  foster  the  de 
velopment  of  his  talents.  England  was  then  the  Mecca 
of  the  American  educational  world,  and  to  England  ac 
cordingly  young  De  Lancey  was  sent  by  his  devoted 
father.  After  graduating  at  the  University  of  Cambridge 
lie  completed  his  training  by  a  course  of  legal  study  at 
the  Inner  Temple,  London,  and  returned  to  New  York  in 
1725.  He  soon  became  prominent  in  the  public  life  of 
the  province,  and  his  legal  talents  received  an  early 
recognition.  In  1729  he  was  elected  to  the  council.  The 
following  year  he  was  appointed  as  the  head  of  a  com 
mission  to  frame  a  charter  for  the  city  of  New  York. 
The  u  Montgomery  Charter, "  as  this  instrument  was 
known,  was  mainly  the  result  of  De  Lancey 's  labours  ; 
and  for  this  distinguished  service  he  was  rewarded  by 
being  presented  with  the  freedom  of  the  city,  an  honour 
which  he  was  the  first  person  to  receive.  In  1731  he  was 
appointed  to  the  highest  tribunal  in  the  province  as  sec 
ond  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  two  years  later  was 
made  Chief  Justice,  a  position  which  he  retained  with 
honour  until  the  close  of  his  life.  During  the  next 
twenty  years  he  was  occupied  with  his  judicial  duties, 
with  the  care  of  the  immense  estate  left  to  him  by  his 
father,  and  with  many  important  public  commissions. 

During  these  years  his  influence  and  reputation  grew 
among  the  citizens  of  New  York  and  spread  to  England, 
so  that  in  1753  he  was  appointed  by  the  Crown  Lieuten- 
ant-Governor  of  the  province.  For  several  years,  in  the 
absence  of  an  English  governor,  he  was  the  real  ruler  of 
New  York.  Shortly  after  taking  his  oath  of  office  he 
convened  and  presided  over  the  first  congress  ever  held 
in  America,  which  met  at  Albany  on  the  19th  of  June, 
1754.  Delegates  from  all  the  colonies  were  present  to 
take  measures  for  the  common  defense  and  to  devise 
means  of  conciliating  the  Indians.  The  congress  is  chiefly 
remembered,  however,  from  the  fact  that  Benjamin 


Franklin  took  occasion  to  propose  a  union  of  all  the 
colonies  by  act  of  Parliament,  a  proposal  which  it  is 
hardly  necessary  to  state  was  not  adopted.  In  October 
of  the  same  year,  Governor  De  Lancey  granted  a  charter 
to  King's  College  (now  Columbia  University).  He  died 
on  the  30th  of  July,  1760.  As  a  jurist  he  was  possessed 
of  great  learning ;  the  wise  and  enlightened  use  of  his 
vast  wealth  earned  for  him  a  position  of  almost  bound 
less  influence  and  power  ;  and  he  will  always  be  remem 
bered  as  one  of  the  best  and  ablest  provincial  rulers  of 
New  York. 

James,  eldest  son  of  Governor  De  Lancey,  was  born  in 
New  York  in  1732.  He  was  educated  at  Eton  and  Cam 
bridge,  and  returned  home  at  the  beginning  of  the  French 
War.  He  immediately  turned  soldier  and  went  through  soldier 
the  Niagara  campaign  of  1755.  He  was  in  command  of 
the  detachment  which  prevented  the  relief  of  Fort  Niagara, 
and  it  was  through  his  efforts  that  that  strong  position 
was  finally  taken.  In  the  expedition  against  Ticonderoga 
in  1758  he  acted  as  aide-de-camp  to  General  Abercrombie. 
In  1760,  when  he  succeeded  to  his  father's  estate  he  was  Richest  Man 
the  richest  man  in  America,  and  for  several  years  he 
devoted  his  time  to  the  care  of  his  property.  But  the 
active  Huguenot  blood  which  flowed  in  his  veins  would 
not  permit  him  to  live  the  life  of  a  merely  selfish  rich 
man,  and  in  the  year  1768  he  became  a  member  of  the 
assembly  and  engaged  actively  in  public  affairs.  He 
soon  became  recognized  as  the  leader  of  the  conservative 
party  in  the  province,  bending  all  his  energies  towards  a 
peaceful  solution  of  the  differences  between  the  colonies 
and  the  mother  country.  Perhaps  his  most  notable 
service  was  in  introducing  and  putting  through  a  resolu 
tion  which  ordered  a  petition  sent  to  the  king,  a  memorial 
to  the  lords  and  a  remonstrance  to  the  commons,  demand 
ing  redress  for  the  grievances  of  the  colonists.  He  him 
self  drafted  the  remonstrance  to  the  commons,  producing 
an  able  document  which  was  presented  to  parliament  by 


Edmund  Burke,  but  which  met  with  the  contemptuous 
indifference  of  that  body.  With  a  view  to  impressing 
the  needs  of  pacifying  the  colonies  upon  the  English  gov 
ernment,  he  went  to  London  in  1775,  but  was  unsuccessful 
in  his  efforts.  While  engaged  in  this  business  actual 
hostilities  broke  out  in  America.  De  Lancey  remained 
faithful  to  the  king  and  saw  the  confiscation  of  his  vast 
estates.  In  our  day,  so  far  removed  from  the  bitterness 
of  the  revolutionary  struggle,  we  may  frankly  admire  the 
loyalty  of  a  man  who  preferred  to  lose  a  great  fortune 
rather  than  prove  a  rebel  to  that  power  which  had  be 
friended  so  many  of  his  persecuted  Huguenot  brethren. 
While  we  must  disagree  with  his  view  of  the  situation, 
we  must,  nevertheless,  give  him  all  honour  for  his  self- 
sacrifice  and  devotion  to  his  principles. 

wiiuarn^  William  Heathcote  De  Lancey,  nephew  of  James,  was 

Bishop  '  born  in  Mamaroneck,  N.  Y.,  in  1797.  He  graduated 
from  Yale  in  1817,  went  to  Philadelphia  and  took  orders 
in  the  Episcopal  Church.  In  1827  he  was  persuaded  to 
become  provost  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  which 
at  that  time  had  become  greatly  run  down.  There  were 
twenty-one  students  in  the  institution  when  De  Lancey 
accepted  the  provostship,  but  when  he  came  to  leave  it 
in  1836  to  become  rector  of  St.  Peter's  Church,  Phila 
delphia,  he  had  raised  the  number  to  one  hundred  and 
twenty-five.  After  serving  as  rector  of  St.  Peter's  for 
three  years,  De  Laucey  was  made  bishop  of  Western  New 
York  on  the  creation  of  that  diocese  in  1839.  He  was  an 
eloquent  speaker  and  a  man  of  excellent  judgment  and 
tact,  and  living  at  a  time  when  the  Episcopal  Church  in 
America  was  in  a  formative  condition  he  was  able  to 
exercise  a  generous  influence  in  shaping  its  policy.  He 
was  the  first,  for  example,  to  propose  the  "  provincial 
system"  in  the  American  Church,  and  it  was  Bishop  De 
Lancey  who  laid  out  the  lines  along  which  the  General 
Theological  Seminary  should  work.  The  two  most  last 
ing  monuments  of  his  energy  and  devotion  are  Hobart 


College  and  the  training  school  at  Geneva,  N.  Y.  In 
the  grounds  of  the  latter  there  is  a  fine  chapel  which  was 
erected  in  his  honour  shortly  after  his  death  in  1865. 

Peter  De  Lancey,  second  son  of  Etienne,  was  born  in  other  sons 
New  York  in  1705.  He  was  a  man  of  great  wealth  and 
influence,  and  from  1750  to  1768  he  was  a  member  of  the 
provincial  assembly.  His  daughter  Alice  married  Ealph 
Izard,  the  South  Carolina  Senator,  and  his  daughter 
Susan  married  Colonel  Thomas  Barclay.  Of  his  three 
sons  two  became  loyalists  ;  the  youngest,  James,  being  a 
thorn  in  the  side  of  Westchester  County  patriots.  At  the 
head  of  his  troop  of  light  horse  he  made  frequent  raids 
through  the  countryside,  and  his  alertness  and  courage 
made  his  name  one  to  conj  ure  with  throughout  the  length 
and  breadth  of  the  "  neutral  grounds."  fitienne's  third 
son,  Oliver,  was  an  able  soldier.  He  gained  his  first  ex 
periences  during  the  French  and  Indian  War,  taking 
part  in  the  Niagara  campaign  and  commanding  the  New 
York  troops  at  the  capture  of  Ticonderoga.  During  the 
Eevolution  he  raised  three  regiments  of  loyalists  at  his 
own  expense,  known  as  "De  Lancey' s  Battalions,"  and 
was  given  command  of  Long  Island. 

Oliver's  two  sons  both  joined  the  British  service. 
Stephen  served  through  the  Eevolution  as  a  colonel  in 
the  English  army,  and  after  the  war  was  made  governor 
of  Tobago,  a  small  island  of  the  West  Indies ;  while 
Oliver  had  attained  the  rank  of  general  when  he  died  in 



The  members  of  the  large  and  well-known  De  Forest  jesse 
family  of  America  trace  their  descent  to  the  Jesse  de  J&if01 
Forest  who  in  1622  propounded  his  scheme  of  colonization 
to  the  Virginia  Company.     Jesse  de  Forest  came  from  an 
old  family  of  Avesnes,  but  was  forced  for  conscience'  sake 
to  take  refuge  in  Holland.     His  name  first  appears  on 


Planning  a 

Henry  and 
DeForest  1636 

the  records  of  Leyden  in  1615,  and  three  years  later  we 
hear  of  him  as  a  resident  of  the  Hague.  His  fortunes 
were  at  a  low  ebb  at  this  time  and  the  records  show  that 
he  was  in  the  direst  poverty,  pledging  his  household 
goods  and  the  tools  with  which  he  prosecuted  his  trade  as 
dyer.  He  was  not  alone  in  his  poverty,  however,  for 
there  were  many  scions  of  noble  French  houses  begging 
for  their  daily  bread  in  the  streets  of  Amsterdam  and 
other  Dutch  cities.  Of  this  period  of  distress  Mr.  J.  W. 
De  Forest  writes  as  follows  :  i  i  Perhaps  there  is  no  more 
sublime  spectacle  in  history  than  that  of  a  man  who 
knows  not  where  to  lay  his  head,  stepping  forward  to 
guide  and  save  his  fellow  creatures,  with  a  perfect  confi 
dence  that  he  can  do  it.  The  thought  of  our  exiled  an 
cestor,  with  his  ten  young  children  and  his  haunting  debt 
of  fifty  florins,  planning  and  petitioning  and  recruiting 
for  a  Protestant  colony  in  America,  is  a  remembrance 
which  ought  to  fill  his  descendants  with  pride,  and  to 
stimulate  them  to  courage  of  soul  and  energy  of  deed." 

Jesse  de  Forest  did  not  himself  affect  a  settlement  in 
North  America,  but  joined  a  band  of  colonists  who  were 
bound  for  the  coast  of  Guiana,  the  "  Wild  Coast,"  as  the 
Dutch  called  it.  It  was  left  to  his  sons  Henry  and  Isaac 
to  carry  the  family  fortunes  into  New  Amsterdam.  These 
brothers  sailed  from  Amsterdam  in  the  tiny  ship  Eenssel- 
aerwick  in  October,  1636,  with  the  intention  of  setting  up 
as  tobacco  planters.  t  '  The  upper  portion  of  New  York 
island  was  then  a  mere  wilderness  of  virgin  forest  and 
natural  clearing,  inhabitated  by  bears,  catamounts, 
painted  Wickasqueeks  and  other  savage  creatures,  and 
giving  small  promise  of  the  vast  civilized  population 
which  now  loads  the  soil  of  Harlem." 

To  the  brothers  de  Forest  belongs  the  distinction  of 
being  the  first  white  settlers  in  this  wild  region.  To  live 
there  meant  exposure  to  many  hardships  and  dangers, 
but  land  was  abundant  and  cheap  and  the  young  men 
(Henry,  the  married  brother,  was  thirty  and  Isaac  was 


only  twenty  years  of  age)  were  courageous.  "  From  the 
rough,  forest-clad  hills,"  writes  Mr.  J.  H.  Innes,  First  in 
1 '  seamed  with  deep  ravines,  a  part  of  which  now  occupy 
the  north  end  of  the  Central  Park,  these  two  brothers,  as 
they  explored  the  island  of  the  Mannahatoes,  soon  after 
their  arrival,  must  have  seen,  as  they  looked  to  the  north 
ward,  towards  the  wide  salt-water  estuary  which  we  now 
know  as  Harlem  River,  a  level  expanse  of  some  seven  or 
eight  hundred  acres  in  area,  broken  only  by  one  or  two 
isolated  rocky  eminences  crowned  with  trees.  Through 
the  midst  of  this  ran  a  small  fresh -water  stream,  and 
there  is  little  doubt  that  portions  of  the  plain  had  been 
long  cleared  and  cultivated  by  the  Indians."  Here  Di 
rector  van  Twiller  granted  two  hundred  acres  of  meadow 
land  to  Henry,  with  the  customary  formalities  of  the 
times:  "  The  said  de  Forest  and  his  successors  shall 
acknowledge  their  High  Mightinesses,  the  Directors  of  the 
West  India  Company,  as  their  sovereign  Lords  and 
Patroons,  and  at  the  end  of  ten  years  after  the  actual  set 
tlement  shall  render  the  just  tenth  part  of  the  product 
wherewith  God  may  bless  the  soil,  and  from  this  time 
forth  shall  annually  deliver  on  account  of  the  dwelling 
and  house-lot,  a  pair  of  capons  to  the  Director  for  the 
holidays."  Shortly  afterwards  the  brothers  erected  the 
first  house  on  upper  Manhattan  ;  a  solidly  built  dwelling 
forty-two  feet  long  and  eighteen  feet  wide,  protected  by  a 
heavy  palisade.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  site  of 
this  house  was  not  far  from  the  present  Harlem  Lake  in 
Central  Park. 

The  rewards  of  his  arduous  labours,  however,  were  not 
destined  for  Henry  de  Forest.  Hardly  had  the  spring 
plowing  been  completed  in  the  year  1637  when  he  died  of 
some  cause  unknown.  The  Harlem  estate  passed  into  the 
hands  of  his  widow,  only  a  small  portion  of  the  movable 
property  going  to  Isaac  ;  a  half  interest  in  a  boat,  half  of 
a  bull  calf  and  the  half  of  two  kids  are  mentioned  as  be 
longing  to  him.  It  became  necessary  for  Isaac,  therefore, 


Of  the  Nine 


to  establish  a  plantation  for  himself ;  and  he  procured  a 
grant  of  one  hundred  acres  which  extended  in  a  narrow 
strip  from  "  about  the  present  Fifth  Avenue  and  One 
Hundred  and  Twelfth  Street  to  the  river  shore  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  First  Avenue  and  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-sixth  Street,"  including  not  a  little  of  what  is  at 
present  Mt.  Morris  Park. 

The  loneliness  of  bachelor  life  must  have  weighed 
heavily  on  Isaac,  and  in  the  records  of  the  Dutch  Re 
formed  Church  for  June  9,  1641,  appears  the  following 
note  :  "Isaac  de  Forest  of  Leyden,  bachelor,  was  mar 
ried  to  Sarah  du  Trieux  of  New  Amsterdam,  spinster." 
At  the  time  of  his  marriage  he  already  had  a  dwelling 
and  a  tobacco  house  on  his  plantation.  Two  years  later 
he  leased  the  farm  on  shares  and  moved  into  the  village  of 
New  Amsterdam,  where  he  opened  a  tobacco  warehouse 
in  the  Old  Church,  a  deserted  building  which  stood  on 
the  Strand,  now  Pearl  Street.  From  dealing  in  tobacco 
Isaac  branched  out  into  the  brewing  line,  and  by  1653  he 
was  reckoned  as  a  thoroughly  successful  brewer.  In  many 
ways  did  he  identify  himself  with  the  life  of  the  grow 
ing  town  :  in  1652  he  was  one  of  the  Nine  Men  (the  advis 
ory  committee  of  the  town)  ;  during  the  following  year 
he  was  inspector  of  tobacco  ;  in  1656  he  was  appointed 
" Master  of  the  Weight  House"  ;  was  made  a  great 
burgher  two  years  later;  and  served  in  the  common 
council  for  several  years. 

When  Isaac  de  Forest  died  in  1674  he  was  survived  by 
a  widow  and  seven  children  ;  Susannah,  Johannes,  Philip, 
Isaac,  Hendricus,  Maria,  and  David.  Susannah  married 
Peter  de  Riemer ;  Maria  married  Alderman  Isaac  de 
Riemer  ;  Johannes  died  without  issue.  Of  the  remaining 
children,  Philip,  husband  of  Tryntie  Kip,  founded  the 
Albany  branch  of  the  family  ;  Isaac  remained  in  New 
York,  where  many  of  his  descendants  are  living  to-day  ; 
Hendrick  settled  on  Long  Island,  and  left  a  goodly  prog 
eny  ;  while  David  removed  to  Stratford,  Conn.,  where  he 


married  Martha  Blagge.  From  Connecticut,  the  little 
State  which  has  sent  so  many  colonists  out  into  the  un 
settled  portions  of  the  country,  the  De  Forests  spread  un 
til  to-day  they  are  to  be  found  in  nearly  every  section  of 
the  United  States. 


This  noble  martyr  to  liberty,  who  fell  at  Quebec  on  the 
last  day  of  1775,  was  descended  from  the  Huguenots 
through  that  Comte  de  Montgomerie  who  mortally 
wounded  Henry  II  of  France,  July  10,  1559,  in  a  tourna-  A  Revolution- 
ment  in  honour  of  the  marriage  of  his  daughter.  Though  and  Martyr 
the  King  forgave  the  Count,  the  queen  mother,  Catherine 
de  Medicis,  did  not,  but  pursued  the  brave  Huguenot  with 
implacable  vengeance  till  she  brought  him  to  the  scaffold, 
May  27,  1576.  His  family  fled  to  Ireland  and  won  dis 
tinction.  Richard  Montgomery  was  third  son  of  an  Irish 
baronet,  and  was  born  December  2,  1738,  at  his  father's 
country  seat  in  the  north  of  Ireland.  Liberally  educated, 
young  Montgomery  entered  the  British  army  and  served 
under  General  Wolfe  in  the  war  between  England  and 
France  for  supremacy  in  Canada.  Thus  he  gained  his 
experience  for  the  Revolutionary  days,  when  he  espoused 
the  cause  of  the  American  colonies,  and  was  elected  a 
brigadier-general  by  the  Continental  Congress.  He  was 
then  living  on  his  farm  at  Rhinebeck,  having  married 
into  the  Livingston  family.  The  distinction  conferred  Leaving  the 
upon  him  without  his  solicitation  was  accepted  with  Farm  for  War 
characteristic  modesty  and  a  patriotic  sense  of  duty. 
Writing  to  a  friend  he  says:  "  The  Congress  having 
done  me  the  honour  of  electing  me  a  brigadier-general  in 
their  service,  is  an  event  which  must  put  an  end  for  a 
while,  perhaps  forever,  to  the  quiet  scheme  of  life  I  had 
prescribed  for  myself:  for,  though  entirely  unexpected 
and  undesired  by  me,  the  will  of  an  oppressed  people, 
compelled  to  choose  between  liberty  and  slavery,  must  be 


A  Daring  As 
sault  on 




"Men  of  New 
your  general 

obeyed."  From  that  hour  he  was  devoted  to  his  adopted 
country.  He  was  sent  to  capture  Montreal,  which  he  did 
after  a  most  brilliant  campaign.  When  the  news  of  his 
signal  success  reached  Congress,  that  body  passed  a  vote 
of  thanks  and  promoted  him  to  be  a  major-general ;  but  his 
untimely  death  prevented  his  receiving  this  reward  of 
merit.  Quebec  was  his  next  objective,  for  as  he  wrote  to 
Congress :  l '  Till  Quebec  is  taken,  Canada  is  uncou- 
quered."  It  is  a  romantic  but  tragic  story,  how  he  led  his 
band  of  three  hundred  patriots  over  frozen  ground  and 
drifting  snows  ;  made  juncture  with  Arnold,  who  had  com 
pleted  a  wonderful  march  with  a  half-starved  and  frozen 
army  through  the  wilderness  of  northern  Maine  ;  only  to 
fall  into  a  trap  at  last,  and  perish  while  at  the  head  of  his 
hapless  command,  leading  an  assault  on  the  strongly 
fortified  city.  His  last  words  were 
York,  you  will  not  fear  to  follow  where 
leads  !  March  on,  brave  boys  !  Quebec  is  ours  !  '•  But 
they  marched  into  the  jaws  of  swift  death.  Through  the 
courtesy  of  General  Carleton,  British  commander,  Mont 
gomery's  body  was  privately  interred,  January  4,  1776, 
near  where  he  fell.  By  friend  and  foe  alike  his  bravery 
and  ability  were  recognized  and  admired.  His  death 
made  a  profound  impression,  both  in  Europe  and 
America,  for  the  excellency  of  his  character  had  won  him 
affection,  as  his  great  abilities  had  gained  public  esteem. 
The  Continental  Congress  caused  to  be  executed  a  monu 
ment  of  white  marble,  with  a  classical  inscription  written 
by  Franklin,  which  has  since  1789  adorned  the  front  of 
St.  Paul's  Church  in  New  York.  It  was  fitting  that  this 
monument  should  be  executed  by  a  Frenchman,  Cameres, 
sculptor  to  Louis  XVI.  He  was  eulogized  even  in  the 
British  Parliament  by  Chatham  and  Burke.  Forty-three 
years  after  his  death  his  remains  were  removed  from 
Quebec,  by  an  u  act  of  Honour ' '  of  the  legislature  of  New 
York,  and  buried  with  brilliant  military  ceremonies  near 
the  cenotaph  erected  by  Congress  to  his  memory.  Of 


Washington's  thirteen  generals,  elected  by  Congress, 
Montgomery  was  second  to  none.  He  was  "  the  embodi 
ment  of  the  true  gentleman  and  chivalrous  soldier,"  and 
in  his  veins  flowed  the  best  of  the  French  and  English 


So  expert  a  critic  as  the  late  Mr.  Stedman  asserted  that  Laureate 

of  the 

the  ' l  first  essential  poetic  spirit ' '  in  American  letters  is  Revolution 
to  be  found  in  the  earlier  odes  and  lyrics  of  Philip 
Freneau.  He  has  been  fitly  called  the  "Laureate  of  the 
Bevolution,"  and  his  name  will  always  be  remembered 
in  connection  with  the  history  of  American  literature  as 
the  first  poet  to  be  produced  on  this  continent.  Mr. 
Stedman  says  further  of  Freneau  that  he  was  "  a  true 
poet,  one  of  nature's  lyrists,  who  had  the  temperament 
of  a  Landor  and  was  much  what  the  Warwick  classicist 
might  have  been  if  bred,  afar  from  Oxford,  to  the  life  of 
a  pioneer  and  revolutionist,  spending  his  vital  surplusage 
in  action,  bellicose  journalism  and  new- world  verse." 

Philip  Freneau  was  born  in  New  York  on  January  2,  Birth  in  1752 
1752.  The  best  Huguenot  blood  flowed  in  his  veins,  the 
Freueaus  being  an  able  and  distinguished  family.  His 
grandfather,  Andre  Fresneau,  emigrated  to  Boston  in 
1705  ;  journeyed  thence  to  Connecticut,  where  he  was  en 
gaged  for  a  while  in  mining  ventures  ;  and  finally  arrived 
in  New  York  to  take  a  position  with  the  Eoyal  West 
India  Company.  Here  his  son  Pierre  was  born,  who  was 
the  father  of  the  poet.  Pierre  was  so  successful  in  his 
business  affairs  that  the  year  his  son  Philip  was  born  he 
was  able  to  purchase  a  large  estate  in  Monmouth  County, 
New  Jersey,  and  build  thereon  a  handsome  spacious 
mansion.  Two  years  later  he  retired  from  active  business 
and  withdrew  with  his  family  to  his  picturesque  estate. 
Here  Philip  was  surrounded  by  everything  that  might 
tend  to  develop  his  poetic  impulse. 


Princeton  After  a  due  course  of  preparation  in  the  classics  he 

entered  Princeton  College.  Tradition  has  it  that  his 
roommate  there  was  James  Madison.  Certain  it  was  that 
Madison  was  among  his  classmates,  as  were  Aaron  Burr, 
Aaron  Ogden  and  Hugh  Henry  Breckenridge.  While  in 
college  he  gave  much  of  his  time  to  writing  poetry,  and 
the  year  before  his  graduation  in  1771  he  and  his  friend 
Breckenridge  published  a  volume  of  verses.  The  years 
between  his  leaving  college  and  the  breaking  out  of  the 
Eevolution  were  devoted  to  teaching,  and  various  light 
skirmishes  with  the  law,  with  theology,  and  with  medi 
cine.  Many  of  his  choicest  nature-lyrics  were  written 

Martial  Songs  during  this  period.  In  1775  the  cause  of  freedom  aroused 
Freneau  to  a  high  pitch  of  activity,  and  he  freely  gave 
all  that  he  had  in  the  way  of  satirical  power  to  arousing 
the  spirit  of  the  public.  He  did  not  enter  the  army,  but 
it  is  safe  to  say  that  his  satires  and  his  martial  songs  ac 
complished  more  for  the  cause  of  Independence  than  his 
individual  efforts  as  a  soldier  could  have  done.  While 
sailing  in  Delaware  Bay  in  1780,  he  was  taken  prisoner 
by  the  British  man-o'-war  Iris,  and  spent  many  weary 
weeks  aboard  an  English  prison- ship.  When  he  was  at 
last  released,  he  returned  to  New  Jersey  weak  from  fever 
and  hardship,  but  firm  in  will.  He  now  had  a  personal 
grievance  to  add  to  the  fires  of  his  zeal  against  the  red 
coats,  and  his  satire  and  invective  became  more  biting 
and  effective  than  at  first.  Many  of  his  pieces  achieved 
a  wide-spread  popularity  among  the  troops  and  the 
people,  and  did  much  to  foster  the  spirit  of  patriotic 

When  the  war  was  over,  Freneau  engaged  in  many 
journalistic  enterprises,  the  most  notable  of  which  was 
the  editing  of  The  National  Gazette. 

Freneau  espoused  the  cause  of  Jefferson,  as  against  the 
Federalists  under  the  leadership  of  Alexander  Hamilton, 
and  became  involved  thereby  in  a  long  train  of  acrimo 
nious  disputes.  And  while  Freneau  was  of  too  independ- 

Poems  of 



ent  a  nature  to  allow  his  paper  to  become  a  mere  tool  in 
the  hands  of  his  able  friends,  it  was  recognized,  never 
theless  as  the  semi-official  organ  of  Jefferson  and  Madi 
son.  Towards  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  Freneau  for 
sook  journalism,  and  in  partnership  with  one  of  his 
brothers  ventured  his  fortune  in  trade  with  the  West 
Indies,  the  poet  himself  acting  as  commander  of  a  brig. 
He  seems,  indeed,  to  have  been  decidedly  proud  of  his 
title  as  "Captain  Freneau."  His  death,  which  was  a 
tragic  one,  occurred  in  December  of  the  year  1832. 

Of  Freneau,  Professor  Bronsou,  one  of  the  best  of 
recent  critics  of  American  literature,  writes :  "  In  poems 
of  fancy  and  imagination  he  was  the  most  original  and 
truly  poetical  poet  in  America  before  the  nineteenth  cen 
tury.  .  .  .  The  i  Wild  Honeysuckle '  is  the  high- 
water  mark  of  American  poetry  of  the  eighteenth  cen 
tury,  in  delicacy  of  feeling  and  felicity  of  expression  be 
ing  at  least  the  equal  of  Bryant's  'To  the  Fringed 
Gentian.'  When  such  lines  were  possible  in  the  very 
infancy  of  the  national  life,  there  was  no  reason  to  de 
spair  for  the  future  of  American  literature." 


In  connection  with  Freneau  we  may  properly  speak  of 
Thoreau,  though  he  was  a  New  Englander.  Henry  David  A  New 
Thoreau,  born  in  Concord,  Massachusetts,  in  1817,  was 
the  great-grandson  of  Philippe  Thoreau  and  his  wife 
Marie  le  Gallais,  French  refugees  who  settled  at  St. 
Helier  in  the  Island  of  Jersey.  The  events  of  his  life 
ai?e  few  and  simple.  At  school  and  at  Harvard  Univer 
sity  he  did  not  distinguish  himself  as  a  student,  but  yet 
managed  to  pick  up  enough  Latin  and  Greek  to  qualify 
himself  as  a  quondam  schoolmaster.  The  profession  of 
teaching,  however,  proved  to  be  extremely  distasteful  to 
him,  and  abandoning  it  after  a  short  trial  he  devoted 
himself  to  the  family  occupation — pencil-making.  But 


what  men  call  the  "  business  of  life"  accorded  little  with 
the  aims  and  interests  of  Henry  Thoreau.  "He  had 
early  discovered,  by  virtue  of  that  keen  insight  which 
looked  through  the  outer  husk  of  conventionality,  that 
what  is  called  profit  in  the  bustle  of  commercial  life  is 
often  far  from  being,  in  the  true  sense,  profitable  ;  that 
the  just  claims  of  leisure  are  fully  as  important  as  the 
just  claims  of  business  ;  and  that  the  surest  way  of  be 
coming  rich  is  to  need  little  ;  in  his  own  words,  '  a  man 
is  rich  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  the  things  which 
he  can  afford  to  let  alone.' ' 

A  Lover  of  He  refused  to  pledge  himself  "to  some  professional 

treadmill,  and  for  the  sake  of  imaginary  i  comforts '  sac 
rifice  the  substantial  happiness  of  life."  He  gave  himself 
over  to  a  " loitering"  in  which  idleness  held  no  part. 
Supporting  himself  by  pencil-making,  surveying,  lectur 
ing  and  writing,  as  occasion  demanded,  he  spent  the  bulk 
of  his  time  in  the  study  of  wild  nature.  ' '  His  business 
was  to  spend  at  least  one  half  of  each  day  in  the  open 
air ;  to  watch  the  dawns  and  the  sunsets ;  to  carry  ex 
press  what  was  in  the  wind ;  to  secure  the  latest  news 
from  forest  and  hilltop,  and  to  be  *  self-appointed  in 
spector  of  snow-storms  and  rain-storms.' ' 

In  1845  he  built  a  hut  near  Walden  Pond  and  retired 
to  a  closer  intimacy  with  nature.  "His  residence  on  the 
shore  of  Walden  Pond  has  often  been  misinterpreted," 
says  Professor  Bronson,  in  his  History  of  American  Liter 
ature.  "  It  was  only  an  episode  in  his  life,  and  he  never 
meant  to  preach  by  it  that  all  men  should  live  in  huts 
or  that  civilization  was  a  mistake.  Eather  it  was  a 
demonstration,  first  to  himself  and  then  to  others,  that 
man's  happiness  and  higher  life  are  not  dependent  upon 
luxuries  nor  even  upon  external  refinements."  After 
two  years  of  life  in  his  simple  hermitage  he  returned  to 
Concord,  where  he  supported  his  mother  and  sisters 
largely  through  the  old  trade  of  pencil-making.  He  died 
on  May  6,  1862,  at  the  age  of  forty-five. 

Henry    D.    Thoreau 

Philip   Frencau 

Henry  Wadsworth   Longfellow 

John   Greenleaf   Whittier 


Thoreau's  life  and  writings,  taken  together,  form  a  The  Life  of 
strong  protest  against  the  modern  vice  of  over-atten-  Emphasized 
tion  to  the  mere  externals  of  life.  Says  his  biographer, 
Henry  Salt:  "He  shows  us  that  it  is  possible  for 
men  to-day  to  live  as  the  Stoics  strove  to  live,  in  ac 
cordance  with  Nature,  with  absolute  serenity  and  self- 
possession  ;  to  follow  out  one's  own  ideal  in  spite  of  every 
obstacle,  with  unfaltering  devotion ;  and  so  to  simplify 
one's  life,  and  clarify  one's  senses,  as  to  master  many  of 
the  secrets  of  that  book  of  Nature  which  to  most  men 
remains  unintelligible  and  unread." 

It  was  Thoreau's  distinction  to  be  the  pioneer  among 
Americans  in  the  nature  study  that  is  the  favourite  pur-  A  pioneer  in 
suit  of  so  many  to-day.  He  was  the  apostle  of  the  simple 
life,  and  lived  as  he  preached.  He  tells  us  of  his  house 
keeping  methods  at  Walden  :  "  When  my  floor  was 
dirty  I  rose  early,  and  setting  all  my  furniture  out  of 
doors  on  the  grass,  bed  and  bedstead  making  but  one 
budget,  dashed  water  on  the  floor,  and  sprinkled  white 
sand  from  the  pond  on  it,  and  then  with  a  broom  scrubbed 
it  clean  and  white  ;  and  by  the  time  the  villagers  had 
broken  their  fast,  the  morning  sun  had  dried  my  house 
sufficiently  to  allow  me  to  move  in  again,  and  my  medi 
tations  were  almost  uninterrupted.  It  was  pleasant  to  see 
my  whole  household  effects  upon  the  grass,  making  a 
little  pile  like  a  gipsy's  pack,  and  my  three-legged  table, 
from  which  I  did  not  remove  the  books  and  pen  and  ink, 
standing  amidst  the  pines  and  hickories." 

If  Thoreau  seemed  unsympathetic  to  certain  classes  of 
people,  he  loved  children  and  animals,  and  was  at  home 
with  them  and  they  with  him.  He  proved  his  theory 
1  i  that  to  maintain  oneself  on  this  earth  is  not  a  hardship 
but  a  pastime,  if  we  will  live  simply  and  wisely. ' '  Here  is 
a  characteristic  description  of  himself  by  Thoreau  :  "  Am 
not  married.  I  don't  know  whether  mine  is  a  profession, 
or  a  trade,  or  what  not.  It  is  not  learned,  and  in  every 
instance  has  been  practiced  before  being  studied.  The 


A  Self-Char 

A  Pen 

Poem  on  the 

mercantile  part  of  it  was  begun  by  myself  alone.  I  am  a 
Schoolmaster,  a  private  Tutor,  a  Surveyor,  a  Gardener,  a 
Farmer,  a  Painter  (I  mean  a  House  Painter),  a  Carpen 
ter,  a  Mason,  a  Day-labourer,  a  Pencil-maker,  a  Writer, 
and  sometimes  a  Poetaster.  .  .  .  My  steadiest  em 
ployment  is  to  keep  myself  at  the  top  of  my  condition, 
and  ready  for  whatever  may  turn  up  in  heaven  or  on 

Thoreau  maintained  sincerity  to  be  chief  of  all  virtues, 
and  may  be  called  a  Yankee  stoic.  He  held  the  old 
stoical  maxim  that  all  places  are  the  same  to  the  wise 
man,  and  that  "the  best  place  for  each  is  where  he 
stands."  On  the  same  principle,  being  asked  at  table 
what  dish  he  preferred,  he  is  said  to  have  answered, 
"The  nearest."  He  was  a  radical  abolitionist,  and  a 
patriotic  American.  His  writings  have  given  him  high 
rank  among  literary  men,  and  his  influence  abides. 
Ellery  Channing,  an  intimate  friend,  thus  describes  his 
appearance  : 

"His  face,  once  seen,  could  not  be  forgotten.  The 
features  were  quite  marked  :  the  nose  aquiline,  or  very 
Roman,  like  one  of  the  portraits  of  Caesar ;  large,  over 
hanging  brow  above  the  deepest-set  blue  eyes  that  could 
be  seen,  in  certain  lights,  and  in  other  gray — eyes  ex 
pressive  of  all  shades  of  feeling,  but  never  weak  or  near 
sighted  ;  the  forehead  not  unusually  broad  or  high,  full 
of  concentrated  energy  or  purpose ;  the  mouth  with 
prominent  lips,  pursed  up  with  meaning  and  thought 
when  silent,  and  giving  out  when  open  a  stream  of  the 
most  varied  and  unusual  and  instructive  sayings.  His 
whole  figure  had  an  active  earnestness,  as  if  he  had  no 
moment  to  waste."  New  England  and  America  needed 
just  such  an  influence  as  this  scholar  and  genius  of  French 
descent  exerted.  • 

Space  forbids  quotations  that  would  show  Thoreau' s 
pithy  and  witty  prose  style,  and  we  can  give  but  a  single 


illustration  of  his  poetry.     These  stanzas  on  the  sea  were 
written  at  Staten  Island  : 

"  My  life  is  like  a  stroll  upon  the  beach, 
As  near  the  ocean's  edge  as  I  can  go  ; 
My  tardy  steps  its  waves  sometimes  o'erreach, 
Sometimes  I  stay  to  let  them  overflow. 

"  My  sole  employment  'tis,  and  scrupulous  care, 
To  place  my  gains  beyond  the  reach  of  tides, 
Each  smoother  pebble,  and  each  shell  more  rare, 
Which  Ocean  kindly  to  my  hand  confides. 

"  I  have  but  few  companions  on  the  shore  : 

They  scorn  the  strand  who  sail  upon  the  sea ; 
Yet  oft  I  think  the  ocean  they've  sailed  o'er 
Is  deeper  known  upon  the  strand  to  me." 



Among  the  men  of  Huguenot  blood  who  have  through  Founder  of 
philanthropy  written  their  names  indelibly  on  history's 
page  must  be  placed  Matthew  Vassar,  founder  of  Vassar 
College,  the  original  woman's  college  of  the  first  order 
established  in  any  land.  Matthew  Vassar  was  born  in 
England,  but  came  to  America  when  a  young  child  with 
his  parents.  His  father  was  the  direct  descendant  of  a 
Huguenot  exile  who  found  a  home  in  England.  Mat 
thew's  mother  was  led  to  brew  English  ale,  in  order  to 
stop  the  common  drinking  of  whiskey  by  the  farm  hands. 
Her  brew  was  so  popular  that  it  largely  replaced  the 
stronger  liquor,  and  demands  for  it  increased  until  the 
son  began  to  brew  as  a  business.  Out  of  this  beginning 
developed  the  Vassar  brewery,  which  was  famous  for 
many  years,  and  which  made  a  large  fortune  for  the 

Not  a  highly  educated  man  himself,  Matthew  Vassar 
appreciated  education,  and  was  of  a  philanthropic  turn. 
He  wanted  to  do  good  with  his  money.  He  established  a 


home  for  old  men,  and  had  plans  for  a  hospital.  The 
subject  of  woman's  education  interested  him,  and  he 
thought  women  should  have  as  good  educational  advan 
tages  as  men.  He  was  ready,  therefore,  to  consider  the 
matter  with  Professor  Eayrnond,  who  had  worked  out  the 
plans  for  a  distinctive  woman's  college.  Mr.  Vassar 
furnished  the  capital,  and  Vassar  College  was  started  as 
an  experiment,  with  Professor  Eaymond  as  president. 
Into  this  enterprise,  which  grew  far  beyond  the  original 
plans,  Matthew  Vassar  put  a  large  part  of  his  fortune ; 
and  had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  the  institution  a  great 
success  before  he  was  taken  away.  This  was  the  pioneer, 
but  soon  his  example  was  followed — in  Massachusetts  by 
Mr.  Durant,  who  founded  Wellesley .  To-day  the  women7  s 
colleges  are  thriving  and  numerous,  and  hold  the  highest 
rank,  while  their  thousands  of  alumni  are  to  be  found  in 
all  parts  of  the  laud.  Huguenot  descendants  may  remem 
ber  with  just  pride  that  the  first  of  these  institutions,  and 
one  still  in  the  front  rank,  was  due  to  the  philanthropy 
and  far-sightedness  of  one  of  their  number. 



The  Gaiiaudet  Qne  of  the  Huguenot  emigrants  from  France  was  Peter 
Gallaudet,  who  left  Mauze,  near  La  Eochelle,  shortly  after 
the  Eevocation,  and  came  to  America,  transferring  to  new 
shores  the  traditions  of  a  family  long  identified  by  act 
and  sympathy  with  the  cause  of  Protestantism.  Gal 
laudet  settled  in  New  Eochelle,  whence  his  descendants 
have  spread  to  various  parts  of  the  country. 

One  of  Gallaudet' s  great-grandsons  was  Thomas  Hop 
kins  Gallaudet,  who  more  than  any  other  member  of  the 
family  has  brought  the  name  into  prominence.  Thomas 
was  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1787,  and  there  spent  his 
early  days.  Moving  to  Hartford  in  1800,  he  entered  Yale, 
and  was  graduated  in  1805.  The  three  following  years  he 
spent  as  travelling  salesman  for  a  New  York  firm.  Then 


for  two  years  he  tutored  in  Yale,  arid  for  three  more  at 
tended  the  Andover  Theological  Seminary,  graduating  in 
1814.  During  this  educational  period  there  were  un 
folded  in  Gallaudet  the  characteristics  which  have  always 
marked  the  Huguenots — sociability,  a  wide  range  of  in 
terests  and  sympathies,  versatility,  ingenuity,  and  a 
desire  to  turn  all  faculties  to  account  in  unselfish  human 

Up  to  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century  organ-  instruction  for 
ized  charity  was  a  thing  unknown  in  New  England.  Es-  Deaf  Mutes 
pecially  pitiable  was  the  plight  of  the  deaf  mutes,  of 
whom,  it  was  estimated,  there  were  four  hundred  in  New 
England,  all  out  of  reach  of  instruction.  One  of  these 
deaf  mutes  was  Alice  Coggswell,  daughter  of  a  wealthy 
physician  of  Hartford.  She  had  been  afflicted  from  an 
early  age  ;  as  she  approached  maturity  her  father  was  im 
pelled  to  find  some  means  of  relieving  her  tragic  situa 
tion.  Several  philanthropists  joined  with  him  in  the  ef 
fort  to  establish  regular  instruction  for  deaf  mutes  in 
America.  The  first  step  was  to  secure  an  American  who 
would  undertake  to  learn  the  methods  of  instruction 
abroad.  Their  plans  reached  the  point  of  action  at  the 
very  time  when  Gallaudet  was  deciding  on  his  career. 
His  name  was  at  once  brought  forward,  the  more  readily 
because  he  had  for  some  time  shown  an  interest  in  Alice 
Coggswell,  and  had  even  succeeded  in  teaching  her  a  few 

Gallaudet  accepted  the  commission  with  a  confidence 
which  was  characteristic,  crossed  the  ocean,  and  after  en-   organizes  the 
countering  many  obstacles,  induced  the  Abbe  Sicard,  in  faSStton  fot 
Paris,  to  teach  him.     Here  he  worked  zealously  for  a  * 
year,  varying  his  labour  by  preaching.     At  the  end  of  this 
time  he  returned  to  America,  fitted  for  introducing  the 
approved  French  methods  of  instruction.     From  1817  to 
1830  he  controlled  the  policy  and  working  of  the  Hart 
ford  Institution  for  Deaf  Mutes.     So  intense  was  his  ap 
plication  during  these  thirteen  years,  in  the  face  of  a 


steadily  declining  physique,  that  when  at  length  ill 
health  compelled  him  to  resign,  he  left  the  institution 
equipped  with  well -trained  instructors,  and  in  shape  to 
continue  its  activities  unimpaired. 

Gallaudet  found  that  the  relief  from  continuous  labour 
gave  him  a  new  lease  of  activity.  He  was  at  once  oifered 
several  promising  positions,  but  declined  them  all,  and 
applied  himself  for  some  years  to  writing  books  of 
various  kinds,  principally  books  for  children,  such 
as  The  Child's  Book  of  the  Soul  (1830),  and  Bible 
Stories  for  the  Young  (1838),  for  which  he  was  admi 
rably  fitted  by  his  pedagogic  experience.  In  1838  he 
found  congenial  employment  as  chaplain  of  the  Hartford 
Eetreat  for  the  Insane.  Here  he  carried  on  a  gentle 
ministry  for  long  and  profitable  years,  until  his  death  in 
1851.  His  sons  have  carried  forward  the  noble  work  in 
which  he  was  so  long  engaged,  and  the  family  name  is 
one  that  will  be  held  in  high  honour  for  splendid  service 
rendered  in  the  cause  of  humanity.  The  deaf  mutes  of 
America  and  the  world  owe  a  large  debt  of  gratitude  to 
the  Huguenot  descendants  who  have  consecrated  their 
lives  to  opening  the  world  of  thought,  knowledge  and 
communication  to  a  class  of  unfortunates. 


AMINISTEE  of  prominence  in  New  York  and  New 
Jersey  during  the  Eevolutionary  period  was  Eev. 
John  Gano,  a  Baptist.  This  exceptionally  able  fjjpjj£er  and 
man,  who  was  to  come  into  somewhat  intimate  relations  Patriot 
with  Washington,  was  a  descendant  of  the  French  refugee 
family  of  Ganeau,  which  settled  in  Ehode  Island.  It  was 
John  Gano's  great-grandfather  Francis  who  came  to  this 
country  to  escape  persecution.  John  was  born  at  Hope- 
well,  New  Jersey,  1727,  being  thus  six  years  older  than 
Washington.  He  has  left  a  most  interesting  autobiog 
raphy,  in  which  he  states  that  he  believed  himself  con 
verted  when  about  eighteen.  His  father  was  a  Presbyte 
rian,  but  his  mother  was  a  Baptist,  and  after  careful  consid 
eration  he  thought  it  his  duty  to  join  a  Baptist  church. 
Thus  that  denomination  gained  a  minister  of  great  in 
fluence  and  usefulness.  He  early  felt  convictions  of  duty 
to  enter  the  ministry,  and  decided  to  do  so,  though  he 
shrank  from  the  calling.  He  was  educated  at  Princeton 
College,  at  "that  time  kept  in  Newark,  and  governed  by 
President  Burr,  with  whom  I  was  a  great  favourite,'7  he 
tells  us.  Before  leaving  college  he  began  to  preach  and 
made  a  missionary  journey  to  Virginia.  He  was  gifted 
as  writer  and  speaker,  had  a  fine  presence  and  great 
magnetism,  so  that  his  fame  grew  rapidly  and  he  was  re 
peatedly  invited  to  pastorates  before  his  studies  were 
finished.  Morristown  became  his  temporary  home,  and 
subsequently  he  accepted  the  call  of  the  church  there. 
The  church  record  for  October,  1755,  says  :  "Mr.  Gano 
at  the  earnest  request  of  the  church  concluded  to  settle 



in  the 

Recognized  by 

with  us  for  the  sum  of  forty  pounds  a  year."  He  mar 
ried  Sarah  Stites,  daughter  of  the  mayor  of  Elizabeth- 
Town,  and  thus  became  related  indirectly  to  James 
Manning,  the  first  president  of  Brown  University,  who 
married  his  wife's  sister.  The  young  minister  bought  a 
farm  near  Morristown,  and  thus  managed  together  with 
his  meagre  salary  to  meet  current  expenses.  But  he  was 
not  long  to  remain  there.  Missionary  in  spirit  he  spent 
two  years  in  North  Carolina,  among  the  religiously  desti 
tute  people,  and  then  returning  North,  organized  the 
First  Baptist  Church  of  New  York  City,  and  for  twenty- 
six  years  was  its  pastor  and  a  citizen  of  no  little  repute. 
During  this  period  he  also  served  for  a  time  as  pastor  of 
the  First  Baptist  Church  of  Philadelphia,  spending  two 
Sundays  of  the  month  there  ;  since  preachers  of  his  rank 
were  few  and  in  great  demand. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  Eevolutionary  War  John  Gano 
became  chaplain,  and  remained  in  the  army  seven  years, 
giving  a  devoted  and  highly  acceptable  service.  More 
than  once  he  was  under  fire.  Part  of  the  time  he  served 
as  aide  to  General  James  Clinton.  He  participated  in 
the  capture  of  the  Hessians  at  Trenton,  the  overthrow  of 
the  English  allies — the  Pennsylvania  Indians,  and  reached 
Yorktown  just  too  late  to  witness  the  surrender  of  Corn- 
wallis.  When  peace  was  at  last  concluded,  and  the 
happy  event  celebrated  at  Washington's  headquarters, 
near  Newburgh,  April  19,  1783,  Chaplain  Gano  was 
selected  by  General  Washington  to  offer  the  prayer  of 
thanksgiving  on  that  joyous  and  memorable  occasion. 
After  the  war,  Washington  said,  "  Baptist  chaplains 
were  the  most  prominent  and  useful  in  the  army."  Gen 
eral  Washington  and  Mr.  Gano  were  close  friends,  and 
this  compliment  applied  especially  to  him. 

When  peace  was  restored,  Mr.  Gano  returned  to  his 
New  York  pastorate.  In  1788  he  resigned  to  go  to  Ken 
tucky.  He  became  at  once  the  leading  preacher  of  that 
State  and  for  ten  years  rendered  most  efficient  service, 


In  1798  he  fell  from  his  horse,  breaking  his  shoulder. 
Soon  after  he  was  stricken  with  paralysis.  During  the 
Great  Eevival,  1800-1803,  his  speech  was  restored  and  he 
preached,  as  a  contemporary  described  it,  "  in  an  as 
tonishing  manner." 

Consider  what  an  influence  was  exerted  by  this  Hugue 
not  descendant.  The  territory  covered  by  his  labours  was 
larger  than  that  of  the  Apostle  Paul.  It  extended  from  An  American 
Connecticut  to  Georgia  and  west  to  the  Kentucky  Eiver. 
He  was  interested  in  all  of  the  denominational  enterprises 
of  his  time.  He  was  one  of  the  first  home  missionaries 
sent  out  by  the  Philadelphia  Association,  the  first  Amer 
ican  Baptist  chaplain,  a  loyal  supporter  of  Hopewell 
Academy  and  Ehode  Island  College.  He  was  present  en 
couraging  the  movement  when  the  South  Carolina  Baptists 
set  apart  the  first  money  for  the  education  of  their  young 
preachers.  From  this  beginning  came  the  Southern  Bap 
tist  Theological  Seminary.  He  gave  sound  Calvinistic 
colouring  to  the  theology  of  the  Virginia  Baptists,  and 
stirred  all  the  churches  to  which  he  preached  with  mis 
sionary  zeal. 


Eev.  Stephen  Gauo,  son  of  John  Gano,  was  a  man  of    A  worthy  son 
mark,  whose  chief  work  was  done  in  Ehode  Island,  where 
his  ancestor  Francis  found  refuge.     Like  John  Gano,  the 
son  possessed  great  personal  magnetism  and  charm.     He 
had  the  French  clearness  of  style,  vividness  of  imagina 
tion,  warmth  of  temperament,  and  flow  of  language.    At 
the  same  time  he  combined  with  pulpit  power  executive 
ability,  and^was  marked  by  strong  common  sense  and 
practical  judgment.     He  was  a  leader  in  Providence,  as 
John  Gano  was  in  New  York  and  later  in  Kentucky.    As 
pastor  of  the  historic  First  Baptist  Church  of  Provi-   Pastor  of 
dence — the  church  founded  by  Eoger   Williams,    that  chrurch?pt 
great  apostle  of  religious  liberty— Stephen  Gano  exerted   Rogerdec 
a  wide  influence.     He  held  this  pastorate  from  1793  till   Williams 
his  death  in  1828,  a  period  of  thirty-five  years.     In  every 


way  this  ministry  was  remarkable.  Dr.  S.  L.  Caldwell, 
one  of  his  biographers,  says  :  "He  had  what  I  may  call 
a  pastoral  heart.  Of  large  person,  of  loud,  almost  sten 
torian  voice,  he  spoke  with  fluency  ;  often  pathetic  and 
hortatory  in  his  application  of  truth,  always  possessed 
with  a  strong  conviction  of  it,  he  had  power  over  a  large 
audience,  which  daring  his  time  filled  the  house." 

Stephen  Gano  was  filled  with  the  missionary  spirit  that 
characterized  the  early  Baptist  ministry.  During  a 
journey  to  the  West,  while  visiting  his  brother  in  Cincin 
nati,  he  organized  the  first  Protestant  church  of  any  de 
nomination  in  the  State  of  Ohio.  It  was  located  in  a 
little  settlement  known  as  Columbia,  now  within  the  city 
limits  of  Cincinnati.  The  church  continues  in  existence. 
Interested  in  education,  he  stimulated  the  founding  of 
colleges  and  academies,  as  well  as  of  churches,  and  was 
a  loyal  supporter  of  Brown  University.  Two  denomina 
tional  leaders  of  their  generation  were  thus  contributed 
to  American  life  by  that  brave  Huguenot  who  fled  from 
his  home  in  France  by  night,  and  after  many  perils 
found  refuge  in  that  freest  of  colonies,  where  Eoger  Will 
iams  guaranteed  to  all  the  religious  liberty  for  which  he 
himself  had  twice  been  exiled. 



THE    Huguenot    settlement    at  New  Paltz  was  1677 
brought  about  by  the  purchase  of  a  tract  of  land 
from  the  Indian  owners  in  the  year  1677.     In 
consideration  of  the  rights  acquired,  the  patentees  agreed 
to  pay  to  the  Indians  the  following  articles  : 

Forty  kettles,  ten  large,  thirty  small  ;  forty  axes,  forty 
adzes  ;  forty  shirts  ;  four  hundred  fathoms  of  white  net 
work  ;  sixty  pairs  of  stockings,  half  small  sizes  ;  one  hun 
dred  bars  of  lead ;  one  keg  of  powder ;  one  hundred 
knives ;  four  kegs  of  wine ;  forty  oars ;  forty  pieces  of 
"duffel"  (heavy  woolen  cloth);  sixty  blankets;  one 
hundred  needles ;  one  hundred  awls  ;  one  measure  of 
tobacco  ;  two  horses — one  stallion,  one  mare. 

The  twelve  men  who  thus  agreed  to  collect  the  above  The  Twelve 
assortment  of  merchandise  and  put  it  into  the  possession  ] 
of  the  Esopus  Indians  were  all  Huguenots  who  had  come 
to  the  New  World  by  way  of  the  Paltz,  of  Palatinate. 
Their  names,  as  appended  to  the  deed  with  all  the  bliss 
ful  ignorance  of  spelling  which  marked  the  period,  were 
as  follows :  Lowies  Du  Booys,  Christian  de  Yoo,  Agra- 
ham  Gaesbroeco,  Andrie  Lefeber,  Jan  Broeco,  Piere 
Doyo,  Anthony  Crespel,  Anrahain  Du  Booys,  Hugo 
Freer,  Isaack  D.  Boojs,  Symon  Lefeber,  Louis  Baijvier. 
Previous  to  their  coming  to  America,  these  men  had 
taken  refuge  in  and  about  Mannheim,  in  the  Palatinate, 
and  had  there  formed  the  ties  of  friendship  which  led  to 
their  association  in  the  founding  of  New  Paltz. 

The  first  of  the  Mannheim  party  to  arrive  in  America 




The  First 


Harmony  and 

was  Matthew  Blanshan  and  his  wife,  Maddeleen  Jorisse, 
together  with  his  son-in-law,  Anthony  Chrispel.  They 
sailed  in  the  Gilded  Otter  in  April,  1660,  and  by  Decem 
ber  of  the  same  year  were  settled  in  the  village  of  Wilt 
wyck,  now  called  Hurley.  The  following  year  Louis 
Du  Bois  and  his  wife  Catherine  Blanshan,  with  their  two 
sous,  Abraham  and  Isaac,  took  up  their  residence  there 
also.  Simon  and  Andre"  Le  Fevre  were  in  Wiltwyck  by 
April  23,  1665,  on  which  day  they  united  with  the 
church.  Owing  to  the  disturbed  condition  of  the  prov 
ince  at  that  time,  no  more  members  of  the  group  left 
Mannheim  until  the  year  1672,  when  Jean  Hasbrouck 
and  his  wife,  Anna,  daughter  of  Christian  Deyo,  joined 
their  friends.  Louis  Beviere  and  his  wife,  Maria  La 
Blan,  came  to  New  York  in  1673,  where  they  remained 
until  the  founding  of  New  Paltz,  four  years  later.  In 
1675  Abraham  Hasbrouck  came  to  Boston,  and  shortly 
afterwards  made  his  way  to  the  banks  of  the  Hudson. 
Hugh  Frere  and  his  wife,  Mary  Haye,  with  their  three 
children,  came  over  about  1676  ;  as  did  Christian  Deyo, 
with  his  son  Pierre,  and  his  daughter-in-law,  Agatha 
Nickol,  and  his  three  unmarried  daughters.  Thus  slowly 
the  little  group  was  reunited,  and  when  the  circle  was 
complete  the  project  was  formed  whereby  its  members 
might  dwell  together  in  peace  and  amity. 

The  life  of  the  settlement  was  harmonious  from  the  first. 
The  colonists  lived  on  the  friendliest  terms  with  their 
Indian  neighbours,  who  always  considered  that  they  had 
been  treated  with  fairness  in  the  matter  of  the  purchase 
of  the  land  ;  and  among  themselves  they  acted  as  brothers 
in  Arcadia.  At  the  commencement  of  the  colony  the 
patentees  and  their  families  all  laboured  together  in 
clearing  the  land,  in  erecting  their  log  dwellings,  and  in 
planting  their  first  crops.  Afterwards,  they  met  together 
and  portioned  out  the  lands  among  themselves  by  word 
of  mouth,  dispensing  with  the  formality  of  deeds. 

A  form  of  town  government  was  inaugurated  that  is 


NEW  PALTZ  285 

without  a  close  parallel  in  our  colonial  history.  At  first 
the  heads  of  the  families  met  together  and  settled  what 
ever  public  business  there  was  on  hand.  But  as  the  town 
grew  in  numbers,  this  primitive  democracy  gave  way  to 
a  unique  institution  locally  known  as  the  Dusine,  or 
Twelve  Men.  The  Dusine  was  a  legislative  and  execu 
tive  body  made  up  of  twelve  members  who  were  elected 
annually  by  a  popular  vote.  To  the  Dusine  was  given  The 
* l  full  power  and  Authority  to  Act  and  Sett  in  Good  order 
and  unity  all  Common  Affairs,  Businessess  or  things 
comeing  before  them."  If  its  powers  were  autocratic, 
its  composition  was  certainly  aristocratic  ;  for  no  one  but 
a  patentee  or  an  heir  of  a  patentee  could  be  elected  to  the 
Twelve.  That  is  to  say,  the  active  government  of  the 
town  was  vested  in  the  families  of  the  twelve  original 
settlers.  This  peculiar  condition  of  government  was  con 
tinued  until  1785,  when  the  town  was  incorporated  in  the 
State  government,  and  the  previous  measures  of  the 
Dusine  were  confirmed  by  a  special  Act  of  Legislature. 

When  the  first  settlers  of  New  Paltz  alighted  from  church  and 
their  wagons,  one  of  their  number  read  a  psalm  of 
thanksgiving,  and  one  of  the  earliest  log  buildings  which 
was  erected  was  devoted  to  uses  as  a  church  and  school- 
house.  In  this  cabin  the  little  community  of  Huguenots 
kept  alive  the  traditions  of  the  Keformation,  meeting 
there  for  informal  devotions  led  by  one  of  their  own 
number,  reading  passages  from  the  Bible,  singing  the 
sonorous  hymns  which  had  been  rendered  sacred  by  the 
blood  of  so  many  martyrs,  and  uttering  simple  prayers. 
Five  years  after  the  establishment  of  the  town  a  regular 
church  was  organized  under  the  advice  and  guidance  of 
the  worthy  Eev.  Pierre  Daille*.  A  translation  of  the  first 
entry  in  the  church  records  is  as  follows  : 

The  22d  of  January,  1683,  Mr.  Pierre  Daille,  minister  of  the  Word    Missionary 
of  God,  arrived  at  New  Paltz,  and  preached  twice  on  the  following 
Sunday,  and  proposed  to  the  heads  of  the  families  that  they  should 
choose  by  a  majority  of  votes,  by  the  fathers  of  families,  one  elder  and 



one  deacon,  to  assist  the  minister  in  guiding  the  members  of  the  church 
that  meets  in  New  Paltz  ;  who  were  subsequently  confirmed  in  the 
said  charge  of  elder  and  deacon.  This  minute  has  been  made  to  put 
in  order  the  matters  which  pertain  to  the  said  church. 

For  ten  years  Daille  acted  as  pastor  to  Iris  countrymen 
in  New  Paltz.  His  principal  field  of  labour  was  in  New 
York,  but  he  never  failed  to  visit  New  Paltz  for  a  time 
in  the  spring,  and  then  again  in  the  fall.  The  difficulties 
and  hardships  of  the  long  journeys  he  was  thus  forced  to 
make  cannot  easily  be  overestimated  ;  they  are  a  splendid 
testimony  to  the  unflagging  zeal  and  loyal  devotion  to 
duty  which  marked  the  man.  The  same  must  be  said  of 
his  successor,  the  Eev.  David  Bonrepos,  who,  from  1696 
to  1700,  journeyed  from  his  pastorate  at  Staten  Island  to 
New  Paltz  twice  a  year.  After  Bonrepos  ceased  to  visit 
them  it  is  probable  that  for  the  next  thirty  years  they 
had  no  regular  pastor ;  for  they  had  not,  as  yet,  united 
with  the  Dutch  Church,  and  those  few  French  ministers 
who  had  come  to  this  country  were  by  this  time  dead,  or 
else  settled  in  other  pastorates.  But  although  there  was 
thus  every  temptation  to  leave  neglected  the  duties  of 
their  religion,  such  was  neither  the  spirit  nor  intent  of 
our  refugees.  They  kept  up  their  informal  worship  in 
the  log  cabin  until  it  became  too  small  for  their  rapidly 
increasing  numbers,  and  then  they  set  about  building  a 
more  suitable  house  of  worship.  This  edifice,  which  was 
constructed  of  stone,  was  completed  in  1717,  and  was  in 
use  until  1773,  when  a  larger  church  was  built.  When 
the  church  was  finally  completed,  the  following  entry  was 
made  in  the  record  book  : 

Blessed  be  God,  who  has  put  it  into  our  hearts  to  build  a  house 
where  He  may  be  adored  and  served,  and  that  by  His  grace  we  have 
finished  it  in  the  year  1717 ;  and  God  grant  that  His  gospel  may  be 
preached  here  from  one  age  to  another  till  the  day  of  eternity.  Amen. 

Our  Huguenots  were  no  bigots  or  petty  sectarians,  for 
during  the  thirty  year  interval  when  they  were  without 

NEW  PALTZ  287 

a  pastor,  they  took  their  children  to  the  Dutch  church 
at  Kingston,  sixteen  miles  away,  to  be  baptized ;  and 
during  the  summer  months  they  were  in  the  habit  of 
taking  the  rough  journey  through  the  forest  to  join  with 
their  Dutch  brethren  in  receiving  the  communion.  A 
sixteen  mile  journey  through  the  woods  and  unbridged 
streams  was  no  luxury  ;  there  were  no  spring  wagons  for 
the  women  and  children  to  ride  in,  and  the  trip  had  to  be 
made  either  a- foot  or  on  horseback,  for  the  highway  of 
that  day  was  nothing  more  than  a  rude  trail. 

The  lack  of  sectarianism  that  prevailed  in  the  New 
Paltz  community  was  clearly  shown  in  the  choice  of  their 
next  pastor,  the  Rev.  Johannes  Van  Driessen,  a  minister 
of  the  Dutch  faith  who  had  been  educated  in  Belgium. 
The  salary  which  he  received  was  the  munificent  sum  of 
£10  a  year,  but  it  is  highly  probable  that  he  devoted  but 
a  small  proportion  of  his  time  to  the  New  Paltz  congre 
gation.  The  first  entries  which  he  made  in  the  church 
book  were,  in  French,  and  in  one  place  he  refers  to  the 
church  as  "our  French  church."  This  was  in  1731. 
Twenty  years  later,  however,  the  New  Paltz  church  had 
ceased  to  be  distinctively  French,  and  we  find  the  next 
pastor,  the  Eev.  B.  Vrooman,  making  an  inquiry  as  to 
whether  the  members  accepted  the  doctrines  of  the  Dutch 
Reformed  church  according  to  the  Heidelberg  catechism. 
Dutch  was  being  more  and  more  generally  spoken  in  New 
Paltz,  and  an  interesting  evidence  of  its  rapid  growth  in 
popular  use  is  found  in  a  clause  of  Jean  Tebenin's  will 
wherein  the  old  schoolmaster  gives  his  property  to  the 
church  with  the  provision  that  if  the  French  language 
should  be  entirely  superseded,  the  Bible  should  be  sold 
and  the  proceeds  given  to  the  poor. 

Coincident  with  the  founding  of  a  church  at  New  Paltz 
was  the  founding  of  a  school.    Out  of  their  scanty  fortunes   Education 
these  worthy  pioneers  set  aside  a  sum  sufficient  to  employ  Appreciated 
a  schoolmaster.     Jean  Tebenin  was  the  first  to  fill  the 
position,  which  he  retained  until  1700.     Jean  Cottin  fol- 


lowed  in  his  footsteps.  That  he  was  treated  with  the 
greatest  liberality  is  evidenced  by  the  following  deed  of 
gift  which  the  citizens  bestowed  upon  him  •  this  docu 
ment  also  throws  a  strong  light  on  the  character  of  the 
men  who  made  up  the  colony  and  the  ideals  they  had  in 
mind  in  regulating  its  growth  : 

A  Gift  to  the  \Ve  the  undersigned  gentlemen,  resident  proprietors  of  the  twelve 

parts  of  the  village  of  New  Paltz,  a  dependency  of  Kingston,  county 
of  Ulster,  province  of  New  York,  certify  that  of  our  good  will  and  to 
give  pleasure  to  Jean  Cottin,  schoolmaster  at  said  Paltz,  we  to  him 
have  given  gratuitously  a  little  cottage  to  afford  him  a  home,  situated 
at  said  Paltz,  at  the  end  of  the  street  on  the  left  hand  near  the  large 
clearing  extending  one  "  lizier  "  to  the  place  reserved  for  building  the 
church  and  continuing  in  a  straight  line  to  the  edge  of  the  clearing, 
thence  one  "  lizier  "  to  the  extremity  of  the  clearing,  and  we  guarantee 
the  said  Cottin  that  he  shall  be  placed  in  possession  without  any 
trouble  and  we  allow  said  Cottin  to  cut  wood  convenient  for  his  pur 
pose  for  building  and  he  is  given  the  pasturage  for  two  cows  and  their 
calves  and  a  mare  and  colt.  We  the  proprietors  at  the  same  time 
agree  among  ourselves,  for  the  interest  of  our  own  homes  to  request 
said  Cottin  that  he  will  not  sell  the  above  mentioned  property  to  any 
one  not  of  good  life  and  manners,  and  we  are  not  to  keep  said  Cottin 
as  schoolmaster  longer  than  we  think  fit  and  proper. 

Progress  and  By  steady  toil  and  exercise  of  thrift  the  descendants 
of  the  patentees  raised  themselves  to  a  comfortable  degree 
of  prosperity.  Within  a  few  years  after  the  building  of 
the  town,  the  original  wooden  houses  gave  way  to  spacious 
and  solid  structures  of  stone,  many  of  which  are  standing 
to-day,  still  occupied  by  direct  descendants  of  the  build 
ers.  This  is  one  of  the  marks  of  the  town,  that  the  fami 
lies  of  the  founders  still  cling  to  the  locality.  The  hurry 
and  bustle  of  modern  American  life  is  not  felt  to  any 
great  degree  in  New  Paltz,  and  men  may  be  'seen  tilling 
the  fields  that  their  great-great-grandfathers  tilled  before 

For  many  years  one  of  the  Huguenot  descendants,  Mr. 
Ralph  LeFevre,  of  New  Paltz,  has  been  gathering  facts 
concerning  the  families  which  trace  their  origin  to  the 



Esopus  colony,  and  he  has  recently  published  the  results 
of  his  zealous  labour  in  a  large  and  handsome  volume, 
entitled  History  of  New  Paltz  and  its  Old  Families,  which 
goes  minutely  into  family  history.  We  are  largely  in 
debted  to  him  for  the  facts  given  above,  and  for  other 





First  White 



Probably  as 
Early  as  1625 

Penn's  Grant 


EVEN  years  before  the  building  of  Fort  Nassau  on 
a  branch  of  the  Delaware  River  and  the  granting 

w_ '  of  patents  to  Godyn  and  his  colleagues,  a  small 

trading  station  was  erected  on  an  island  (now  almost  en 
tirely  washed  away)  in  the  Delaware  a  short  distance  be 
low  the  present  town  of  Trenton  Falls.  The  hardy  settlers 
who  undertook  the  labour  of  establishing  this  station  in 
the  wilderness,  and  who  thus  isolated  themselves  from  all 
contact  with  civilization,  were  members  of  the  band  of 
refugees,  collected  by  Jesse  de  Forest,  which  reached 
New  York  in  the  spring  of  1623.  Although  the  attempt 
was  an  abortive  one  and  had  to  be  abandoned  a  few  years 
later,  nevertheless  the  four  young  couples  who  made  up 
the  garrison  of  the  trading  station  are  entitled  to  recogni 
tion  as  the  first  white  settlers  of  Pennsylvania.  Unless 
new  facts  come  into  the  light  of  history,  we  may  safely 
say  that  the  first  homes  which  were  built  in  that  com 
monwealth  which  has  proved  such  an  asylum  for  the 
persecuted,  were  erected  by  the  most  bitterly  persecuted 
of  all  European  people,  the  Huguenots. 

Prior  to  the  grant  to  William  Penn  in  1681,  the  region 
now  known  as  Pennsylvania,  and  which  then  included  the 
state  of  Delaware,  contained  many  French  refugees  among 
its  inhabitants.  The  names  of  most  of  these  settlers  have 



passed  into  oblivion  ;  in  some  cases  being  irrecoverably 
lost,  in  other  cases  being  so  confused  with  the  Dutch  and 
Swedish  colonists  as  to  defy  all  attempt  at  separation. 
It  is  not  altogether  strange  that  the  early  settlers  in  Penn-  French 
sylvania  who  were  of  French  descent  lost  their  national 
identity.  The  majority  of  them  did  not  come  direct  from 
France,  but  from  Germany  and  Holland,  where  most  of 
them  had  long  resided  and  where  many  of  them,  indeed, 
had  been  born.  During  their  residence  in  the  Palatine 
and  in  Holland,  they  identified  themselves  with  the  in 
habitants  of  those  countries  in  speech  and  name.  That  Adaptability 
faculty  which  the  Huguenots  possessed  to  an  eminent  de 
gree,  and  which  made  of  them  such  desirable  immigrants, 
the  ability  to  adapt  themselves  readily  to  new  conditions 
and  new  environments,  operated  against  the  preservation 
of  their  identity  as  Frenchmen.  How  completely  had 
the  Gallic  flavour  disappeared  from  such  a  typical  Ger 
man  name  as  Kieffer,  or  such  a  typical  Dutch  name  as 
De  Witte !  Yet  the  Kieffers,  of  Pennsylvania,  and  the 
De  Wittes,  of  New  York,  were  once  the  Tonnelliers  and 
the  Le  Blancs  of  France.  And  even  Peter  Minuit,  "the 
discontented  governor,"  is  described  as  a  German  by  our 
historian  Bancroft.  Little  wonder,  then,  that  the  Hugue 
not  settlers  in  America  have  never  received  their  due 
meed  of  justice  at  the  hands  of  historians,  and  have 
never  been  given  the  popular  recognition  which  they  de 

A  majority  of  the  French  settlers  in  the  Delaware  region 
came  over  at  the  time  of  the  first  general  influx  of  emi 
grants  from  the  Palatine  ;  roughly  speaking,  between  the 
years  1654  and  1664.     The  names  of  some  of  the  more  influx 
prominent  of  these  refugees  have  been  preserved,  and  the  I654~l664 
positions  which  some  of  them  held  in  the  colony  give 
proof  of  the  high  esteem  in  which  the  Huguenots  were 
held  among  the  Dutch.     The  first  Huguenot  of  note  to 
take  up  his  residence  in  the  Delaware  colony  was  the  ex- 
director  of  the  New  Netherlands,  Peter  Minuit,  something 




De  Haes 



of  whose  history  is  given  in  another  section  of  this  book. 
During  Minuit' s  residence  in  Delaware  the  colony  came 
founds  under  the  rule  of  Sweden,  and  Minuit  was  appointed  gov 
ernor.  During  his  term  of  office,  which  was  a  short  one, 
lasting  only  from  April  28,  1638,  to  January  30,  1640,  he 
founded  the  town  of  Christiana  in  Delaware,  where  he 
died  the  year  following  his  release  as  governor. 

After  the  Dutch  had  regained  possession  of  the  colony 
from  the  Swedes,  another  Huguenot  was  placed  in  a  po 
sition  of  the  highest  authority.  Jean  Paul  Jacquett,  born 
in  Nuremberg  of  French  parents,  was  appointed  vice- 
director  in  1655,  and  was  responsible  to  the  governor  of 
New  Netherlands  for  the  welfare  of  the  colony.  Doubt 
less  the  fact  that  a  refugee  occupied  the  highest  position 
in  the  colony  had  much  to  do  with  the  coming  of  num 
bers  of  his  brethren,  for  at  just  about  this  time  a  con 
siderable  tide  of  immigration  set  in.  Later  on,  in  1676, 
Jacquett  was  made  a  justice,  and  was  in  other  ways  a 
man  of  great  distinction  in  the  colony.  He  died  in  1684, 
at  a  patriarchal  age.  Among  his  descendants  may  be 
mentioned  his  great-grandson,  Major  Peter  Jacquett,  who 
was  a  gallant  officer  in  the  Continental  Army.  Two 
years  after  Jacquett  was  made  justice,  Captain  John  de 
Haes  was  elevated  to  the  same  office.  Previous  to  this  he 
had  been  commissioner  to  receive  and  take  charge  of  quit 
rents,  and  later,  collector  of  customs  at  New  Castle. 
Another  Huguenot  who  was  prominent  in  the  govern 
ment  of  the  colony  for  many  years  was  Alexander  Boyer, 
who  as  early  as  1648  had  been  made  deputy  commissioner 
of  Delaware. 

Among  the  earlier  settlers  on  the  Delaware  were  the 
Le  Fever  brothers,  Jacques,  Hypolite  and  Jean.  Joost 
de  la  Grange  came  to  America  in  1656  by  way  of  Hol 
land,  and  became  the  owner  of  Tinicum  Island  in  1662. 
He  left  a  son  named  Arnoldus.  Gerrit  Eutan  was  a  cit 
izen  of  the  colony  before  1660,  and  established  a  family 
well  known  in  Pennsylvania,  of  which  the  Hon.  James 


S.  Rutan  was  a  worthy  representative.  Other  heads  of 
families  who  established  themselves  along  the  banks  of 
the  Delaware  were :  Daniel  Rouette  (prior  to  1683)  ; 
Jean  du  Bois  (prior  to  1694)  ;  Elie  Naudin  in  1698,  a 
native  of  La  Tremblade ;  John  Gruwell,  with  his  sons 
John  and  Jacob  ;  the  brothers,  Daniel,  James  and  Will 
iam  Voshell,  who  were  probably  related  to  Augustine  and 
Peter  Voshell  who  came  to  New  York  in  1700 ;  Dr.  des 
Jardines  (prior  to  1683),  who  came  as  a  naturalized 
Englishman  ;  Jacob  Casho ;  Laurens  Rochia,  who  fled 
first  to  Ireland  ;  and  Richard  Saye,  of  Nismes,  who  came 
in  1686.  Other  names  appear  before  the  end  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  many  of  them  given  distinction  by 
the  upright  and  honourable  lives  of  their  bearers,  as  fol 
lows  :  Philipe  Chevalier,  Henri  Clerq,  Albert  Blocq, 
Math,  de  Ring,  Mosis  de  Gau,  Hubert  Laurans,  Paul 
Mincq,  Jean  Savoy,  Belle vill,  Cammon,  Bassett,  Cazier, 
Deto,  La  Pierre,  La  Farge,  Le  Compte  (La  Count),  Larus, 
Sees,  Setton,  Janvier,  Du  Chesney  (Dushane),  Vigoure, 
Tunnell,  Le  Croix,  and  Hueling  (Huling). 


The  Ferree  family  was  descended  from  an  old  and  noble  The  Ferree 
family  of  Normandy,  and  at  the  time  of  the  Revocation  Family 
of  the  Edict,  Daniel,  one  of  the  best  representatives  of  the 
family,  was  a  silk  manufacturer  of  wealth  and  influential 
position.     Owing  to  his  prominence  and  the  staunchness 
he  had  displayed  in  clinging  to  his  faith,  he  was  marked 
by  the  dragoons  for  the  bitterest  persecutions.     To  save 
his  wife,  Mary,  and  his  six  children  from  the  abuse  and   Daniel's 
insults  of  the  troopers,  he  managed  to  convey  them  secretly  Fllght 
to  Strasbourg,  where  they  were  in  comparative  safety. 
Remaining  here  for  some  time,   the  Ferrees  moved  to 
Bittingheim  in  the  Palatinate.     Here  Daniel  Ferree  died. 
The  leadership  now  developed  upon  Mary  Ferree,  and  Mary 
the  difficulties  of  her  position  cannot  be  well  over-esti- 
mated ;  an  exile  from  her  native  land,  living  amongst  a 


strange  people,  and  with  but  scant  means  with  which  to 
provide  for  her  family,  the  future  must,  indeed,  have 
looked  black  to  her.  But  she  proved  to  be  the  stuff  of 
which  heroines  are  made,  and  surmounting  every  obstacle, 
managed  to  keep  her  little  flock  together.  As  time  passed 
on,  and  her  children  grew  to  maturity,  she  developed  the 
plan  of  seeking  out  a  home  in  the  new  world  where  her 
girls  and  boys  would  have  a  better  chance  in  the  world 
seeks  America  than  was  offered  by  Germany,  already  overcrowded  with 
children  refugees,  and  far  from  secure  from  the  inroads  of  the 

Papal  troops.  Her  eldest  daughter,  Catherine,  had  mar 
ried  a  young  refugee  by  the  name  of  Isaac  le  Fevre,  and 
he,  together  with  the  wife  of  Madame  Ferree's  oldest  son, 
Daniel,  joined  the  little  band  which  left  the  Palatinate  in 
Their  church  The  church  letter  which  Daniel  received  was  as 

Letter  „  ,, 

follows : 

Certificate  for  Daniel  Fir  re  and  his  family. 

WE,  the  Pastors,  Elders  and  Deacons  of  the  Reformed  Walloon 
Church  of  Pelican,  in  the  Lower  Palatinate,  having  been  requested 
by  the  Honourable  Daniel  Firre,  his  wife,  Anne  Maria  Leininger,  and 
their  children,  Andrew  and  John  Firre,  to  grant  them  a  testimonial  of 
their  life  and  religion,  do  certify  and  attest  that  they  have  always 
made  profession  of  the  pure  Reformed  religion,  frequented  our  sacred 
assemblies,  and  have  partaken  of  the  supper  of  the  Lord  with  the  other 
members  of  the  faith,  in  addition  to  which  they  have  always  con 
ducted  themselves  uprightly  without  having  given  cause  for  scandal 
that  has  come  to  our  knowledge.  Being  now  on  their  departure  to 
settle  elsewhere  we  commend  them  to  the  protection  of  God  and  to  the 
kindness  of  all  our  brethren  in  the  Lord  Christ.  In  witness  whereof 
we  have  signed  this  present  testimonial  with  our  signature  and  usual 
marks.  Done  at  Pelican,  in  our  Consistory,  the  10th  of  May,  1708. 



The  civil  passport  which  Madame  Ferree  obtained  is 
not  without  interest  as  a  historical  document,  and  a 
translation  of  it  is  as  follows  : 


WHEREAS,  Maria,  Daniel  Fuehre's  widow,  and  her  son,  Daniel 
Ferie,  with  his  wife  and  six  children,  in  view  of  improving  their  condi 
tion  and  in  furtherance  of  their  prosperity,  purpose  to  emigrate  from 
Steinweiler,  in  the  Mayorality  of  Bittingheim,  High  Bailiwick  Ger- 
mersheim,  via  Holland  and  England,  to  the  island  of  Pennsylvania,  to 
reside  there.  They  have  requested  an  accredited  certificate  that  they 
have  left  the  town  of  Steinweiler  with  the  knowledge  of  the  proper 
authorities,  and  have  deported  themselves,  and  without  cause  for  cen 
sure,  and  are  indebted  to  no  one,  and  not  subject  to  vassalage,  being 
duly  solicited  it  has  been  thought  proper  to  grant  their  petition,  de 
claring  that  the  above  named  persons  are  not  moving  away  clandes 

That  during  the  time  their  father,  the  widow  and  children  resided 
in  this  place  they  behaved  themselves  so  piously  and  honestly  that  it 
would  have  been  highly  gratifying  to  us  to  see  them  remain  among  us  ;    Commenda- 
that  they  are  not  subject  to  bodily  bondage,  the  Mayorality  not  being   tions 
subject  to  vassalage.      They  have  also  paid  for  their  permission  to  emi 
grate.     Mr.  Fisher,  the  Mayor  of  Steinweiler,  being  expressly  inter 
rogated,  it  has  been  ascertained  that  they  are  not  liable  for  any  debts. 
In  witness  whereof  I  have,  in  the  absence  of  the  Counsellor  of  the  Pa 
latinate,  etc.,  signed  these  presents,  and  given  the  same  to  the  persons 
who  intend  to  emigrate. 

J.  P.  DIETRICH,  Court  Clerk. 

Dated  Bittingheim,  March  10,  1708. 

Armed  with  these  documents  the  party  made  its  way  to 
England  to  complete  its  arrangements  for  settling  in 
America.     Madame  Ferree  sought  and  obtained  an  inter 
view  with  William  Peun,  to  whom  she  told  the  story  of 
her  misfortunes  and  her  desires  for  the  future.     Penn  was  interview 
deeply  interested  by  her  recital  and  agreed  to  give  her  a  wm.  Penn 
tract  of  land  in  Pennsylvania.     The  day  following  her 
visit  he  took  her  to  see  Queen  Anne,  and  that  generous  Aid  from 
sovereign  also  became  interested  in  the  courageous  woman  °-ueen  Anne 
and  promised  her  "  substantial  aid,  which  she  in  due  time 

After  a  six  months'  residence  in  London  the  Ferrees  and 
Le  Fevre  joined  a  band  of  Huguenot  and  Palatine  ref- 

ugees  who  were  about  to  set  out  for  America  under  the  s 
leadership  of  the  Kev.  Joshua  Kocherthal.     Arriving  in 




2.000  Acres 





Soldiers  and 


New  York,  the  party  continued  on  up  the  Hudson  to 
Esopus,  where  their  relatives,  Michail  Ferree  and  Andreas 
Lefevre,  had  already  settled.  Here  they  remained  for  four 
years,  until,  in  1712,  it  became  feasible  for  them  to  re 
move  to  Pennsylvania  and  settle  upon  the  lands  which 
had  been  granted  to  them  in  the  valley  of  the  Pequea. 
The  tract  which  came  into  their  possession  contained  two 
thousand  acres,  in  consideration  for  which  they  paid  over 
to  Penn's  commissioners  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  fifty 

In  1716,  four  years  after  her  arrival  in  Pennsylvania, 
Madame  Ferree  found  a  peaceful  grave  near  the  home 
which  she  had  established  for  her  children.  It  is  pleas 
ant  to  know  that  the  last  years  of  this  brave  woman  were 
in  marked  contrast  to  the  stormy  years  of  her  flight  from 
France  and  her  struggles  in  Germany,  and  that  she  died 
happy  in  the  knowledge  that  her  children  were  on  the 
high-road  to  prosperity  in  a  land  where  freedom  of  con 
science  was  the  birthright  of  all  her  sons.  Her  descend 
ants  prospered  and  multiplied  until  to-day  they  are  to  be 
numbered  by  the  thousand.  In  every  walk  of  life  they 
have  earned  distinction  and  have  proved  an  honour  to 
their  Huguenot  ancestry.  It  will  be  possible  to  mention 
but  a  few  of  them  in  this  book,  for  a  full  list  would  oc 
cupy  pages. 

In  the  Eevolutionary  struggle  the  family  took  an  im 
portant  part.  Besides  a  great  number  of  privates  and 
non-commissioned  officers,  the  Ferrees  gave  to  the  cause 
such  brave  soldiers  as  Colonel  John  Ferree,  of  the  Tenth 
Pennsylvania  Eifles,  Colonel  Joel  Ferree,  Major  Michael 
Ferree  and  Major  George  Lefever.  Prominent  among  the 
members  of  the  family  who  took  part  in  the  war  of  1812 
were  Colonel  Joel  Ferree  (a  cousin  of  the  Eevolutionary 
colonel  of  that  name)  and  Colonel  Daniel  Lefevre.  In 
the  Civil  War  the  most  distinguished  representative  of 
the  family  was  Major-General  John  F.  Eeynolds.  His 
grandmother  on  the  paternal  side  was  Catherine  Ferree  Le 


Fevre,  who  was  a  direct  descendant  from  Madame  Ferree. 
General  Eeynolds'  record  is  too  well  known  to  require 
repetition  here ;  certainly  no  more  gallant  soldier  was 
developed  during  the  war  than  the  commander  of  the 
First  Army  Corps  who  died  so  nobly  at  the  battle  of 
Gettysburg.  His  brother,  William  Eeynolds,  who  died  a  Rear  Admiral 
Eear  Admiral  in  the  United  States  Navy,  was  also  a  dis 
tinguished  member  of  the  family  and  helped  carry  on  the 
family  traditions  by  his  service  in  the  Mexican  and  Civil 
Wars.  The  Schreiver  family  of  Maryland  is  another 
branch  of  Madame  Ferree' s  descendants  which  has  made 
an  honourable  record  for  itself,  tracing  its  descent  from 
Eebecca  Ferree.  Abraham  Schreiver  (1771-1848)  earned 
an  enviable  reputation  as  a  judge  of  great  legal  ability 
and  uprightness.  A  very  distinguished  descendant  of  Admiral 
this  branch  is  Admiral  Winfield  Scott  Schley,  who  earned  Schley 
lasting  glory  at  Santiago.  Admiral  Schley  is  descended 
from  Mary  Schreiver,  daughter  of  David  and  Eebecca 
(Ferree)  Schreiver,  who  married  John  Schley,  the  ad 
miral's  grandfather.  How  much  of  his  success  as  a  fighter 
Admiral  Schley  owes  to  the  strain  of  martial  Huguenot 
blood  in  his  veins  it  is,  of  course,  impossible  to  say  ;  but 
when  we  look  at  the  records  of  the  Ferree- Lefever  de 
scendants  in  camp  and  field,  we  may  feel  sure  that  his  debt 
is  no  inconsiderable  one. 


Three  Huguenots  were  among  the  first  residents  of 
Philadelphia — Jean  de  La  Vail,  Edmund  Du  Castle,  and  Early  in 
Andrew  Doz.     Doz,  who  was  a  refugee  in  London  at  the  PhiladelPhia 
time  of  Penn's  purchase,  came  over  with  Penn  to  inves 
tigate  the  advisability  of  planting  vineyards.     In  1690 
he  was  rewarded  for  his  services  by  a  grant  of  two 
hundred  acres  of  land,  which  included  the  vineyards  al 
ready  laid  out  along  the  banks  of  the  Schuylkill  Eiver. 
Settling  upon  this  grant,  he  prospered,  found  himself  a  Doz  I6go 
wife  and  established  a  worthy  family.     His  grandson, 


A  Leader 
Among  the 


likewise  named  Andrew,  became  widely  known  as  a 
thoroughly  public-spirited  citizen  and  gave  away  large 
sums  of  money  for  those  days,  to  numerous  charitable 
and  philanthropic  institutions  of  the  city.  Other  Hugue 
nots  who  were  citizens  of  Philadelphia  at  a  very  early 
date  were  Samuel  Eobinett,  Gabriel  Eappe,  and  Nicholas 
Eeboteau,  of  the  Isle  of  Ehe,  and  Andrew  of  Nismes. 

In  1684  Andros  Souplis  and  his  wife  came  to  Philadel 
phia.  He  had  been  an  officer  in  the  French  army,  was  a 
very  brilliant  young  man,  and  soon  became  a  great 
favourite  with  Penn.  He  left  behind  him  one  son, 
Andrew,  who  changed  the  name  to  its  present  form  of 

Isaac  Eoberdeau,  with  his  wife  Mary  Cunyngham,  a 
descendant  of  the  Earl  of  Glencairn,  fled  to  Philadelphia 
from  St.  Christopher  at  an  early  date.  His  son,  Daniel, 
became  one  of  the  leading  merchants  and  first  citizens  of 
Philadelphia.  By  the  year  1756  he  had  become  one  of 
the  managers  of  the  Pennsylvania  hospital,  and  was  a 
leader  among  the  early  Masons,  being  closely  associated 
with  Benjamin  Franklin,  Alexander  Hamilton  and 
others.  During  the  years  1756-60  he  was  a  member  of 
the  Pennsylvania  assembly,  and  five  years  later  he  was 
made  an  elder  in  the  Presbyterian  Church.  He  was  an 
ardent  patriot  and  gave  himself  unsparingly  to  the  cause 
of  independence.  In  1775  he  served  as  a  colonel  of 
Pennsylvania  troops.  In  1776  he  presided  over  a  public 
meeting  in  Philadelphia  which  wielded  a  large  influence 
in  favour  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  Shortly 
afterwards  he  fitted  out  a  couple  of  privateers,  and  when 
one  of  these  vessels  captured  a  rich  prize  with  $22, 000  in 
silver  aboard,  he  promptly  placed  the  money  at  the  dis 
posal  of  Congress.  On  July  4,  1776,  while  he  was  a 
member  of  the  council  of  safety,  he  was  chosen  as  first 
brigadier-general  of  the  Pennsylvania  troops.  Later  he 
was  elected  as  delegate  to  the  Continental  Congress.  In 
1778  there  was  a  scarcity  of  lead  in  the  American  army, 


and  General  Roberdeau,  securing  a  leave  of  absence  from, 
the  Congress,  with  his  private  fortune  established  a  fort  An  Ardent 
in  Bedford  County  as  protection  against  the  Indians  and 
worked  a  lead  mine  there.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he 
retired  from  business  as  well  as  from  public  life,  and 
settled  down  in  Alexandria,  Virginia,  where  he  was  fre 
quently  in  the  habit  of  entertaining  General  Washington. 
He  died  in  1795. 

His  son,  Isaac,  grandson  of  the  emigrant  of  that  name, 
early  showed  a  love  for  engineering  and  received  the  best 
kind  of  technical  education  which  the  times  afforded. 
In  1791  he  acted  as  assistant  engineer  in  laying  out  the 
city  of  Washington,  and  later  was  engaged  in  canal  con 
struction  in  Pennsylvania.  In  1813  he  was  appointed 
topographical  engineer  in  the  regular  army,  with  the 
rank  of  major.  In  this  capacity  he  had  charge  of  the 
survey  which  laid  out  the  boundary  line  between  Canada 
and  the  United  States  under  the  treaty  of  Ghent.  He 
organized  the  bureau  of  topographical  engineers  in  the 
War  Department,  in  1818,  and  remained  as  its  chief  until 
his  death  in  1829. 

Among  the  records  of  Christ  Episcopal  Church,  of  Christ 
Philadelphia,  occur  the  following  names  of  Huguenot 
parents  ( first  entries  alone  being  given )  :  Le  Tort, 
James,  1709 ;  Le  Boyteau,  William,  1711 ;  Voyer,  Peter, 
1713 ;  Tripeo,  Frederick,  1713 ;  Chevalier,  Peter,  1712 ; 
Garrigues,  Francis,  1721  ;  Durell,  Moses,  1731 ;  Fleury, 
Peter,  1731 ;  Le  Dru,  Noel,  1732  ;  Pinnard,  Joseph,  1733  ; 
Renardet,  James,  1733 ;  Doz,  Andrew  ;  Duche,  Jacob, 
1734  ;  Boyer,  James,  1734  ;  Bonnett,  John,  1736 ;  Gar 
rigues,  Peter,  1736  ;  Doutell,  Michael,  1737  ;  Hoduett, 
John,  1737  ;  Boudinot,  Elias,  1738  ;  Brund,  John,  1738  ; 
Purdieu,  Guilliam,  1738;  La  Rue,  John,  1739;  Le 
Shemile,  Peter,  1741 ;  Le  Gay,  Jacob,  1744  ;  Votaw,  Paul 
Isaac,  1747  ;  Dupeen,  Daniel,  1747  ;  de  Prefontain,  Peter, 
1754 ;  Vidal,  Stephen,  1754  ;  Couche,  Daniel,  1756 ; 
Paca,  John,  1758 ;  Le  Dieu,  Lewis,  1758  j  Lacallas, 


James,  1759 ;  Hillegas,  Michael,  1760.  Among  these 
names  are  many  which  are  held  in  respect  to-day ; 
two  especially  being  worthy  of  notice — Boudinot  and 



N  1686,  Elias  Boudinot,  of  La  Tremblade,  came  to 

New  York.     His  son,  Elias,  Jr.,  left  New  York  some  f6^dinot 

time  prior  to  1 735  and  established  himself  in  Phila 
delphia.     There  his  son  Elias  ( third  of  the  name  )  was 
born  in  1740.     The  boy  received  a  good  classical  educa 
tion,  and  when  the  usual  course  of  Latin  and  Greek  was  His  Abie 
completed  he  set  himself  to  study  law  under  the  guidance  f°£  Elias>  Jr>i 
of  the  famous  Eichard  Stockton.     He  was  an  apt  scholar 
and  soon  achieved  an  enviable  reputation  at  the  bar. 
At  the  opening  of  the  war,  though  still  a  young  man,  he 
was  recognized  as  easily  among  the  most  eminent  lawyers 
which  the  colonies  had  produced.     He  began  his  public 
career  as  commissary-general  of  prisoners,  in  1777,  and 
the  year  following  was  elected  to  the  Continental  Con 
gress.     Here  his  abilities  were  brought  into  full  play  and 
he  soon  became  one  of  the  most  powerful  leaders  of  that 
body.     Four  years  after  his  first  election  to  Congress  he  Member  of 
was  chosen  as  its  president,  and  in  that  capacity  he  signed  Congress 
the  treaty  of  peace  with  England.     He  then  wished  to   President 
take  up  his  law  practice  again,  and  succeeded  for  a  short 
while.     But  he  had  proved  himself  too  valuable  a  public 
servant  for  his  constituents  to  allow  him  to  remain  in 
private  life,  and  when  the  constitution  was  adopted  he 
was  elected  successively  to  the  first,  second  and  third 
congresses.     In  1795  Washington  appointed  him  Director 
of  the  Mint  at  Philadelphia.     He  held  this  position  until 
1805,  when  he  resigned  and  retired  to  Burlington,  New 
Jersey,  in  order  to  devote  his  attention  to  study  and  Director  of  the 
philanthropic  work.     He  was  for  many  years  a  trustee  Mint 




Student  and 


Story  of 

of  Princeton  College,  and  in  1805  presented  that  institu 
tion  with  a  valuable  collection  of  specimens  in  natural 
history.  He  was  greatly  interested  in  philanthropic 
work  of  a  religious  nature.  He  served  on  the  American 
Board  of  Commissioners  for  Foreign  Missions,  and  was 
generous  in  his  contributions  to  that  cause.  He  was  also 
one  of  the  founders  of  the  American  Bible  Society,  be 
coming  its  first  president  in  1816.  Other  lines  of  phil 
anthropic  endeavour  in  which  he  was  actively  engaged 
were  the  education  of  deaf  mutes,  the  training  of  young 
men  for  the  ministry,  and  the  relief  of  the  poor.  While 
thus  busily  engaged  in  promoting  the  welfare  of  his  fel 
lows,  he  found  time  to  undertake  many  arduous  studies 
in  biblical  literature,  and  published  a  number  of 
volumes  on  religious  subjects — the  most  famous  of  these 
being  a  reply  to  Tom  Paine.  He  died  in  1821,  full  of 
years  and  good  deeds.  In  his  will  he  gave  13,000  acres 
of  laud  to  the  city  of  Philadelphia  in  order  that  the  poor 
might  be  able  to  buy  wood  at  a  small  price  ;  3, 000  acres 
to  the  Pennsylvania  hospital,  etc.  Among  the  other  be 
quests  was  the  rather  odd  one  of  a  fund  with  which  to 
buy  spectacles  for  the  aged  poor. 

No  short  sketch  of  his  life  can  do  justice  to  Elias 
Boudinot.  To  appreciate  his  real  significance  as  an 
actor  in  the  drama  which  took  place  at  the  founding  of 
the  Eepublic,  it  is  necessary  to  read  the  history  of  his 
times.  As  lawyer,  statesman,  patriot,  scholar  and  phil 
anthropist,  he  was  one  of  the  most  remarkable  men  of 
the  Eevolutionary  period. 


One  of  the  most  interesting  characters  that  France  has 
contributed  to  America  is  Stephen  Girard,  founder  of 
Girard  College  in  Philadelphia.  He  represented  the  ac 
cumulative  and  thrifty  spirit  of  his  race.  From  a  penni 
less  runaway  he  rose  to  be  merchant,  banker,  multi-million 
aire,  the  richest  man  of  his  day  in  America,  and  at  the 


end  a  philanthropist  and  benefactor.  He  was  one  of  the 
most  eccentric  of  men  ;  and  his  homely  chaise,  drawn  by 
a  sleepy  looking  farm  horse,  was  for  years  to  be  seen 
every  day  except  Sunday  at  about  the  same  hour,  making 
its  way  slowly  along  the  main  business  street  of  his 
adopted  city.  This  description  of  him  is  given  by  a 
recent  writer  :  *  "  His  low,  square,  sturdy  frame  was  in 
variably  clad  in  a  faded  coat  of  an  ancient  and  foreign 
pattern.  His  slouch  hat  half  concealed  a  cold  and  melan 
choly  face  marked  with  deep  lines  of  thought  and  care. 
His  small,  bright  eye  looked  hard  and  cunning,  and  his 
firm,  determined  mouth  and  square  jaw  indicated  the 
indomitable  will  that  lay  beneath  the  uncouth  exterior." 

He  was  born  near  Bordeaux,  in  France,  May  24,  1750,    Bom  1750 
of  seafaring  parents.     His  childhood  was  unhappy,  and 
at  fourteen  he  ran  away  from  home,  shipping  as  cabin- 
boy  on  a  trading  vessel  bound  for  the  West  Indies.     Dur 
ing  his  voyages  he  read  carefully  every  book  he  could 
get  hold  of,  and  gained  a  large  fund  of  information.     Of  seif-Made 
a  keen  mind,  he  studied  thoroughly  the  commercial  con 
ditions  and  operations  of  the  countries  he  visited.     By 
and  by  he  rose  to  the  command  of  a  ship,  and  presently 
became  ship  owner,  purchasing  vessel  after  vessel  until  his 
fleet  was  famous  the  world  around.     He  made  Philadel-   Philadelphia 
phia  his  headquarters  in  1777,  and  became  engaged  in  1777 
numerous  enterprises.     His  marriage  to  a  Philadelphia 
shipbuilder's  daughter  was  unhappy,  his  wife  becoming 
insane  and  spending  twenty-five  years  in  an  asylum  be 
fore  death  relieved  her.     This  blasting  of  his  domestic 
happiness,  together  with  his  boyhood  miseries,  embittered 
him,  and  led  him  to  assume  a  harsh  and  cynical  exterior 
foreign  to  his  real  nature. 

He  bent  all  his  energies  to  the  accumulation  of  wealth, 
and  came  to  be  regarded  as  a  miser.     The  truth  would  Miser- 
seem  to  be,  however,  that  all  this  time  he  had  the  fixed  fhhroj?st 
purpose  of  founding  an  institution  that  should  through 
1  W.  H.  Kirkbride. 


but  Just 

Respect  for 
True  Piety 

A  Quaker's 
Method  of 
Getting  a 

generations  feed,  clothe  and  educate  the  humble  and 
homeless.  Rich  as  he  was,  his  tastes  were  of  the  sim 
plest.  Indeed,  he  lived  in  obscurity,  in  a  small  house  on 
an  unattractive  side  street,  and  it  is  said  his  personal  ex 
penses  were  not  so  great  as  those  of  his  clerks.  His 
breakfast  and  supper  usually  consisted  of  biscuits  and 
milk,  while  for  dinner  he  occasionally  allowed  himself  a 
little  meat. 

His  eccentricities  were  many,  and  the  stories  told  of 
him  well  illustrate  this  side  of  his  character.  We  give 
two  or  three  which  are  thoroughly  characteristic.  He 
was  not  in  the  habit  of  giving  promiscuously,  and 
seldom,  if  ever,  gave  to  beggars.  A  very  poor  man  once 
knocked  at  his  door,  begging  for  bread  to  save  his  wife 
and  children  from  starvation.  Girard  drove  him  roughly 
away,  but  secretly  followed  him  home,  and,  finding  that 
he  had  spoken  the  truth,  ordered  the  baker  to  leave  four 
loaves  a  day  at  the  house  until  the  man  procured  work 
enough  to  support  his  family. 

He  had  the  greatest  contempt  for  any  one  who  professed 
religion  and  did  not  practice  it,  but  respected  the  man  of 
religion  who  was  honest  and  straightforward  in  his  deal 
ings.  One  of  the  few  men  that  he  trusted  implicitly 
was  a  Mr.  Inglis,  an  expert  accountant,  and  a  man  of 
sincere  religious  opinions.  Recognizing  his  value  and 
his  honesty,  Girard  offered  him  the  position  of  cashier  in 
his  bank,  which  was  refused.  "You  and  I  serve  differ 
ent  masters,  Mr.  Girard,  and  could  never  agree."  His 
views  were  respected  and  nothing  further  was  said  on  the 

To  get  a  subscription  from  Stephen  Girard  was  not  an 
easy  matter.  It  required  tact  and  the  right  introduction 
and  many  failed  while  a  few  succeeded.  It  is  told  that 
Samuel  Coates,  a  genial  Quaker,  was  one  of  the  few  men 
who  knew  how  to  approach  the  eccentric  millionaire. 
He  was  a  manager  of  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  and 
called  on  Girard  for  the  purpose  of  raising  money  for  the 


support  of  that  institution.  "Well,  how  much  do 
you  want,  Coates?"  asked  Girard  in  his  usual  brusque 
tones.  "Just  what  thee  pleases  to  give,  Stephen," 
quietly  replied  the  Quaker.  Girard  wrote  out  a  check 
for  $2,000,  and,  handing  it  to  Mr.  Coates,  was  sur 
prised  to  see  that  gentleman  pocket  it  without  looking 
at  the  amount.  "What!  you  don't  look  to  see  how 
much  I  give  you?"  cried  Girard  incredulously.  "  Beg 
gars  must  not  be  choosers,  Stephen,"  replied  the 

"  Give  me  back  my  check  and  I  will  change  it,"  said 
Girard  after  a  moment's  pause. 

"A  bird  in  the  hand  is  worth  two  in  the  bush,  thee 
knows,  Stephen,"  mildly  replied  the  Quaker.  Without 
another  word  Girard  sat  down  and  wrote  him  out  a  second 
check  for  $5,000. 

His  farm  on  the  outskirts  of  Philadelphia  was  one  of  Detecting 
the  best  in  the  country,  and  while  living  in  town  he  often  a  Lle 
drove  out  before  breakfast  to  see  that  all  was  going  well. 
He  was  very  exacting  with  his  hired  hands,  and  never 
trusted  the  management  of  his  farm  to  any  one  else,  but 
ran  it  himself,  as  he  did  all  his  affairs.  Arriving  one 
morning  a  little  earlier  than  usual  he  was  greatly  annoyed 
at  not  finding  his  man  at  work  on  a  fence  that  he  was 
building.  The  man's  wife,  noticing  Girard  approaching 
the  house,  hurriedly  awoke  her  husband  and  sent  him  to 
his  duties  by  way  of  the  back  door.  After  visiting  the 
house  Girard  returned  to  the  fence,  and  seeing  the  man  at 
his  post  reprimanded  him  for  being  late.  "I'd  been 
here,  sir,  but  went  back  for  a  spade, ' '  said  the  workman. 
1  '  You  lie !  I  went  and  put  my  hand  in  your  bed  and 
found  it  warm,"  replied  Girard,  and  he  discharged  the 
man  on  the  spot. 

Not  only  did  he  personally  supervise  the  affairs  of  his  working  with 
farm,  but  also  prided  himself  on  performing  much  of  the 
manual  labour.     He  frequently  killed  as  many  as  fifty 
steers  with  the  assistance  of   one  hired  man.   and  in 


of  the 


Yellow  Fever 

Girard  College 

harvest-time  would  spend  twelve  hours  at  a  time  with  the 
pitchfork  loading  the  hay  wagon. 

This  was  the  man  who  at  the  opening  of  the  War  of 
1812  bought  out  the  old  Bank  of  the  United  States,  and 
during  the  war  was  the  financial  mainstay  of  the  govern 
ment.  In  1814  when  the  government  called  for  a  loan  of 
$5,000,000  the  subscriptions  amounted  to  only  $20,000. 
The  credit  of  the  country  was  at  its  lowest  ebb ;  but 
Girard  had  faith  in  the  nation  and  saved  the  day  by 
coming  out  from  behind  the  ramparts  of  his  bank  and 
advancing  the  entire  sum.  He  did  not  stickle  about  the 
interest ;  he  had  faith,  and  he  could  wait  for  that,  he 

In  childhood  Girard  had  sustained  an  accident  which 
blinded  one  of  his  eyes  and  gave  a  distorted  twist  to  his 
features.  The  bitterness  attendant  upon  this  was  prob 
ably  the  cause  in  part  of  his  shyness  and  unsocial  habits. 
Many  of  his  contemporaries  thought  him  harsh  and  re 
clusive,  but  this  opinion  undoubtedly  arose  from  his  man 
ner  rather  than  from  any  lack  of  kindness  and  humanity 
in  Girard' s  heart,  for  the  open  record  of  his  life  is  suffi 
cient  evidence  of  his  altruistic  nature.  During  the 
epidemic  of  yellow  fever  which  swept  over  Philadelphia  in 
1793,  he  was  instrumental  in  organizing  a  hospital  for  the 
plague-stricken  people  and  gave  largely  to  it.  And  when 
no  one  could  be  hired  to  take  charge  of  it,  Girard  him 
self,  although  his  business  interests  suffered  greatly  from 
his  absence,  went  to  the  hospital  and  for  sixty  days 
laboured  with  might  and  main  to  establish  order  and 

During  his  life  he  gave  thousands  of  dollars  to  the  city 
of  Philadelphia  for  public  improvements  and  was  a 
liberal  contributor  to  many  churches  and  various  chari 
ties.  At  his  death  he  left  about  nine  million  dollars  to 
philanthropic  enterprises,  his  principal  bequest  being  the 
orphanage  known  as  Girard  College.  This  unique  insti 
tution  receives  orphans  between  the  ages  of  six  and  ten 


years,  inclusive,  educates  them  under  excellent  masters, 
trains  them  for  mechanical,  agricultural  or  commercial 
pursuits,  and  at  the  end  of  eight  years  gives  them  a  fur 
ther  start  in  life  by  finding  them  suitable  positions  in 
their  chosen  trades.  Thus  thousands  of  poor  boys  have 
been  cared  for  and  reared  into  useful,  upright  men  ;  and 
many  generations  of  well -trained  and  worthy  citizens 
have  reason  to  rise  up  and  call  Stephen  Girard  blessed. 
The  college  has  had  a  remarkable  success.  Financially  Endowment 
the  estate  increased  in  value  until  it  is  estimated  at 
thirty-eight  millions  and  the  annual  expenditures  of  the 
college  are  over  half  a  million,  as  against  forty-seven 
thousand  dollars  at  the  beginning.  Fifteen  millions  have 
been  spent  upon  the  maintenance  and  enlargement  of  the 
institution,  which  has  an  enrollment  of  1,550.  A  prefer 
ence  is  given  to  orphan  boys  from  Philadelphia,  secondly, 
to  those  born  elsewhere  in  Pennsylvania,  thirdly,  to  those 
born  in  New  York  city,  and  lastly,  to  those  born  in  New 
Orleans — these  last  two  being  the  first  cities  he  visited 
after  reaching  America. 

The  will  provided  strictly  that  no  sectarian  teaching 
should  ever  be  allowed  in  the  college,  but  said  :  i  i  My 
desire  is  that  all  instructors  and  teachers  in  the  college 
shall  take  pains  to  instill  into  the  minds  of  the  scholars  the 
purest  principles  of  morality,  so  that,  on  their  entrance 
into  active  life,  they  may,  from  inclination  and  habit, 
evince  benevolence  towards  their  fellow  creatures,  and  a 
love  of  truth,  sobriety  and  industry,  adopting  at  the  same 
time  such  religious  tenets  as  their  matured  reason  may  Pure  Morality 
enable  them  to  prefer." 

This  French- American,  who  wished  to  spare  other  boys 
the  sorrows  of  his  own  early  life,  not  only  has  the  credit 
of  founding  a  distinctive  institution  of  noble  aim,  but  of 
being  a  pioneer  in  great  gifts  by  rich  men  for  educational  A  Noble 
and  philanthropic  purposes.  His  was  the  first  large 
benefaction  of  its  kind  in  the  country ;  and  in  Girard 
College  he  reared  both  a  monument  and  an  example. 

The  American 




John  Bayard 




iRADITION  traces  the  Bayard  family  back  to 
that  great  French  Knight  who  was  dubbed  "  sans 
peur  et  sans  reproche  ' '  (without  fear  and  with 
out  reproach).  The  history  of  the  American  Bayards 
properly  begins  with  Nicholas  Bayard,  a  Huguenot  min 
ister  who  fled  into  Holland  after  the  massacre  of  St.  Bar 
tholomew  and  settled  in  Amsterdam.  His  daughter, 
Judith,  married  Peter  Stuyvesant,  the  last  of  the  Dutch 
governors  of  New  Amsterdam,  and  one  of  his  sous  mar 
ried  Stuyvesant' s  sister.  From  this  alliance  sprang 
Nicolas,  Balthazar,  and  Peter  Bayard,  the  founders  of  the 
American  branches  of  the  family. 

Nicholas  and  Balthazar  became  prominent  citizens  of 
New  York,  while  Peter,  offending  his  aristocratic  breth 
ren  by  joining  the  Labadists,  went  to  Bohemia  Manor  and 
established  the  Delaware  branch.  No  American  family 
has  a  more  honourable  record  than  the  Delaware  Bayards, 
who  for  generation  after  generation  have  been  zealous  for 
the  public  welfare,  as  the  following  brief  sketch  of  some 
of  its  members  will  show. 

Colonel  John  Bayard,  born  in  Bohemia  Manor,  Md.,  in 
1738,  was  the  great-grandson  of  Peter  Bayard.  When  he 
was  eighteen  years  old  he  went  up  to  Philadelphia  and 
there  commenced  his  commercial  career.  He  was  very 
successful  in  business,  and  in  the  course  of  a  few  years  was 
reckoned  among  the  leading  merchants  of  that  flourishing 
city.  He  was  a  patriot  through  and  through,  and  as  he 
was  a  man  of  strong  character  he  soon  became  a  vital 



force  in  the  growing  resentment  against  British  oppres 
sion  and  the  movement  for  independence.  He  was  one  of  Sons  of 


the  first  to  join  the  famous  organization  known  as  the 
Sons  of  Liberty,  and  in  spite  of  the  injury  to  his  busi 
ness  which  it  entailed,  he  was  one  of  the  first  merchants  to 
sign  the  non-importation  agreement  of  October,  1765.  In 
1774  he  was  elected  to  the  Provincial  Congress  ;  two  years 
later  he  became  a  member  of  the  Council  of  Safety.  Dur 
ing  the  campaign  of  1776-7  he  was  in  the  field  at  the  head 
of  a  Pennsylvania  regiment.  So  brave  a  soldier  was  he 
that  after  the  battle  of  Princeton  Washington  compli-  Gallant 


mented  him  in  person  upon  his  gallantry  in  that  action. 
The  year  following  he  again  took  up  his  legislative  duties, 
serving  as  speaker  of  the  Pennsylvania  house  of  assem 
bly.  In  1781  he  was  appointed  to  the  supreme  executive 
council,  and  in  1785  completed  his  public  services  by 
representing  his  state  in  the  Continental  Congress.  He 
deserved  to  be  remembered,  in  the  phrase  of  Bancroft,  as 
"a  patriot  of  singular  purity  of  character." 

Samuel  Bayard,  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1767,  was  the  Samuel 
fourth  son  of  Colonel  John  Bayard.     He  graduated  from 
Princeton  with  the  class  of  1784,  studied  law  and  com 
menced  his  practice  in  Philadelphia.     In  1791  he  was 
made  clerk  of  the  United  States  Supreme  Court,  but  left 
that  position  in  1794  to  become  the  agent  of  the  govern 
ment  in  prosecuting  the  claims  before  the  British  Court  of 
Admiralty.     On  his  return  from  London  he  settled  in 
New  York  and  commanded  a  large  and  lucrative  practice. 
While  living  in  New  York  he  became  instrumental  in  Founder  of 
founding  the  New  York  Historical  Society.     In  1806  he  Hi 
purchased  a  beautiful  estate  in  Princeton,  New  Jersey,    Society 
becoming  a  country  squire  and  philanthropist.     He  at 
tended  session  after  session  of  the  state  legislature,  and  for 
many  years  was  the  presiding  judge  of  the  Court  of  Com 
mon  Pleas  of  Somerest  County.     Among  other  things,  he 
was  associated  with  Elias  Boudinot  in  forming  the  Ameri 
can  Bible  Society,  and  was  one  of  the  founders  and  patrons 






Family  of 
Great  Senators 

of  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Princeton.  He  died  in 

James  Asheton  Bayard,  son  of  Dr.  James  Asheton 
Bayard,  and  nephew  of  Colonel  John  Bayard,  was  born 
in  Philadelphia  in  1767.  He  graduated  from  Princeton 
in  1784  in  the  same  class  with  his  cousin  Samuel.  Three 
years  later  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  located  in 
Wilmington,  Del.  His  ability  as  a  lawyer  was  soon 
recognized,  and  at  the  time  he  was  elected  to  Congress,  in 
1796,  he  was  already  among  the  most  prominent  men  in 
the  profession.  A  year  after  his  election  to  Congress  he 
achieved  a  national  reputation  by  his  management  of  the 
impeachment  of  William  Blount.  His  power  as  an  orator 
and  his  wide  knowledge  of  constitutional  law  soon  brought 
him  to  the  fore  in  Congress,  and  he  rapidly  developed 
into  a  leader  of  the  Federalist  party.  In  1801,  when  the 
choice  lay  between  Burr  and  Jefferson,  Bayard  was  influ 
ential,  together  with  Hamilton,  in  swinging  the  scales  in 
favour  of  Jefferson.  That  same  year  he  declined  an  ap 
pointment  as  Minister  to  France.  From  1804  to  1813  he 
represented  Delaware  in  the  United  States  Senate.  Pres 
ident  Madison  selected  Bayard  as  a  joint  commissioner 
to  act  with  Albert  Gallatin,  John  Adams  and  Henry  Clay 
in  arranging  terms  of  peace  with  Great  Britain  in  1814, 
and  he  was  prominent  in  the  negotiations  which  brought 
about  the  treaty  of  Ghent.  While  in  Europe  he  con 
tracted  a  serious  illness,  and  returned  to  his  home  in 
Wilmington  only  to  die  early  in  the  following  year. 

Eichard  Henry  Bayard,  his  eldest  son,  was  born  in 
Wilmington  in  1796,  graduated  from  Princeton  in  1814, 
and  then  devoted  himself  to  the  law.  He  was  a  brilliant 
lawyer,  and  in  1836  was  made  United  States  Senator  from 

His  youngest  brother,  James  Asheton,  was  born  in 
1779.  He,  too,  became  a  lawyer,  and  won  high  distinc 
tion  at  the  bar.  He  was  federal  attorney  for  Delaware 
during  the  administration  of  President  Van  Buren,  and 


in  1851  he  became  a  Senator  from  that  state,  continuing 
until  1869.  He  was  for  a  long  time  chairman  of  the  com 
mittee  on  the  judiciary,  and  was  generally  esteemed  for 
the  high  sense  of  public  honour  which  he  evinced  on 
numerous  occasions. 

His  son,  Thomas  Francis  Bayard,  was  born  in  Wil 
mington  in  1828.     He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1851  Last  of  a 
and  practised  law  until  he  was  elected  to  succeed  his  * 
father  in  the  Senate  in  1868.     He  served  as  Senator  until 
1885,  when  he  became  Secretary  of  State.     In  1893  he 
was  appointed  Ambassador  to  Great  Britain. 


The  Duche  family  is  descended  from  Jacques  Duche,  a  The  puche 
native  of  La  Eochelle,  who  was  naturalized  in  England  Family 
in  1682  with  his  wife,  Mary,  and  two  sons,  Arnold  and 
Anthony.  Anthony  came  to  Staten  Island  at  an  early 
date  and  removed  to  Philadelphia  a  few  years  prior  to 
1700.  His  son  Jacob,  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1708,  was 
the  father  of  the  Eeverend  Jacob  Duche,  a  noted  clergy 
man  of  his  day.  He  was  born  at  Philadelphia  in  1737, 
graduated  from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  when  he 
was  twenty  years  old,  and  then  went  to  Cambridge,  Eng 
land,  to  pursue  his  studies  further.  In  1759  the  Bishop 
of  London  licensed  him  to  preach  in  the  Philadelphia 
churches,  and  that  same  year  he  returned  to  this  country. 
He  was  a  very  popular  preacher  and  by  1775  had  become 
rector  of  Christ  Church,  the  leading  Episcopal  congrega-  Jacob 
tion  of  Philadelphia  at  the  time.  He  has  come  down  to  Patriot 
us  in  history  as  the  minister  who  delivered  the  prayer  at 
the  opening  of  the  first  Continental  Congress — a  prayer  so 
patriotic  and  reverent  withal  that  the  assembled  patriots 
gave  him  a  vote  of  thanks.  In  1776  he  was  chosen  chap 
lain  of  Congress.  He  died  in  1798. 

The  Du  Pont  family,  long  known  as  the  great  powder  pjj^j"  Pont 


manufacturers  of  the  country,  are  descended  from  an  old 
Huguenot  family  of  Eouen  in  France.  Du  Pont  de  Ne 
mours  was  the  founder  of  the  family.  His  story  has  been 
written  by  G.  Schelle,  and  published  by  Gillaumin  in 
Paris.  A  writer  in  the  Magazine  of  American  History,  for 
March,  1889,  reviews  the  Memoir.  The  Du  Pont  works 
at  Wilmington,  Delaware,  and  their  branches  and  busi 
nesses  in  other  places,  have  given  them  a  commercial 
reputation  hardly  equalled  in  any  other  calling.  During 
the  long  period  from  the  beginning  of  the  last  century  to 
our  own  time  many  members  of  the  Du  Pont  family  have 
gained  distinction  by  their  services  in  the  army  and  navy. 
They  were  represented  in  the  War  of  1812,  and  in  the 
Civil  War  Admiral  Du  Pont  and  Colonel  Henry  Du  Pont 
were  both  men  of  mark. 

DU  Pont  de  Du  Pont  de  Nemours  was  born  in  Paris  in  1739.     He 

'  was  precocious,  noted  at  his  twelfth  year  for  his  knowl 
edge,  and  at  twenty  submitted  to  Choiseul  a  plan  for  en 
couraging  agriculture,  establishing  domestic  free  trade, 
suppressing  taxes,  and  remodelling  the  financial  system  of 
France.  He  was  soon  recognized  as  one  of  the  most 
brilliant  and  able  publicists  and  economists  of  France. 
He  was  the  most  chivalric  champion  of  liberty  in  France, 
according  to  Madame  de  Stael,  and  successively  urged 
the  abolition  of  slavery,  the  repeal  of  the  game  laws, 
liberty  of  the  press,  relief  from  the  laws  controlling 
labour,  reform  in  public  charity,  the  repeal  of  monopolies, 
and  other  public  oppressions  and  abuses.  Benjamin 
Franklin  especially  commended  his  economic  tables.  If 
France  had  heeded  him,  the  French  Eevolution  would 
not  have  been  necessary.  He  was  too  much  of  a  reformer 
to  be  acceptable  to  a  corrupt  court,  and  during  the  stress 
of  the  Eevolution,  his  life  being  in  peril,  he  escaped  to 
America,  where  his  eldest  son  had  established  himself. 
Jefferson,  who  had  known  him  in  France,  heartily  wel 
comed  him  to  the  United  States.  He  laboured  to  effect 
Jefferson's  purpose  of  securing  Louisiana  by  purchase 


from  Napoleon,  having  returned  to  France  after  the  Revo 
lution.  When  Napoleon  returned  from  Elba,  Du  Pont 
again  took  refuge  in  the  United  States,  and  lived  with 
his  sons  near  Wilmington  until  his  death  in  1817,  in  his 
seventy -seventh  year. 

His  second  son,  Irene*e,  was  the  founder  of  the  powder 
works.  He  had  shared  imprisonment  with  his  father, 
and  on  reaching  the  United  States  in  1798  found  the  great 
need  of  a  domestic  supply  of  good  gunpowder.  He  re 
turned  to  France  to  study  its  manufacture,  came  back  to 
this  country,  and  from  a  small  beginning  built  up  a  busi 
ness  which  has  become  one  of  the  notable  industries  of 
the  country.  He  died  in  1834. 

Admiral  Du  Pont,  one  of  the  distinguished  officers  of  Admiral 
the  United  States  Navy,  was  the  son  of  Victor,  older  ?fU 
brother  of  Irenee,  and  engaged  with  him  in  business.  It 
was  Admiral  Du  Pont  who  was  the  commander  and  hero 
of  the  Port  Royal  Expedition.  This  descendant  of  a 
Huguenot  won  that  unexpected,  absolute  and  decisive 
victory  which  thrilled  the  loyal  hearts  of  the  country 
with  hope  and  thankfulness,  coming  as  it  did  when  only 
such  a  victory  could  counterbalance  the  alarm  caused  by 
the  defeat  at  Bull  Run.  The  story  of  this  remarkable 
expedition  is  told  by  General  Egbert  L.  Viele  in  the 
Magazine  of  American  History,  October,  1885.  Admiral 
Du  Pont  had  to  attack  with  his  fleet  the  great  forts 
which  guarded  the  harbour  of  Port  Royal,  in  order  to 
establish  a  system  of  blockade  that  would  cripple  the 
Confederacy.  There  were  20,000  soldiers  and  5,000 
sailors  under  the  admiral's  command,  and  his  fleet  con 
sisted  of  seventy-seven  vessels,  including  transports.  It 
was  a  motley  collection,  and  storms  had  to  be  overcome 
as  well  as  forts  ;  but  the  brave  and  able  commander  car 
ried  out  his  plan,  won  a  decisive  and  crushing  victory, 
and  matched  Farragut's  daring  strategy  at  New  Orleans. 

"The  planning  of  the  bombardment,  the  manning  of  A  Brilliant 
the  ships,  and  the  effective  work  done  by  the  fleet,"  says  Naval  Victory 


General  Viele,  "  will  pass  into  history  as  one  of  the  most 
successful  achievements  of  the  kind,  as  it  marked  an  era 
in  naval  warfare.  It  was  the  first  time  that  the  powerful 
auxiliary  of  steam  was  brought  to  play  such  a  decided 
part  in  war  operations.  .  .  .  Du  Pont  had  planned 
the  attack  with  the  utmost  precision.  Every  vessel  had 
its  designated  place.  The  fleet  sailed  in  the  form  of  an 
ellipse,  each  ship  to  deliver  its  fire  at  each  fort  as  it  passed 
abreast.  Three  times  this  circle  of  death  passed  in  its 
relentless  course.  For  four  hours  the  terrible  duel  was 
maintained,  and  then  after  a  well  directed  broadside  from 
the  Wabashj  all  was  over.  .  .  .  Such  utter  destruc 
tion  probably  never  overtook  a  fortification." 

In  a  private  letter,  dated  on  board  the  flagship  Wabash, 
Port  Royal,  November  9,  1861,  Admiral  Du  Pont  wrote  : 
"  During  the  disheartening  events  of  our  passage  my 
faith  never  gave  way ;  but  at  some  moments  it  seemed 
appalling  (referring  to  a  severe  storm  that  scattered  the 
fleet  and  wrecked  a  number  of  vessels).  On  the  other 
hand,  I  permit  no  elation  at  our  success.  Yet  I  cannot 
refrain  from  telling  you  that  it  has  been  more  complete 
and  brilliant  than  I  ever  could  have  believed. 
I  kept  under  way  and  made  three  turns,  though  I  passed 
five  times  between  the  forts.  I  could  get  none  of  my  big 
frigates  up.  I  believe  my  plan  was  clever.  I  stood 
against  the  side,  and  had  the  management  the  better  in 
consequence.  The  confidence  of  the  enemy  was  extreme 
that  they  could  drive  us  away.  They  fought  bravely, 
and  their  rifle  guns  never  missed.  They  aimed  at  one 
bridge,  where  they  knew  they  could  make  a  hole  if  they 
were  lucky.  A  shot  in  the  centre  let  water  into  the  after 
magazine  ;  but  I  saved  a  hundred  lives  by  keeping  under 
way  and  bearing  in  close.  I  never  conceived  such  a  fire 
as  that  of  this  ship  on  her  second  turn,  and  I  am  told  that 
its  effect  upon  the  spectators  outside  of  her  was  intense. 
I  learn  that  when  they  saw  our  flag  flying  on  shore  the 
troops  were  powerless  to  cheer,  but  wept." 


On  the  reception  of  the  official  dispatches  in  Washing 
ton,  the  general  order  was  issued  by  Secretary  Gideon 
Wells,  "that  to  commemorate  this  signal  victory,  a 
national  salute  be  fired  from  each  navy  yard,  at  meridian, 
on  the  day  after  the  reception  of  this  order. '  > 


John  Stephen  Benezett  was^the  founder  of  the  family  of   Benezett 
that  name.     He  was  born  in  Abbeville  in  1682,  at  the 
Eevocation  was  taken  to  Holland,  and  from  thence  to 
England  in  1715.     He  settled  in  Philadelphia  in  1731  and 
became  prominent  in  the  affairs  of  the  city,  having  the 
distinction  of  being  the  first  city  treasurer.     He  was  also  First  city 
one  of  the  leading  members  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  and  Treasurer 
for  some  years  was  a  pillar  in  the  Moravian  church.     Of 
his  three  sons,  one  became  a  major  in  the  Eevolution, 
while  Anthony,  the  youngest,  grew  into  one  of  the  most 
philanthropic  citizens  of  Philadelphia.     He  advocated 
the  emancipation  of  the  slaves  and  was  zealous  in  pro 
moting  their  education,  opening  a  night  school  for  their 
benefit  and  showing  his  sincerity  by  teaching  in  it  him 
self.     He  deserves  to  rank  as  the  earliest  abolitionist  who  Anthony  first 
openly  dared  to  express  his  views,  a  pamphlet  of  his  en-   Abolitionist 
titled  Considerations  on  the  Keeping  of  Negroes  being  the 
first  anti-slavery  work  published  in  America.     During 
the  Eevolution  he  was  active  in  relieving  the  sufferings 
of  prisoners  and  wounded,  thus  being  in  a  way  the  fore 
bear  of  the  Eed  Cross  Society. 


Michael  Hillegas  was  the  son  of  a  refugee  who  fled  Michael 
to  the  Palatinate  shortly  after  the  Eevocation.  He  was 
born  in  Philadelphia  in  1728  and  amassed  a  considerable 
fortune  in  the  sugar  refining  business.  He  was  an  ardent 
patriot  and  at  an  early  date  placed  himself  and  his  for 
tunes  at  the  service  of  the  cause  of  independence.  He 
was  made  the  first  treasurer  of  the  United  States,  and  his 


First  united 

integrity  and  financial  ability  made  him  a  i  *  tower  of 
strength  "  during  the  dreariest  and  most  hopeless  days  of 
the  Eevolution.  Among  the  many  descendants  of  the 
Hillegas  family  may  be  named  the  Honourable  John 
John  Richards  Eichards,  who  was  a  member  of  Congress  in  1796,  and  for 
many  years  prominent  in  legal  and  political  circles  in 

Settlers  in 


De  la  Plaines 



Huguenots  were  among  the  earliest  settlers  of  German- 
town,  in  the  vicinity  of  Philadelphia.  Within  three  years 
of  the  date  of  settlement  we  find  Jean  Le  Brun,  Jean 
Dedier,  Wigard  and  Gerhart  Levering  mentioned  as  heads 
of  families.  The  peculiarly  German  names  Gerhart  and 
Wigard  were  due  to  the  fact  that  the  father  of  the  emi 
grants,  Doctor  Eosier  Levering,  a  refugee  to  Germany, 
married  a  German  lady  named  Elizabeth  Van  der  Walle, 
both  sons  being  born  on  German  soil.  The  Leverings 
have  been  prominent  in  Pennsylvania  for  many  years. 
Wigard,  a  man  of  strong  character,  was  the  founder  of 
Eoxborough.  Among  Gerhart7  s  descendants  may  be 
mentioned  the  Honourable  Joshua  Levering  and  the 
Eight  Eeverend  J.  Mortimer  Levering. 

The  descendants  of  James  De  la  Plaine,  son  of  Nicholas 
De  la  Plaine,  who  came  to  New  Amsterdam  via  Holland 
prior  to  1663,  are  numerous  in  Pennsylvania  and  Mary 
land.  James  settled  in  Germantown  in  1691,  became  a 
leader  in  the  Society  of  Friends,  and  died  in  1750.  Be 
sides  James,  four  daughters  of  Nicholas  De  la  Plaine 
came  to  Philadelphia  at  about  the  same  period ;  Eliza 
beth,  wife  of  Casper  Hoodt ;  Judith,  wife  of  Thomas 
Griffith  ;  Susanna,  wife  of  Arnold  Cassel ;  and  Crejanne, 
wife  of  Ives  Belangee, — the  last  three  being  married  in 
Philadelphia.  John  and  Joseph  De  la  Plaine,  grandsons 
of  James,  and  the  latter  an  officer  in  the  Eevolution, 
removed  to  Maryland  and  established  a  numerous 



The  Garrigues  family,  represented  in  Philadelphia  by 
William  H.  and  Samuel  E.  Garrigues,  traces  its  descent  Descent 
from  the  Garric  family,  of  Monpellier,  in  Languedoc.  At 
the  Eevocation,  David  Garric  fled  to  England,  where  the 
name  became  Garrick  ;  while  another  brother  took  refuge 
in  Germany,  whence  under  the  modified  name  of  Gar 
rigues,  his  descendants  established  themselves  in  Phila 
delphia  shortly  after  1700. 

Eichard  De  Charms,  one  of  the  best  known  Sweden- 
borgian  preachers  of  the  first  half  of  the  century,  who 
held  successful  pastorates  in  Philadelphia,  Baltimore  and 
New  York,  was  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1796. 

Abram  Markos,  or  Marcou,  was  a  distinguished  resi-  Abram 
dent  of  the  city  prior  to  and  during  the  Eevolution.  He 
was  born  in  the  Danish  West  Indies  in  1729,  and  was 
descended  from  Count  Marcou,  a  native  of  Montbeliard, 
in  French -Comte,  who  settled  in  the  Antilles  and  became 
a  prosperous  planter.  Abram  came  to  Philadelphia  when 
he  was  a  young  man  and  traded  extensively  between 
Philadelphia  and  Santa  Cruz,  where  he  was  largely  in 
terested  in  raising  sugar.  He  acquired  a  considerable 
holding  of  real  estate,  one  of  his  plots  being  the  land  on 
which  the  government  buildings  now  stand.  In  1774  he 
organized  the  company  of  light  horse  now  so  famous  as 
the  "city  troop"  of  Philadelphia,  and  became  its  first 
captain.  A  year  later  he  presented  the  company  with  a 
silk  flag,  the  first  flag  to  bear  the  thirteen  stripes  sym 
bolical  of  the  thirteen  colonies  struggling  for  freedom. 
As  he  was  a  Danish  subject,  the  neutrality  proclamations 
of  the  king  of  Denmark  prevented  him  from  taking  an 
active  part  in  the  Eevolution. 

The  Pennsylvania  branch  of  the  Chevalier  family  was  The 
founded  by  Pierre  Chevalier,  who  settled  in  Philadelphia  Chevalier8 
in  1720.     His  father,  of  a  noble  family  of  Bretagne,  fled 
to  England,  where  Pierre  was  born.     Before  emigrating 
to  this  country,  Pierre  married  an  English  lady.     He 



The  Boyers 


left  two  sous,  Peter  and  John,  whose  sons  became  promi 
nent  merchants  of  the  city.  His  daughters  married  well, 
and  among  their  descendants  may  be  numbered  Judge 
Samuel  Breese,  of  New  Jersey,  and  Professor  Edward  E. 
Salisbury,  of  Yale. 

Other  Huguenot  names  which  occur  among  the  emi 
grants  to  Philadelphia  before  1750  are :  Montadon,  Le 
Colle,  Casser,  Eemy,  Huyett,  Eemley,  Eansier,  Suffrauce, 
Bouton,  Eena,  Du  Bois,  Le  Brant,  and  Piquart. 


Lancaster  County  was  a  place  of  refuge  for  many 
Huguenots.  In  the  days  before  a  permanent  settlement 
had  been  effected,  there  were  several  Huguenots  in  that 
region  who  were  engaged  in  trading  with  the  Indians. 
Among  these  was  Captain  James  Letort,  who  with  his 
sons  is  frequently  mentioned  as  being  in  the  government's 
employ.  He  afterwards  settled  in  Philadelphia. 

Samuel  Boyer  was  one  of  the  first  of  the  regular  settlers 
to  arrive,  coming  in  1710.  The  Boyer  family  in  France 
is  a  large  and  honourable  one,  and  the  American  Boyers 
are  worthy  of  their  heredity.  Members  are  to  be  found 
throughout  Pennsylvania,  and  mention  may  be  made  of 
Honourable  Henry  Boyer,  General  Philip  Boyer,  of  the 
War  of  1812,  Honourable  Benjamin  M.  Boyer,  member 
of  Congress  in  1864,  Colonel  Zachur  Boyer,  of  the  Civil 
War,  and  Honourable  Henry  K.  Boyer,  Treasurer  of  the 
State  and  Director  of  the  United  States  Mint  at  Phila 

As  news  of  the  colony  spread  among  the  exiles  in  the 
Palatinate,  they  came  over  in  large  numbers.  They  did 
not  support  any  separate  church  organization  of  their 
own,  having  united  with  other  churches  while  in  Ger 
many,  but  it  is  recorded  that  Lewis  Boehm,  pastor  of  the 
First  Eefornied  Church  in  Lancaster  in  1771,  used  to  de 
liver  frequent  sermons  in  French.  The  following  refugees 
were  members  of  this  church  :  Viller,  De  Gaston,  Mel- 


chior  Boyer,  Beauchamp,  Fortune,  Fortuney,  Ferree, 
Fortunet,  La  Eou,  Eacque,  Bounett,  Marquet,  Eosier,  De 
Dieu,  Allemand,  Huttier,  Berott,  Le  Fever,  Trebert,  Le 
Crone,  Delancey,  Eoller,  Le  Eoy,  Vissard,  Maquinnette, 
Vosiiie,  Le  Brant,  Eaiguel,  Du  Fresne  and  Lorah.  Hold 
ing  membership  in  Trinity  Lutheran  Church,  of  Lan 
caster,  were  Hubele,  Morett,  Moreau,  Mathiot,  Santeau, 
De  Mars,  Dilliers,  Cossart  and  Sponsilier. 

Among  the  descendants  of  these  emigrants  are  Dr.  pubuc  Men 
Henry  Bernard  Mathiot,  of  Pittsburg;  Adam  Hubele, 
member  of  the  Provincial  Assembly  in  17 75  and  a  colonel 
in  the  Ee volution  ;  John  Hubele,  member  of  the  Consti 
tutional  Convention  of  1776,  of  the  Committee  of 
Safety,  etc.  ;  General  Peter  Forney,  an  officer  in  the  Eev- 
olution,  and  member  of  Congress  in  1813  ;  the  Honourable 
David  Marchand,  Jr.,  member  of  Congress  in  1817  ;  the 
Honourable  Joshua  Mathiot,  Congressman  from  Ohio  in 
1841 ;  Colonel  Forney,  member  of  Congress  in  1851  and 
an  officer  in  the  Civil  War ;  the  Honourable  Albert 
Marchand,  member  of  Congress  in  1839  ;  Commodore 
John  Bonnett  Marchand,  famous  for  the  part  he  played 
in  the  naval  fight  in  Mobile  Bay  ;  and  General  John  E. 


Near  the  present  town  of  Sheridan  is  still  standing  a  other  Parta 
massive  stone  mansion  built  by  Jean  Henri  Cellier  in  oftheState 
1727.     The  Cellier  family  was  scattered  to  the  four  winds 
by  the  Eevocatiou,  representatives  being  found  even  in 
Africa,  where  the  descendants  of  the  branch  which  took 
refuge  in  Holland  are  among  the  prominent  citizens  of 
Cape  Colony — one  of  them,  General  Cellier,  being  es 
pecially  noted  through  his  operations  in  the  Boer  War. 
In  Pennsylvania  the  name  has  been  corrupted  to  Zeller. 

To  the  Universalists  the  stone  house  erected  in  Oley, 
Berks  County,  by  Dr.  George  De  Bonneville  in  1745,  will  Dr.  DeBonne- 
always  have  peculiar  interest.     For  this  house,  still  well  vlll( 
preserved,  is  "  the  undoubted  birthplace  of  Universal  ism 



Birthplace  of 
in  America 



in  America.  In  this  edifice  De  Bonneville  had  a  large 
room  fitted  up  as  a  chapel  where  he  was  wont  to  preach 
the  doctrine  of  universal  redemption  to  his  friends  and 
neighbours  who  gathered  to  hear  him."  De  Bonneville 
was  descended  from  the  Lords  of  Bonueville,  whose  an 
cestral  seat  was  at  Limoges.  His  grandfather  was 
Francis  De  Bonneville,  who  went  to  England  at  the  invi 
tation  of  William  III,  and  whose  son  married  a  member 
of  the  famous  Granville  family.  From  this  marriage 
was  born  George  De  Bouneville  in  1703.  While  a  young 
man  De  Bonneville  returned  to  France  to  preach  to  his 
Huguenot  brethren,  was  captured  and  was  on  the  point 
of  being  beheaded  when  a  reprieve  came  from  the  king, 
Queen  Anne  of  England  having  pleaded  in  his  behalf. 
After  his  release  he  preached  through  Germany  and 
Holland  and  finally  emigrated  to  America  in  1741.  He 
will  always  be  remembered  as  one  of  the  prime  movers  in 
what  was,  perhaps,  the  profoundest  change  which  took 
place  in  religious  conceptions  during  the  eighteenth 

A  Pennsylvanian  of  Huguenot  descent  who  will  long  be 
remembered  by  many  grateful  hearts  is  Eeverend  Will 
iam  A.  Passevant,  of  the  Lutheran  Church.  The  greater 
part  of  his  life  was  devoted  to  philanthropic  enterprises. 
He  was  instrumental  in  founding  hospitals  in  Pittsburg, 
Milwaukee,  Chicago  and  Jacksonville.  He  helped  es 
tablish  orphanages  at  Rochester,  Pa.,  and  Mt.  Vernon, 
N.  Y.,  and  was  the  founder  of  Thiel  College  at  Green 
ville,  Pa. 

William  Chauvenent,  the  brilliant  mathematician,  was 
born  in  Milford  in  1820.  He  was  active  with  Maury,  a 
Virginia  Huguenot,  in  bringing  about  the  establishment 
of  the  United  States  Naval  Academy,  and  was  the  leading 
professor  there  for  several  years.  For  his  patriotic 
efforts  in  establishing  the  academy  on  its  present  admirable 
basis,  and  for  his  many  contributions  to  the  scientific 
literature  of  the  day,  he  deserves  to  be  remembered. 


General  James  A.  Beaver  is  descended  from  a  Revolu 
tionary  soldier,  John  George  Beaver,  who  came  to  Penn 
sylvania  in  1731  in  the  good  ship  Pink.  General  Beaver 
served  as  Colonel  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Forty-eighth 
Pennsylvania  Regiment  during  the  Civil  War,  and  was 
brevetted  Brigadier  for  his  services.  He  has  since  been 
Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  and  at  present  is  a  Judge  of 
the  Superior  Court. 





French  in  the 
Front  Rank 

Port  Royal 



ORE  than  a  century  after  the  disastrous  failure 
of  Admiral  Coligny's  plans  to  establish  French 
colonies  which  might  become  asylums  for 
Protestant  refugees  in  America,  in  the  very  same  Caro 
lina  that  was  the  scene  of  devastation,  demouisin,  despair 
and  death,  it  came  to  pass  that  French  settlements  were 
established.  In  no  section,  moreover,  were  the  French 
settlers  more  numerous  and  influential.  The  story  of 
the  state  cannot  be  written  without  them.  In  the 
colonial  days  they  ranked  among  the  foremost  citizens 
in  public  affairs,  and  in  the  War  of  the  Revolution  they 
stood  in  the  front  ranks  of  the  patriots  and  soldiers. 
One  has  but  to  mention  the  same  of  Henry  Laurens,  a 
chief  among  the  men  who  resented  royal  tyranny  and 
carried  the  Carolinas  into  line  with  Massachusetts  in  de 
fense  of  human  liberty ;  and  in  the  army  the  name  of 
Marion,  one  of  the  most  romantic  figures  as  well  as  ef 
fective  fighters  of  the  Revolution,  to  prove  this. 

Owing  to  the  Spaniards  and  their  hatred  of  the  French, 
and  particularly  the  Protestant  French,  it  was  left  for 
the  English,  under  direction  of  William  Sayle,  the  first 
governor,  to  establish  the  first  permanent  settlement  in 
South  Carolina.  This  was  at  or  near  Port  Royal  in  1670. 
The  charter  was  especially  inviting  to  emigrants.  It 
granted  liberty  of  conscience  to  every  one,  and  this  at  a 
time  when  in  England  conformity  to  the  Anglican 
Church  was  pressing  hard  upon  many  good  men,  j  ust  as 
in  France  Roman  Catholicism  was  driving  out  the  Hugue 
nots.  The  civil  government  of  this  new  colony  laid  only 



From   Painting  by  Jeremiah   Theus,   Charleston,    1757 


three  conditions  with  respect  to  religion  :  1.  To  believe 
that  there  is  a  God  ;  2.  That  He  is  to  be  worshipped  ; 
and  3.  That  it  is  lawful  and  the  duty  of  every  man  when 
called  upon  by  those  in  authority,  to  bear  witness  to  the 
truth.  Without  acknowledging  this  no  man  was  per 
mitted  to  be  a  freeman,  or  to  have  any  estate  or  habita 
tion  in  Carolina.  But  persecution  for  observing  different 
modes  and  ways  of  worship  was  expressly  forbidden  ; 
and  every  man  was  to  be  left  full  liberty  of  conscience, 
and  might  worship  God  in  that  manner  which  he  thought 
most  conformable  to  the  divine  will  and  revealed  word. 
Ramsay,  whose  history  of  South  Carolina  was  written 
at  the  beginning  of  the  last  century  (published  1808),  and  A  Medley 
who  renders  due  credit  to  the  French,  says  the  early  emi 
grants  were  a  medley  of  different  nations  and  principles. 
Every  year  brought  new  adventurers.  From  England 
there  came  both  Cavaliers  and  Puritans,  and  many  a  severe 
clash  they  had.  A  colony  of  Dutch  settlers  came  from 
New  Amsterdam,  after  the  English  had  taken  it  and  made 
New  York  of  it,  and  these  newcomers  settled  Johnstown, 
but  subsequently  spread  themselves  over  the  country.  It  1679 
was  in  1679,  the  year  before  Charleston  was  founded  on  its  Established 
present  site,  that  the  French  refugees  reached  Carolina  to 
stay.  King  Charles  II  was  the  direct  means  of  their 
coming.  He  saw  the  value  of  skilled  labour  to  the 
new  colonies,  and  ordered  two  small  vessels  to  be 
provided  at  his  own  expense  to  transport  to  Carolina 
a  company  of  the  foreign  Protestants,  who  had  found  ref 
uge  in  his  realm,  who  proposed  to  raise  wine,  oil,  silk, 
and  other  products  of  the  south.  a  Though  they  did  not 
succeed  in  enriching  the  country  with  these  valuable 
commodities/'  says  the  historian,  " their  descendants 
form  a  part  of  the  present  inhabitants." 


Then  came  the  Revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes, 
fifteen  years  after  the  settlement  of  Carolina,  and  this  be- 







came  a  large  contributor  to  the  growth  and  prosperity  of 
South  Carolina,  as  of  other  parts  of  the  world.  France's 
inestimable  loss  was  the  gain  of  nations  born  and  as  yet 
unborn.  To  South  Carolina  were  transplanted  from 
France  the  stocks  from  which  have  sprung  such  respect 
able  families,  some  of  them  renowned,  as  Laurens, 
Marion,  Manigault,  Prioleau,  Horry,  Huger,  Postell, 
Guerard,  Benoist,  Dubois,  Dupre",  St.  Julien,  Chevalier, 
Simons,  and  a  score  of  others.  This  group  of  refugees 
settled  at  first  on  the  Santee  Eiver,  and  from  them  that 
part  of  the  country  in  old  maps  was  called  French  Santee. 
Their  religious  leader  was  Eeverend  Elias  Prioleau,  who 
had  brought  with  him  a  considerable  part  of  his  congre 
gation  from  France.  He  was  the  grandson  of  Anthoine 
Prioli,  who  was  chosen  Doge  of  Venice  in  1618,  and  was 
a  man  of  unusual  parts. 

What  these  families  went  through  for  the  sake  of  their 
religion  is  indicated  in  a  letter  written  by  Judith  Mani 
gault,  wife  of  Peter  Manigault,  founders  of  a  family  that 
was  long  well  known  in  the  State.  This  lady,  when  about 
twenty,  embarked  in  1685  for  Carolina  by  way  of  London. 
She  subsequently  wrote  to  her  brother  in  France  a  letter, 
giving  some  account  of  her  experiences.  This  is  a  trans 
lation  of  it  into  English  : 

Since  you  desire  it,  I  will  give  you  an  account  of  our  quitting 
France,  and  of  our  arrival  in  Carolina.  During  eight  mouths,  we  had 
suffered  from  the  contributions  and  the  quartering  of  the  soldiers, 
•with  many  other  inconveniences.  We  therefore  resolved  on  quitting 
France  by  night,  leaving  the  soldiers  in  their  beds,  and  abandoning 
the  house  with  its  furniture.  We  contrived  to  hide  ourselves  at  Ro 
mans  in  Dauphigny,  for  ten  days,  while  a  search  was  made  after  us  ; 
but  our  hostess  being  faithful,  did  not  betray  us  when  questioned  if 
she  bad  seen  us.  From  thence  we  passed  to  Lyons — from  thence  to 
Dijon — from  which  place,  as  well  as  from  Langres,  my  eldest  brother 
wrote  to  you  ;  but  I  know  not  if  either  of  the  letters  reached  you. 
He  informed  you  that  we  were  quitting  France.  He  went  to  Madame 
de  Choiseul's,  which  was  of  no  avail,  as  she  was  dead,  and  her  son-in- 
law  had  the  command  of  everything ;  moreover,  he  gave  us  to  under- 


stand  that  he  perceived  our  intention  of  quitting  France,  and  if  we 
asked  any  favours  of  him,  he  would  inform  against  us.  We  therefore 
made  the  best  of  our  way  for  Metz,  in  Lorraine,  where  we  embarked 
on  the  river  Moselle,  in  order  to  go  to  Treves — from  thence  we  passed 
to  Coblentz  and  Cologne,  where  we  left  the  Rhine,  to  go  by  land  to 
Wesel,  where  we  met  with  an  host  who  spoke  a  little  French,  and  in 
formed  us  we  were  only  thirty  leagues  from  Lunenburg.  We  knew 
that  you  were  in  winter  quarters  there.  Our  deceased  mother  and 
myself  earnestly  besought  my  eldest  brother  to  go  that  way  with  us  ; 
or,  leaving  us  with  her,  to  pay  you  a  visit  alone.  It  was  in  the  depth 
of  winter ;  but  he  would  not  hear  of  it,  having  Carolina  so  much  in 
his  head  that  he  dreaded  losing  any  opportunity  of  going  thither.  Oh, 
what  grief  the  losing  so  fine  an  opportunity  of  seeing  you  at  least  once 
more,  has  caused  me  !  How  have  I  regretted  seeing  a  brother  show  so 
little  feeling,  and  how  often  have  I  reproached  him  with  it  !  But  he 
was  our  master,  and  we  were  constrained  to  do  as  he  pleased. 

We  passed  on  to  Holland,  to  go  from  thence  to  England.  We  re 
mained  in  London  three  months,  waiting  for  a  passage  to  Carolina. 
Having  embarked,  we  were  sadly  off  :  the  spotted  fever  made  its  ap-  The  Spotted 
pearance  on  board  our  veasel,  of  which  disease  many  died,  and  among  Fever 
them  our  aged  mother.  Nine  months  elapsed  before  our  arrival  in 
Carolina.  We  touched  two  ports — one  a  Portuguese,  and  the  other  an 
island  called  Bermuda,  belonging  to  the  English,  to  refit  our  vessel, 
which  had  been  much  injured  in  a  storm.  Our  captain  having  com 
mitted  some  misdemeanor,  was  put  in  prison,  and  the  vessel  seized. 
Our  money  was  all  spent,  and  it  was  with  great  difficulty  we  procured 
a  passage  in  another  vessel.  After  our  arrival  in  Carolina  we  suffered  Hardships  and 
every  kind  of  evil.  In  about  eighteen  months  our  elder  brother,  un-  ermgs 
accustomed  to  the  hard  labour  we  had  to  undergo,  died  of  a  fever. 
Since  leaving  France  we  had  experienced  every  kind  of  affliction — 
disease,  pestilence,  famine,  poverty,  hard  labour.  I  have  been  for  six 
months  together  without  tasting  bread,  working  the  ground  like  a 
slave ;  and  I  have  even  passed  three  or  four  years  without  always  hav 
ing  it  when  I  wanted  it.  God  has  done  great  things  for  us,  in  enab 
ling  us  to  bear  up  under  so  many  trials.  I  should  never  have  done, 
were  I  to  attempt  to  detail  to  you  all  our  adventures ;  let  it  suffice  that 
God  has  had  compassion  on  me,  and  changed  my  fate  to  a  more  happy 
one,  for  which  glory  be  unto  Him. 

Such  was  the  faith  that  could  not  be  overthrown  by 
suffering  and  hardship.  This  young  woman,  left  alone  in 
the  world,  found  a  worthy  husband  in  Peter  Manigault. 


A  Noble  Son 



She  died  in  1711,  seven  years  after  she  had  given  birth  to 
Gabriel  Manigault,  who  in  a  long  and  useful  life  ac 
cumulated  a  fortune  so  large  that  he  was  able  to  give  a 
loan  of  £220,000 — a  remarkable  fortune  in  those  days — 
to  the  colonial  government  for  carrying  on  its  war  for  in 
dependence.  This  he  did  at  an  early  period,  when  there 
was  no  certainty  whether  payment  would  ever  be  pos 
sible.  Thus  he  repaid  the  debt  his  parents  owed  to  the 
land  which  had  given  them  asylum  and  a  home. 


Besides  these  Huguenots  who  came  direct  from  France, 
a  considerable  number  of  the  refugees  who  came  at  first 
to  New  York  and  New  England,  after  a  short  residence 
in  those  colder  climates,  found  their  way  to  Carolina, 
which  became  a  general  rendezvous,  as  originally  con 
templated  by  their  distinguished  leader  Coligny  shortly 
after  the  discovery  of  America.  Another  and  a  very 
considerable  company  of  French  came  from  Acadia, 
when,  after  Nova  Scotia  had  been  surrendered  to  England, 
the  Acadians  were  dispersed  among  the  English  colonies, 
as  a  measure  of  safety.  About  fifteen  hundred  of  them 
were  sent  to  Charleston,  and  some  of  them  rose  to  wealth 
and  distinction,  though  the  larger  part  of  them  left  the 
country  as  soon  as  it  was  possible  to  get  away. 

In  1764  another  colony  of  Huguenots  came  from 
France,  in  charge  of  Eeverend  Mr.  Gilbert,  a  popular 
preacher,  who  prevailed  on  a  number  of  persecuted  fam 
ilies,  after  the  peace  of  Paris,  to  seek  a  home  in  South 
Carolina,  which  was  now  highly  reported  of  by  the 
French  residents  there.  On  his  solicitations  the  govern 
ment  of  England,  which  appreciated  the  quality  of  the 
French  Protestants  as  settlers,  encouraged  the  project, 
and  furnished  the  means  of  transportation.  Going  to 
England,  Mr.  Gilbert  directed  the  movements  of  the  emi 
grants,  who  found  it  necessary  to  leave  France  privately, 
at  different  times,  and  in  small  numbers.  They  rendez- 


voused  at  Plymouth,  England,  and  sailing  from  that  post,  southern 
reached  Charleston  in  April,  1764.  They  were  received 
with  great  kindness  and  hospitality.  Vacant  lands  were 
laid  out  for  their  use,  grants  of  land  were  made  to  them 
respectively  by  the  Provincial  Assembly,  and  means  of 
conveyance  to  their  settlement  were  provided.  They 
named  their  new  settlement  New  Bordeaux,  after  the 
capital  of  the  province  in  France  whence  most  of  them 
came.  They  introduced  in  earnest  the  manufacture  of 
silk.  The  historian  says  of  them:  "  They  have  been 
distinguished  for  their  industry  and  good  morals.  The 
climate  has  agreed  so  well  with  them  that  they  have  gen 
erally  enjoyed  good  health.  The  manufacture  of  silk  is 
still  continued  among  them."  They  sent  representatives 
to  the  legislature,  were  able  in  public  as  well  as  private 
affairs,  and  ranked  among  the  first  elements  in  the  popu 

Thus  in  her  early  days  South  Carolina  proved  indeed 
an  asylum  for  those  of  different  nationalities  who  fled  worthy 
from  tyranny  and  persecution.  The  results  to  the  state 
were  most  beneficial  ;  while  as  for  the  colonies  at  large, 
they  owed  much  to  South  Carolina  for  the  part  she  played 
during  the  Revolution  ;  and  the  brave  sons  of  Carolina 
who  engaged  most  notably  in  that  memorable  struggle 
for  human  rights  and  liberty  were  those  very  French 
Protestant  families  which  had  found  welcome  and  shelter 
within  her  territory. 

There  was  a  certain  period  in  the  early  days  when  the  French  and 
French  refugees  were  a  source  of  controversy  between  the  Enellsh 
proprietors  and  the  people  of  English  blood.     The  French 
settlers  were  orderly,  industrious,  religious,  in  every  way 
exemplary  citizens.     Some  of  them  had  brought  property 
with  them  which  enabled  them  to  buy  land  and  settle 
with  greater  advantages  than  many  of  the  poorer  English 
emigrants.     They  were,  moreover,  of  a  more  cultivated 
type,  which  did  not  make  them  more  agreeable  to  their 
neighbours.     The  result  was  that,  while  the  French  were 


busy  clearing  and  cultivating  their  lands,  the  English 
settlers  were  reviving  national  antipathies,  and  classing 
them  as  aliens  and  foreigners,  legally  entitled  to  none  of 
the  privileges  and  advantages  of  natural  born  British 
subjects.  The  proprietors,  greatly  to  their  credit,  sided 
with  the  refugees,  and  instructed  their  Governor  Ludwell 
to  allow  the  French  the  same  privileges  and  liberties 
with  the  English  colonists.  But  the  people  carried  their 
jealousy  so  far  that  the  county  in  which  the  French  lived 
was  not  allowed  a  single  representative  in  the  assembly. 
Wise  measures  served  to  lessen  the  friction,  and  by  ex 
cluding  the  French  from  office  the  disturbers  were  satis 
fied.  In  process  of  time  the  national  antipathies  abated. 
Gradual  union  The  French  proved  their  courage  and  fidelity,  made 
friends  by  their  excellent  behaviour,  and  when  they  pe 
titioned  the  legislature  to  be  incorporated  with  the  freemen 
of  the  colony,  an  act  was  passed  in  1696  making  all 
aliens  then  residents  free,  on  petition  to  the  governor  and 
taking  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  King  William.  This 
same  law  conferred  liberty  of  conscience  on  all  Christians, 
with  the  exception  of  Papists.  With  these  conditions  the 
refugees,  who  were  all  Protestants,  joyfully  complied  ; 
and  the  French  and  English  settlers,  being  made  equal  in 
rights,  became  united  in  interest  and  affection,  and  lived 
together  in  peace  and  harmony  thenceforward. 

The  position  held  by  the  French  settlers  is  indicated  by 
the  fact  that  among  the  Council  of  Twelve  nominated  by 
the  proprietors  of  South  Carolina  in  1719,  two  were 
Huguenots,  Benjamin  de  la  Consiliere  and  Peter  St. 



French  in  the  It  is  when  we  come  to  the  Ecvolutiouary  War,  how- 
eve^  that  ^  part  playe(j  by  the  French  comes  out  in 
strong  relief.  It  must  be  realized  that  South  Carolina 
had  not  the  same  present  and  living  issues  that  stirred 
Massachusetts  to  rebellion.  To  the  South  the  questions 
were  more  remote  and  of  principle  solely.  The  odious 



taxation  was  not  felt  by  the  southerners,  and  their  rela 
tions  to  the  home  government  had  been  tolerable.  There 
were  many  reasons  why  the  state  should  refrain  from 
making  common  cause  with  other  colonies,  when  war  was 
the  consequence.  But  love  of  liberty  and  devotion  to 
principles  touching  human  rights  and  liberties  prevailed, 
and  when  the  actual  contest  began  at  Lexington  and  Con 
cord,  in  spite  of  the  strong  royalist  following,  South  Car 
olina  ranked  herself  beside  the  Puritan  Commonwealth. 
As  Eamsay  says,  "  All  statutes  of  allegiance  were  consid 
ered  as  repealed  on  the  plains  of  Lexington,  and  the  laws 
of  self-preservation  left  to  operate  in  full  force."  The 
Provincial  Congress  was  immediately  summoned,  and 
great  were  the  objects  brought  before  it.  The  president  Henry 
of  this  important  body,  be  it  remembered,  was  Henry  Patriot 
Laurens,  one  of  the  French  Protestants.  When  on  the 
second  day  of  the  meeting  it  was  unanimously  resolved 
that  an  association  was  necessary,  it  was  that  same  great 
citizen,  a  Huguenot,  who  drew  up  the  following  associa 
tion  and  put  his  name  as  the  first  to  it : 

The  actual  commencement  of  hostilities  against  this  continent  by  the  South 
British  troops,  in  the  bloody  scene  on  the  19th  of  April  last,  near  Bos- 
ton — the  increase  of  arbitrary  impositions  from  a  wicked  and  despotic 
ministry — and  the  dread  of  insurrections  in  the  colonies— are  causes 
sufficient  to  drive  an  oppressed  people  to  the  use  of  arms.  We,  there 
fore,  the  subscribers,  inhabitants  of  South  Carolina,  holding  ourselves 
bound  by  that  most  sacred  of  all  obligations — the  duty  of  good  citizens 
towards  an  injured  country,  and  thoroughly  convinced  that,  under  our 
present  distressed  circumstances,  we  shall  be  justified  before  God  and 
man  in  resisting  force  by  force — do  unite  ourselves  under  every  tie  of 
religion  and  honour,  and  associate  as  a  band  in  her  defense  against 
every  foe — hereby  solemnly  engaging  that,  whenever  our  continental 
or  provincial  councils  shall  decree  it  necessary,  we  will  go  forth  and 
be  ready  to  sacrifice  our  lives  and  fortunes  to  secure  her  freedom  and 
safety.  This  obligation  to  continue  in  full  force  until  a  reconciliation 
shall  take  place  between  Great  Britain  and  America,  upon  constitu 
tional  principles — an  event  which  we  most  ardently  desire.  And  we 
will  hold  all  persons  inimical  to  the  liberty  of  the  colonies  who  shall 
refuse  to  subscribe  this  association. 



John  Huger 

In  the  work  of  this  Provincial  Congress,  perhaps  the 
most  important  which  ever  assembled  in  the  state,  Henry 
Laurens  the  Huguenot  was  easily  the  commanding  figure 
and  the  leading  influence.  His  character  and  talents  fitted 
him  to  command.  He  was  a  gentleman,  scholar,  states 
man  and  patriot,  supplementing  his  own  fine  qualities 
by  a  sincere  piety.  He  was  later  to  fill  a  larger  sphere. 
He  was  among  the  first  to  see  the  trend  of  the  British 
policy  towards  the  colonies  and  to  argue  in  behalf  of  the 
colonial  rights,  and  it  was  in  large  measure  owing  to  his 
bold  and  outspoken  convictions  that  the  sentiment  of  his 
state  was  so  sound  and  strong. 

In  the  Council  of  Safety  chosen  by  the  Congress  Henry 
Laurens  stands  first,  and  John  Huger,  another  Huguenot, 
was  a  second  member.  Some  time  later,  when  the  Pro 
vincial  Congress  had  voted  itself  to  be  the  General  As 
sembly  of  South  Carolina,  and  had  adopted  an  independ 
ent  constitution,  a  legislative  council  and  other  officers 
were  elected.  In  the  council  were  George  Gabriel  Powel 
and  Le  Roy  Hammond  ;  Henry  Laurens  was  vice-presi 
dent  ;  John  Huger  was  secretary.  This  was  an  honourable 
Huguenot  representation  in  the  civil  government. 

Lieut. -Col. 
John  Laurens 

When  it  came  to  military  service,  of  which  South  Car 
olina  had  full  share,  the  French  were  still  more  in  evi 
dence.  Aside  from  Marion,  whose  story  will  be  told  else 
where,  Lieu  tenant- Colonel  John  Laurens,  son  of  Honour 
able  Henry  Laurens,  was  a  notable  figure.  Highly  edu 
cated,  widely  travelled,  the  correspondence  between  him 
and  his  father  shows  both  the  literary  ability  and  the  un 
usually  close  relationship  between  the  two.  Possessed  of  a 
charming  personality,  handsome  and  accomplished,  he 
had  a  host  of  friends,  and  promised  to  be  perhaps  the 
most  popular  citizen  of  his  state.  He  entered  upon  the 
war  for  independence  with  all  the  ardour  of  patriotism, 
and  proved  a  most  efficient  officer  and  gallant  leader. 


He  was  the  idol  of  his  men,  and  for  his  known  bravery 
and  quickness  of  resource  was  chosen  for  difficult  and 
dangerous  service.  Thus  we  find  him  detailed  to  dispute  5J0111fz"tdand 
the  difficult  pass  of  Cossawhatchie  bridge,  near  Charleston, 
with  the  British  General  Prevost  and  his  large  force  ; 
while  Laurens  had  only  eighteen  continentals  and  some 
militia  under  him.  He  persevered  in  the  defense  until 
he  was  wounded  and  had  lost  half  his  continentals,  when 
the  militia,  in  peril  for  the  first  time,  retreated.  In  the 
campaigns  of  1779  and  1780  Lieu  tenant- Colonel  Laurens 
was  actively  engaged.  When  Sir  Henry  Clinton  landed 
on  the  main,  in  his  siege  of  Charleston,  it  was  the  intrepid 
Laurens  who,  with  a  corps  of  light  infantry,  briskly  at 
tacked  his  advance  guards.  While  during  the  next  year 
the  American  cause  was  low  in  South  Carolina,  with 
Charleston  in  the  hands  of  the  British,  military  opera 
tions  were  continued,  and  the  value  of  Laurens'  serv 
ices  was  fully  recognized. 

When  the  brighter  days  came  for  the  colonists,  he  fell  A  Martyr 
a  martyr  in  the  struggle  for  freedom.  The  British  an 
nounced  their  intention  to  evacuate  Charleston  in  the 
summer  of  1782  ;  but  before  going  sent  out  marauding 
parties  to  seize  provisions.  A  considerable  party  was 
sent  to  Combakee  Ferry,  and  Brigadier-General  Gist, 
with  about  three  hundred  cavalry  and  infantry  of  the 
Continental  army,  was  detached  to  oppose  them.  Lieu 
tenant-Colonel  Laurens,  though  he  had  been  confined  by 
illness  for  several  days,  hearing  of  the  expedition,  rose 
from  his  bed  and  followed  General  Gist.  When  the 
British  and  American  detachments  approached  within  a 
few  miles  of  each  other,  Lieutenant- Colonel  Laurens,  be 
ing  in  advance  with  a  small  party  of  regulars  and  militia, 
engaged  with  a  much  superior  force  in  expectation  of 
support  from  the  main  body  in  his  rear. 

"  In  the  midst  of  his  gallant  exertions,"  says  Eamsay, 
"this  all- accomplished  youth  received  a  mortal  wound.   Tribute  to  his 
Nature  had  adorned  him  with  a  profusion  of  her  choicest 


gifts,  to  which  a  well  conducted  education  had  added  its 
most  useful  as  well  as  its  elegant  improvements.  Though 
his  fortune  and  family  entitled  him  to  pre-eminence,  yet 
he  was  the  warm  friend  of  republican  equality.  Gener 
ous  and  liberal,  his  heart  expended  with  genuine  philan 
thropy.  Zealous  for  the  rights  of  humanity,  he  con 
tended  that  personal  liberty  was  the  birthright  of  every 
human  being,  however  diversified  by  country,  colour  or 
capacity.  His  insinuating  address  won  the  hearts  of  all 
his  acquaintances  ;  his  sincerity  and  virtue  secured  their 
lasting  esteem.  Acting  from  the  most  honourable  prin 
ciples — uniting  the  bravery  and  other  talents  of  a  great 
officer  with  the  knowledge  of  a  complete  scholar,  and  the 
engaging  manners  of  a  well-bred  gentleman,  he  was  the 
idol  of  his  country — the  glory  of  the  army — and  an  orna 
ment  of  human  nature.  His  abilities  shone  in  the  legis 
lature  and  in  the  cabinet,  as  well  as  in  the  field,  and  were 
equal  to  the  highest  stations.  His  admiring  country, 
sensible  of  his  rising  merit,  stood  prepared  to  confer 
on  him  her  most  distinguished  honours.  Cut  down  in 
the  midst  of  all  these  prospects,  he  has  left  mankind  to 
deplore  the  calamities  of  war,  which  in  the  twenty-seventh 
year  of  his  life  deprived  society  of  so  valuable  a 

Allowing  something  in  this  tribute  to  state  pride  and 
the  pathos  of  the  event,  there  is  no  doubt  that  this  young 
man  was  one  of  the  best  examples  of  the  educated  Amer 
icans  of  his  day — American  by  birth  and  principle  and 
affection — yet  the  son  of  a  French  refugee,  an  exile  for 
religion  and  conscience.  There  was  no  better  stock  than 
this  out  of  which  to  make  the  true  Americanism. 


Major  Huger  Another  brave  French  officer  who  gave  his  life  for  his 
country  was  Major  Benjamin  Huger,  whose  ancestors 
came  to  South  Carolina  in  1696.  Daniel  Huger,  born  in 
the  province  of  Poitoux,  France,  fled  to  La  Rochelle  dur- 


ing  the  bitter  persecution  of  his  province  at  Loudun,  his 
native  town,  where  fifteen  hundred  Huguenots  were  com 
pelled  to  recant  in  a  single  night  by  two  companies  of 
dragoons.  Stealing  away  from  his  home  with  his  wife 
and  child,  under  cover  of  the  darkness  they  made  their 
escape,  and  when  La  Eochelle  could  not  afford  shelter 
they  came  to  America,  being  among  the  early  settlers  in 
South  Carolina,  where  two  children  were  born  to  them. 
From  this  family  came  John  Huger,  who  was  made  sec 
retary  of  the  new  state  after  the  Provincial  Congress  had 
been  dissolved  ;  and  Benjamin  Huger,  who  entertained 
the  army  as  captain,  and  by  merit  was  advanced  to  the 
rank  of  major.  In  the  attack  upon  Charleston  by  the  Killed  in  1779 
British  in  1779,  by  a  false  alarm  at  night  the  militia  were 
led  to  fire  upon  the  supposed  advancing  enemy.  By  this 
unfortunate  mistake  Major  Huger,  who  was  without  the 
lines  on  duty  with  a  party,  was  killed  by  his  own  coun 
trymen.  He  is  described  as  "  a  brave  officer,  an  able 
statesman,  and  a  highly  distinguished  citizen."  He  led 
his  company  in  the  defense  of  Fort  Moultrie,  which  was 
one  of  the  brilliant  events  in  the  state's  revolutionary 

Eminent  service  was  rendered  also  by  Colonel  Daniel 
Horry,  of  a  Huguenot  family.  After  a  long  series  of  dis-  colonel  Horry 
asters,  for  the  greater  safety  of  its  people  the  State  Assem 
bly  passed  a  severe  militia  law,  intended  to  strengthen 
the  Continental  army.  The  extent  and  variety  of  mili 
tary  operations  in  the  open  country  pointed  out  the  ad 
vantages  of  cavalry ;  and  a  regiment  of  dragoons  was 
raised  and  put  under  command  of  Colonel  Horry.  While 
its  work  was  very  different  from  that  which  made  the 
dragoons  of  France  a  terror  to  the  innocent  Huguenots, 
this  regiment  did  most  valiant  service  under  its  brave  leader, 
who  possessed  something  of  the  dash  and  daring  that  made 
Marion  conspicuous.  Marion  himself,  in  his  exploits,  Regiment  of 
received  great  assistance  from  the  active  exertions  of  the 
French  officers,  Colonels  Peter  and  Hugh  Horry,  Colonel 

French  Exiled 
for  Patriotism 

An  Early 
by  an  English 


James  Postell,  and  Major  John  Postell ;  while  in  the  ranks 
the  Huguenot  descendants  were  well  represented.  Cer 
tainly  the  French  exiles  had  repaid  the  land  which  gave 
them  refuge,  and  proved  the  quality  of  their  loyalty  to 
their  adopted  country. 

It  is  significant  both  as  to  their  rank  as  citizens  and 
loyalty  to  the  American  cause,  that  among  the  prominent 
citizens  of  Charleston  who  were  exiled  to  Florida  by  Lord 
•Cornwallis  were  John  Mouatt,  John  Neufville,  Ernest 
Poyas,  Samuel  Prioleau,  Daniel  Bordeaux,  Daniel  Des- 
saussure,  and  Benjamin  Postell.  The  influence  of  this 
class  of  patriots  was  so  feared  by  the  British  commander 
that  he  was  not  content  to  have  them  paroled  at  home. 
In  their  attitude  towards  the  revolution  the  Huguenots 
of  South  Carolina  differed  from  the  majority  of  those  in 
New  England  and  New  York,  who  were  ranked  among 
the  Tories.  It  is  not  strange  that  men  who  had  been 
hospitably  welcomed  and  treated  by  the  representatives 
of  the  British  government  should  hold  loyally  to  it  as 
long  as  its  authority  endured. 


In  1701  Mr.  John  Lawson  published  u  A  Journal  of  a 
Thousand  Miles  travelled  through  several  Nations  of  the 
Indians."  He  thus  describes  a  visit  to  the  first  Hugue 
nots  who  settled  in  South  Carolina  : 

The  first  place  we  designed  for  was  Santee  River,  where  there  is  a 
colony  of  French  Protestants  allowed  and  encouraged  by  the  lords 
proprietary.  As  we  rowed  up  the  river  we  found  the  land  towards 
the  mouth  scarce  anything  but  a  swamp,  affording  vast  cypress  trees 
of  which  the  French  make  canoes,  that  will  carry  fifty  or  sixty  barrels. 
There  being  a  strong  current  in  Santee  River  caused  us  to  make  but 
small  way  with  our  oars.  With  hard  rowing  we  got  that  night  to 
Monsieur  Eugee's  (Huger's)  house,  which  stands  about  fifteen  miles 
up  the  river,  being  the  first  Christian  dwelling  we  met  with  in  that 
settlement,  and  were  very  courteously  received  by  him  and  his  wife. 
Many  of  the  French  follow  a  trade  with  the  Indians,  living  very  con- 


veniently  for  that  interest.     There  are  about  seventy  families  seated 
on  this  river,  who  live  as  decently  and  happily  as  any  planters  in  these 
southward  parts  of  America.     The  French  being  a  temperate,  industri 
ous  people,  some  of  them  bringing  very  little  of  effects,  yet,  by  their    A  Tribute  to 
endeavours  and  mutual  assistance  among  themselves,  which  is  highly  to    Character 
be  commended,  have  outstripped  our  English,  who  brought  with  them 
large  fortunes,  though,  as  it  seems,  less  endeavour  to  manage  their 
talent  to  the  best  advantage. 

We  lay  all  night  at  Monsieur  Eugee's,  and  the  next  morning  set  out 
further  to  go  the  remainder  of  our  journey  by  land.  At  noon  we 
came  up  with  several  French  Plantations,  meeting  with  several 
Creeks  by  the  way.  The  French  were  very  officious  in  assisting 
with  small  dories  to  pass  over  the  waters,  whom  we  met  coming 
from  their  church,  being  all  of  them  clean  and  decent,  their  houses 
and  plantations  suitable  in  neatness  and  contrivance.  They  are 
all  of  the  same  opinion  of  the  church  of  Geneva ;  there  being  no 
difference  amongst  them  concerning  the  punctilios  of  the  Christian 
faith,  which  union  hath  propagated  a  happy  and  delightful  concord, 
and  in  all  other  matters  throughout  the  whole  neighbourhood  ;  living 
amongst  themselves  as  one  tribe  or  kindred,  every  one  making  it  his 
business  to  be  assistant  to  the  wants  of  his  countrymen  ;  preserving 
his  estate  and  reputation  with  the  same  exactness  and  concern  as  he 
does  his  own ;  all  seeming  to  share  in  the  misfortunes  and  rejoice  at 
the  advancement  and  rise  of  their  brethren. 

Towards  the  afternoon  we  came  to  Monsieur  L.  Jandron  (Gendron), 
where  we  got  our  dinners.  There  came  some  French  ladies  whilst  we 
were  there,  lately  from  England,  and  Monsieur  Le  Grand,  a  worthy 
Norman,  who  hath  been  a  great  sufferer  in  his  estate  by  the  persecu 
tion  in  France  against  those  of  the  Protestant  religion.  .  .  .  We 
got  that  night  to  Monsieur  Gailliar's  the  elder  (Gailliard)  ;  who  lives 
in  a  very  curious  contrived  house,  built  of  brick  and  stone,  which  is 
gotten  near  that  place.  Near  here  comes  in  the  road  from  Charles- 
town,  and  the  rest  of  the  English  settlement.  .  .  .  We  intended 
for  Monsieur  Gailliar's,  Jr.,  but  were  lost,  none  of  us  knowing  the  way 
at  that  time,  although  the  Indian  with  us  was  born  in  that  country, 
it  having  received  so  strange  a  metamorphosis.  When  we  got  to  the 
house  we  found  our  comrades,  and  several  of  the  French  inhabitants 
with  them  who  treated  us  very  courteously.  .  .  .  After  having 
refreshed  ourselves  we  parted  from  a  very  kind,  loving,  and  affable 
people,  who  wished  us  a  safe  and  prosperous  voyage. 

These  people  were  indeed  kind  and  affable,  courteous  Genial 
and  agreeable.     They  carried  with  them  a  cheerfulness 


and  geniality,  a  spirit  of  cornradery  and  honour,  that 
made  them  model  settlers.  They  bore  hardships  with 
little  complaint,  and  soon  put  a  new  face  upon  every 
thing  by  their  skill.  Their  plantations  were  sure  to  be 
the  best  and  most  attractive.  Their  gardening  was  justly 
famous,  and  their  taste  was  manifest.  They  were  not  too 
busy  wrestling  with  the  virgin  soil  for  livelihood  to  culti 
vate  flowers  and  gratify  their  esthetic  natures.  In  all 
these  respects  they  differed  materially  from  the  Puritan 
type.  Yet  they  were  as  devoutly  and  staunchly  religious, 
as  the  fact  of  their  exile  proved.  They  generally  bought 
lands,  and  some  of  them  had  means  of  purchasing  large 
tracts,  which  they  portioned  out  and  sold  at  a  low  price 
to  their  distressed  brethren.  l  i  We  do  not  hear  of  any 
instance  of  oppression  among  them,'7  says  Allen,  "  either 
exercised  towards  each  other  or  Americans." 

Their  Religion  ju  gollth  Carolina  they  very  generally  adopted  the 
Episcopal  mode  of  worship.  The  French  Calvinistic 
church  in  Charleston  adhered  to  its  peculiar  worship.  It 
was  built  about  1693.  The  time  of  worship  was  regu 
lated  by  the  tide,  for  the  accommodation  of  the  members, 
many  of  whom  came  by  the  river  from  the  settlements 
around.  We  can  hardly  imagine  anything  more  pic 
turesque  than  these  little  boats,  borne  on  the  water  and 
filled  with  noble  and  daring  beings,  who  had  endured 
danger  and  suffering,  and  risked  their  lives,  for  the  spir 
itual  life  of  the  soul.  "  Often  the  low  chant  was  dis 
tinguished  amidst  the  dashing  of  the  oars,  and  sometimes 
an  enthusiastic  strain  swelled  on  the  ear,  like  those  which 
proceeded  from  the  lips  of  the  martyrs  when  the  flames 
curled  around  them." 
Their  conduct  was  not  marked  by  rash  enthusiasm ; 

Founded  on      theirs  was  a  religion  founded  on  principle.     They  were 


free  from  fanaticism  and  exaggeration.  Their  memorials 
to  the  government  are  simple  and  concise,  and  bear  every 
evidence  of  truth.  When  they  petition  for  their  rights, 
it  is  done  in  a  calm,  conciliatory  manner ;  and  this  is 


the  more  extraordinary,  from  the  impetuous  constitution 
of  Frenchmen  and  the  keen  sense  of  wrongs  they  had  en 
dured  in  their  own  country.  This  spirit  of  forbearance, 
integrity  and  perseverance,  marks  them  wherever  they 
settled,  North  or  South. 

"  Who  does  not  feel,"  says  their  historian  Allen,  "  that  The  strength 
there  is  more  to  be  reverenced  in  the  exiled  Huguenot,  ' 
who  has  forsaken  all  from  the  highest  sense  of  duty,  who 
has  uniformly  placed  his  confidence  in  God  under  the 
severest  trials,  than  the  mighty  monarch  who  exiled  him  f 
It  is  those  in  whom  the  power  of  virtue  is  formed  and 
matured  that  are  really  great.  The  history  of  the  Hugue 
nots  would  be  an  enigma  without  this  key  to  human 
power  ;  but  he,  who  feels  this  undying  principle,  cannot 
be  trodden  under  foot,  for  he  holds  fast  the  inward  con 
sciousness  of  his  own  worth,  which  supports  him  under 
every  oppression,  and  makes  him  strong  to  endure — a 
strength  derived  from  genuine  piety,  and  the  deep  sense 
of  Christianity  enjoined  by  its  author." 

In  France  these  Huguenots  were  a  law-loving  and  law-   A  Cultured 
abiding  people.     They  feared  God  and  honoured  their  Pe°Ple 
king.     They  were  reared  in  habits  of  sobriety  and  virtue. 
They  may  be  said  to  have  inherited  cultivated  manners, 
so  careful  were  parents  to  set  examples  to  their  children, 
and  form  the  manner  of  intercourse  in  households  and  in 
society.     Enduring  the  hardships  of  a  new  colony  in  a 
foreign  land,  they  preserved  the  amenities  of  life.     In 
their  distress  and  in  their  prosperity,  they  never  forgot  that 
they  sprung  from  the  most  polished  country  in  the  world. 

The  habits  of  both  mutual  and  self-respect,  of  social 
intercourse  and  enjoyments,  of  activity  and  enterprise, 
created  the  wealth  and  formed  the  manners  of  South 
Carolina.  Frank,  urbane,  cultivated,  kind,  resolute,  en 
ergetic,  the  descendants  of  colonies  composed  of  Hugue 
nots  and  English  and  Scotch-Irish  intermingled  and 
amalgamated,  hold  an  enviable  place  among  the  sister 
hood  of  states. 


A  Revolu 
tionary  Hero 

Grandson  of  a 




YEEY  war  lias  its  conspicuous  leaders,  and  de 
velops  heroes  hitherto  unknown  to  fame.  The 
'war  of  the  American  Eevolution  produced  one  of 
the  most  dashing  and  daring  of  these  heroic  and  romantic 
personages  in  the  South  Carolina  Huguenot,  Francis 
Marion.  His  story  reads  like  historical  romance,  how 
ever  soberly  and  truthfully  it  is  told.  He  may  be  called 
the  Garibaldi  of  America.  His  name  became  a  terror  to 
the  British.  They  knew  that  when  he  was  about,  it 
would  be  the  unexpected  that  would  happen.  By  the 
very  recklessness  of  his  attacks,  by  the  risks  he  ran,  by 
the  sheer  audacity  of  his  movements,  he  astounded  and 
defeated  the  enemy  time  after  time,  unless  his  name 
possessed  something  of  the  quality  of  magic.  What  gal 
lant  "Phil  "  Sheridan  was  in  our  Civil  War,  Marion  was 
in  the  Eevolution.  And  Francis  Marion  was  the  grand 
son  of  a  French  refugee  from  Languedoc,  who  found  his 
way,  with  the  Manigaults  and  Laurenses  and  Hugers,  to 
South  Carolina.  Of  thirteen  children  of  this  staunch 
Huguenot,  the  eldest  was  the  father  of  Francis,  who  was 
to  become  an  American  general. 

Born  at  Winyaw  in  1733,  at  sixteen  the  boy  decided  on 
a  seafaring  life,  but  on  his  first  voyage  to  the  West  Indies 
was  shipwrecked,  and  was  one  of  the  three  of  the  crew 
rescued  after  being  six  days  in  an  open  boat.  This  dis 
aster  and  his  mother's  entreaties  induced  him  to  quit  the 
sea.  A  life  of  adventure  had  irresistible  attractions  for 
him,  and  when  the  Indians  became  troublesome  he  found 
his  opportunity.  In  1759  he  went  as  volunteer  in  his 



brother's  militia  troop  of  horse  in  Littleton's  expedition, 
and  two  years  later  was  serving  as  lieutenant  under  Capt. 
William  Moultrie,  in  Grant's  expedition  to  the  Indian 

When  a  regular  army  was  formed  in  1775  to  defend  '775 
South  Carolina  against  Great  Britain,  Marion  was  ap 
pointed  a  captain  in  the  second  South  Carolina  regiment, 
and  before  the  fall  of  Charleston  had  risen  to  the  rank  of 
colonel.  A  fractured  leg  caused  his  absence  from  the 
garrison  at  its  surrender  and  saved  him  from  being  made 
prisoner.  He  retreated  to  North  Carolina,  and  on  the  colonel 
approach  of  General  Gates  made  his  way  to  the  Santee, 
where  he  found  a  number  of  his  French  countrymen  ready 
to  put  themselves  under  his  command,  to  which  he  had 
been  appointed  by  General  Gates.  This  corps  acquired 
the  name  of  Marion's  Brigade,  and  its  exploits  became 
famous.  Its  original  members  were  French  and  Irish.  Marion's 
For  chief  officers  Marion  had  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hugh 
Horry,  his  bosom  friend,  Colonel  Peter  Horry,  Captain 
Lewis  Ogier,  and  the  Postell  brothers  of  his  own  nation 
ality  ;  with  Major  James,  a  gallant  Irishman  who  had  been 
the  means  of  arousing  the  section  to  resistance  through 
his  insolent  treatment  by  a  British  officer  ;  Major  Vander- 
horst,  representing  the  Dutch  blood ;  and  Captain  John 
Milton  of  Georgia. 


Marion's  Brigade  immediately  set  itself  to  serious  busi 
ness.  A  few  days  after  taking  command,  General  Marion 
led  his  men  across  the  Peedee  at  Post's  Ferry,  to  disperse  a 
large  party  of  Tories.  He  surprised  them  in  their  camp, 
killed  one  of  their  captains  and  several  privates,  and 
routed  them,  horse  and  foot.  This  was  the  beginning  of 
a  series  of  remarkable  encounters  and  victories.  We  find  Remarkable 
him,  on  hearing  of  the  defeat  of  General  Gates  at  Cam- 
den,  marching  to  intercept  and  rescue  the  prisoners  on 
their  way  to  Charleston.  One  of  his  divisions,  sixteen 
men,  under  command  of  Colonel  Hugh  Horry,  by  a  dash 



The   Swamp 

in  the  dark  took  a  British  guard  of  thirty-two  men  and  re 
leased  150  prisoners,  with  only  one  man  wounded.  When 
the  general  cause  looked  hopeless,  reduced  in  men  to  a 
handful  through  desertion  and  discouragement,  the 
spirits  of  Marion  were  undaunted,  and  with  the  band  of 
faithful  officers  who  were  ready  to  follow  him  to  the  death, 
he  revived  courage  among  the  despondent,  recruited  his 
forces,  and  by  spirited  attacks  and  steady  victories  of 
surprising  character  inspired  such  confidence  that  men 
flocked  to  his  command. 

He  was  marvellous  in  resourcefulness.  Once  he  was 
attacking  a  far  superior  force  of  the  Tories,  who  were  ad 
vantageously  posted  to  receive  him.  In  the  sharp  conflict 
that  followed,  suddenly  Marion  was  heard  to  call  out, 
"Advance  cavalry  and  charge  on  the  left,"  whereupon 
the  dismayed  Tories,  thinking  their  flank  was  turned, 
broke  and  ran  for  the  swamp.  This  victory  enabled 
General  Marion  to  march  into  Williamsburg.  His  suc 
cesses  were  often  due  to  the  fact  that  his  attacks  were 
surprises.  In  all  his  marches  Marion  and  his  men  lay  in 
the  open  air  with  little  covering,  and  with  little  other 
food  than  sweet  potatoes  and  meat  mostly  without  salt. 
The  general  fared  worse  than  his  men  ;  for  his  baggage 
having  caught  fire  by  accident  he  had  literally  but  half  a 
blanket  to  cover  him  from  the  dews  of  the  night,  and  but 
half  a  hat  to  shelter  him  from  the  rays  of  the  sun.  But 
he  established  himself  in  impregnable  positions,  and  be 
came  known  as  the  Swamp  Fox,  sending  his  scouts  in  all 
directions,  harassing  the  enemy  at  diverse  points,  making 
unexpected  assaults  upon  supply  stores,  and  giving  the 
Tories  some  of  their  own  medicine  in  the  way  of  devasta 

Marion  indeed  so  effectually  thwarted  the  schemes  of 
the  British  against  South  Carolina,  that  a  turning  point 
in  the  fortunes  of  the  war  came  largely  through  his  perni 
cious  activity,  which  inspired  the  superior  forces  of  the 
enemy  with  dread,  and  discouraged  the  Tories  who  hoped 


to  win  the  state  to  the  British  side.  To  drive  Marion  out 
of  the  country  was  a  favourite  object  of  the  British,  and 
in  1781  a  thoroughly  organized  attempt  was  made  to  des 
troy  or  disperse  his  now  noted  Brigade,  which  was  held  to 
be  invincible.  The  story  of  the  way  Marion  led  the  enemy 
into  ambuscades  and  defeated  them,  though  he  was  prac 
tically  without  ammunition,  forms  one  of  the  stirring  in 
cidents  of  a  war  full  of  surprises  and  heroism.  Coming 
later  under  direct  command  of  General  Greene,  to  the  end 
of  the  war  Marion  continued  his  distinguished  services. 
Illustrious  among  the  patriot  soldiery  are  the  French 
Protestants  of  South  Carolina,  to  whom  it  was  given  by 
the  fortunes  of  the  War  for  Independence  to  play  an  im 
portant  part. 


To  Marion  and  his  surroundings  in  the  swamp  we  are 
introduced  in  the  historical  romances  of  William  Gilmore  A  Hero  of 
Simms.     Discounting    the    romance  sufficiently,    let  us  F 
penetrate  the  Cypress  with  one  of  his  heroes,  and  after 
hours  of  hard  riding  through  thicket  and  morass,  perhaps 
splashed  with  water  and  torn  by  the  undergrowth,  we 
shall  find  ourselves  admitted  to  the  famous  camp   of 
Marion.     From  the  time  of  our  entrance  into  the  swamp, 
scouts  and  sentries  have  been  safely  passed  at  intervals 
along  the  way,  the  guide  elected  of  our  fancy  answering 
sundry  hootiugs  of  owls  and  familiar  whistlings  with 
satisfactory  repetitions  of  the  same.     "Owls  abroad?"    Picture  of  the 
has  been  the  challenge  of  some  coon-skin-covered  head  SwamP 
thrust  out  at  us  from  the  bushes,  to  which  the  responsive 
"  Owls  at  home  !  "  has  been  promptly  given.     And  when, 
on  nearer  approach,  the  demand  is  made,  "What  owl 
hoots  f ' '  the  due  answer  has  been  forthcoming  ;  until  at 
last  we  are  permitted  to  dismount. 

At  once  we  become  conscious  of  a  little  world  out  here 
in  the  woods  by  itself.  In  a  hollow,  the  better  to  hide  the 
flames,  the  party  has  built  its  fires,  about  which,  in  vary 
ing  degrees  of  activity  or  repose,  are  grouped  the  hunted 


followers  of  the  "  Swamp  Fox."  Here  a  trooper  is 
mending  his  bridle  beneath  a  gigantic  oak,  or  ash,  or 
hickory,  while  a  little  further  away  another  of  less  stren 
uous  make-up  is  stretched  at  length,  with  feet  to  the  fire, 
and  half- closed  eyes  peering  dreamily  up  through  the 
branches  into  the  starlit  sky.  Yonder  a  knot  of  younger 
men  are  busy  fashioning  arrows  from  a  great  pile  of 
canes  or  reeds  such  as  abound  in  the  lowlands  of  this 
region,  while  a  basket  stands  near  by  crowded  with 
feathers  of  the  eagle,  crane,  hawk  and  common  turkey,  to 
be  fitted  to  the  shafts  when  ready.  In  the  hollow  trunk 
of  a  tree  bows  and  these  arrows  will  be  stored  against  the 
possible  failure  to  capture  more  of  King  George's  baggage- 
wagons  laden  with  British  arms  and  ammunition.  The 
trees  are  a  veritable  depository  for  bridles,  blankets,  coats 
and  cloaks,  and  a  dozen  saddles  lie  scattered  about. 

Here  in  his  element  is  the  typical  ranger,  or  forester,  of 
the  period,  with  his  scanty  though  picturesque  costume, 
consisting  of  a  mixture  of  Indian  undress  and  military 

The  Dashing  uniform,  with  his  nonchalance,  his  drawl,  and  his  almost 
uncanny  cleverness  in  woodcraft,  or  the  fence  which  is 
capable  of  deluding  an  enemy  into  the  feeling  that  he  is  a 
friend.  Even  the  names  by  which  he  is  familiarly  known 
among  his  fellows  bespeak  the  haunts  and  habits  to  which 
his  peculiar  warfare  has  driven  him  ;  for,  in  the  frank  and 
unconventional  phrase  of  the  camp,  we  shall  be  sure  to 
meet  Hard-Biding  Dick,  Dusky  Sam,  Clip  the  Can, 
Prickly  Ash,  and  Black  Fox.  Such  a  leader,  in  such 
surroundings,  was  Francis  Marion,  who  seemed  to  his 
slower  antagonists  to  wear  a  charmed  life  and  possess 

The  Men  who  And  what  a  company  it  was  one  might  have  met  in  the 
Swamp  on  occasion.  There  was  the  powerful  Ehode 
Islander,  General  Greene,  in  whose  veins  was  Huguenot 
blood,  and  who  was  majestic  alike  in  person  and  in  pro 
fessional  dignity  ;  as  unlike  Marion  as  one  could  imagine  ; 
noble  Governor  Eutledge,  the  veritable  father  of  the  peo- 


pie ;  the  Swamp  Fox  himself,  that  famous  guerrilla  of 
Carolina,  with  his  modest  person  and  demeanour,  even 
while  he  remained  the  sleepless  master  of  every  situation  ; 
the  Game  Cock,  Sumter,  with  his  dash  and  sensitive 
pride ;  besides  William  Washington,  the  nephew  of  the 
commander-in-chief,  and  Lee,  and  the  Huguenot  Horry 
and  the  rest. 


In  this  connection  we  may  well  give  place  to  some  A  stirring 
verses  of  one  of  Simms'   ringing  martial  lyrics  which  Lyric 
well  describes  Marion  and  his  men  : 

We  follow  where  the  Swamp  Fox  guides, 

His  friends  and  merry  men  are  we  ; 
And  when  the  troop  of  Tarleton  rides, 

We  burrow  in  the  cypress-tree. 
The  turfy  hammock  is  our  bed, 

Our  home  is  in  the  red-deer's  den. 
Our  roof,  the  tree-top  overhead, 

For  we  are  wild  and  hunted  men. 

Free  bridle  bit,  good  gallant  steed, 

That  will  not  ask  a  kind  caress, 
To  swim  the  Santee  at  our  need, 

When  on  our  heels  the  foemen  press — 
The  true  heart  and  the  ready  hand, 

The  spirit  stubborn  to  be  free  — 
The  twisted  bore,  the  smiting  brand  — 

And  we  are  Marion's  men,  you  see. 

Now  light  the  fire,  and  cook  the  meal  — 

The  last,  perhaps,  that  we  shall  taste. 
I  hear  the  Swamp  Fox  round  us  steal, 

And  that's  a  sign  we  move  in  haste. 
He  whistles  to  the  scouts,  and  hark  ! 

You  hear  his  order  calm  and  low  — 
Come,  wave  your  torch  across  the  dark, 

And  let  us  see  the  boys  that  go. 


Now  stir  the  fire,  and  lie  at  ease  ; 

The  scouts  are  gone,  and  on  the  brush 
I  see  the  colonel  bend  his  knees, 

To  take  his  slumbers  too — but  hush  ! 
He's  praying,  comrades  :  'tis  not  strange ; 

The  man  that's  fighting  day  by  day 
May  well  when  night  comes,  take  a  change, 

And  down  upon  his  knees  to  pray. 

Now  pile  the  brush  and  roll  the  log  : 

Hard  pillow,  but  a  soldier's  head, 
That's  half  the  time  in  brake  and  bog, 

Must  never  think  of  softer  bed. 
The  owl  is  hooting  to  the  night, 

The  cooter  crawling  o'er  the  bank, 
And  in  that  pond  the  plashing  light 

Tells  where  the  alligator  sank. 

What — 'tis  the  signal !  start  so  soon, 

And  through  the  San  tee  swamp  so  deep, 
Without  the  aid  of  friendly  moon, 

And  we,  heaven  help  us,  half  asleep  ! 
But  courage,  comrades  !     Marion  leads, 

The  Swamp  Fox  takes  us  out  to-night ; 
So  clear  your  swords  and  spur  your  steeds, 

There's  goodly  chance,  I  think,  of  fight.  ' 


:&ir-U|     OENL. FRANCIS  MARION    |||2C, . 





HE  earliest  mention  of  the  French  in  colonial   Earliest 

Mention  in 

Virginia  occurs  in  the  year  1610.  In  June  of  rfw 
that  year  Cap  tain- General  and  Governor  Lord 
De  la  Warr  arrived  off  the  Virginia  coast  at  the  mouth 
of  the  James  River.  Before  proceeding  up  the  river  to 
Jamestown,  he  went  ashore  with  several  of  his  officers  to 
inspect  the  soil  and  vegetation  of  his  new  dominion.  All 
were  charmed  with  the  fertility  and  luxuriance  which 
they  beheld  on  every  side,  and  the  governor,  as  the  ac 
count  runs,  on  discerning  the  richness  of  the  soil  and  the 
mildness  of  the  climate  l  i  determined  to  set  a  Frenchman 
heere  awork  to  plant  Vines  which  grew  naturally  in  great 
plentie."  Going  on  up  the  river  to  Jamestown,  De  la  French  vine 
Warr  "  alloted  every  Man  his  particular  Place  and  Busi 
ness.  The  French  prepared  to  plant  the  Vines  ;  the  Eng 
lish  laboured  in  the  Woods  and  Grounds." 

In  1619  Sir  Edwin  Sandys,  treasurer  of  the  Virginia 
Company  makes  mention  of  the  vines  "  which  by  culture 
will  be  brought  to  excellent  perfection.  For  the  affecting 
whereof  divers  skillful  Vignerons  are  sent.  .  .  .  Our 
Frenchmen  assure  us  that  no  Countrie  in  the  World  is 
more  proper  for  vines  .  .  .  than  Virginia." 

In  1621,  the  new  governor,  Sir  Francis  Wyatt,  was  in-   I62I 
structed  "  to  plant  Mulberry  trees  and  make  silk,  and 
take  care  of  the  Frenchmen  sent  about  that  work. ' ' 

The  Virginia  Company  expected  a  great  future  for  the 
wine  and  silk  trade  in  the  New  World,  and  in  order  to 
foster  it  they  brought  over  several  skillful  Frenchmen. 
The  venture  did  not  appear  to  succeed,  however,  and  not 



Petition  to 


To  Build  a 

Cannon  for 


long  after  their  arrival  in  America  the  French  began  to 
plant  tobacco — much  against  the  wishes  of  the  company, 
who  saw  a  greater  profit  slipping  away  from  it.  The 
numbers  of  the  French  who  were  brought  over  at  the  ex 
pense  of  the  company  were  probably  not  large,  and  their 
names  have  utterly  perished. 

In  July,  1621,  Sir  Dudley  Carleton,  British  ambassa 
dor  at  the  Hague,  received  the  following  petition  : 

His  lordship  the  ambassador  of  the  most  serene  king  of  Great  Britain 
is  humbly  entreated  to  advise  and  answer  us  in  regard  to  the  articles 
which  follow. 

I.  Whether  it  would  please  his  Majesty  to  permit  fifty  to  sixty 
families,  as  well  Walloons  as  French,  all  of  the  Eeformed  religion,  to 
go  and  settle  in  Virginia,  a  country  under  his  rule,  and  whether  it 
would  please  him  to  undertake  their  protection  and  defense  from  and 
against  all,  and  to  maintain  them  in  their  religion. 

II.  And  whereas  the  said  families  might  find  themselves  near  upon 
three  hundred  persons  ;  and  whereas  they  would  wish  to  carry  with 
them  a  quantity  of  cattle,  as  well  for  the  cultivation  of  the  earth  as  for 
their  sustenance,  and  for  these  reasons  would  need  more  than  one 
ship  ;  whether  his  Majesty  would  not  accommodate  them  with  one,  well 
equipped  and  furnished  with  cannon  and  other  arms,  on  board  of 
which,  together  with  the  one  they  would  provide,  they  could  accom 
plish  their  voyage ;  the  same  returning  to  obtain  merchandise  for  the 
regions  granted  by  his  said  Majesty,  as  well  as  that  of  the  country. 

III.  Whether  he  would  permit  them,  on  their  arrival  in  said  coun 
try,  to  choose  a  convenient  spot  for  their  abode  among  the  places  not 
yet  cultivated  by  those  whom  it  has  pleased  his  Majesty  to  send  thither 

IV.  Whether,  having  secured  the  said  spot,  they  might  build  a  city 
for  their  protection  and  furnish  it  with  the  necessary  fortifications, 
wherein  they  might  elect  a  governor  and  magistrates  for  the  main 
tenance  of  order  as  well  as  justice,  under  those  fundamental  laws 
which  it  has  pleased  his  Majesty  to  establish  in  said  regions. 

V.  Whether  his  said  Majesty  would  furnish  them  cannons  and 
munitions  for  the  defense  of  said  place,  and  grant  them  right  in  case 
of  necessity  to  make  powder,  fabricate  balls  and  found  cannons  under 
the  flag  and  arms  of  his  said  Majesty. 

VI.  Whether  he  would  grant  them  a  circuit  or  territory  of  eight 
English  miles  radius,  that  is  sixteen  in  diameter,  wherein  they  might 
cultivate  fields,  meadows,  vineyards,  and  the  like,  which  territory 


they  would  hold,  whether  conjointly  or  severally,  from  his  Majesty  in 
such  fealty  and  homage  as  his  Majesty  should  find  reasonable,  without 
allowing  any  other  to  dwell  there  unless  by  taking  out  papers  of  resi 
dence  within  said  territory,  wherein  they  would  reserve  rights  of  in 
ferior  lordship  ;  and  whether  those  of  them  who  could  live  as  nobles 
would  be  permitted  to  style  themselves  such. 

VII.  Whether  they  would  be  permitted  in  the  said  lands  to  hunt 
all  game,  whether  furred  or  feathered,  to  fish  in  the  sea  and  rivers,  and 
to  cut  heavy  and  small  timber,  as  well  for  navigation  as  other  pur-  Free  Trading 
poses,  according  to  their  desire  ;  in  a  word,  whether  they  might  make 
use  of  everything  above  and  below  ground  according  to  their  will  and 
pleasure,  saving  the  royal  rights  ;  and  trade  in  everything  with  such 
persons  as  should  be  thereto  privileged. 

Sir  Dudley  himself,  who  knew  Jesse  de  Forest,  the  what  Virginia 
leader  of  the  petitioners,  favoured  the  project  and  re-  L°st 
ferred  the  matter  to  the  lords  in  council,  who  for  their 
part  turned  the  petition  over  to  the  Virginia  Company. 
The  answer  of  the  directors  was  not  unfavourable,  but 
they  refused  to  give  the  would-be  colonists  a  ship,  "  being 
utterly  exhausted  and  unable  to  afford  other  help  than 
advice  as  to  the  cheapest  mode  of  transporting  them 
selves."  The  company  also  said  in  its  reply,  "  that  for 
the  prosperity  and  principally  securing  of  the  plantation 
in  his  Maj's  obedience,  it  is  not  expedient  that  the  said 
families  should  be  set  down  in  one  gross  and  entire  body, 
but  that  they  should  rather  be  placed  in  convenient  num 
bers  in  the  principal  cities  .  .  .  there  being  given 
them  such  proportions  of  land  and  all  other  privileges 
and  benefits  whatsoever  in  as  ample  a  manner  as  to  the 
natural  English."  It  is  probable  that  the  petitioners 
came  to  the  conclusion  that  advice  was  quite  as  cheap  in 
England  as  it  was  in  Leyden,  for  they  engaged  in  no 
further  parleying  with  the  Virginia  Company.  But 
what  was  Virginia's  loss  was  New  Amsterdam's  gain, 
for  two  years  later  the  Dutch  sent  part  of  the  band 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Hudson,  as  we  have  previously 




Unfit  Site 


After  the  fall  of  La  Eochelle,  the  Baron  De  Sauce,  a 
hero  of  the  defense  of  that  city  under  the  Duke  of  Eohan, 
took  refuge  in  England,  and  in  1629  begged  permission 
of  the  government  to  establish  a  colony  of  Huguenots  in 
Virginia  "to  cultivate  vines  and  to  make  silke  and  salt 
there."  The  request  was  favourably  received  and  he  was 
given  letters  of  denization  for  himself  and  son  in  order 
that  he  might  return  to  France  in  safety  to  get  his  family 
and  property.  Careful  preparations  were  made,  and  in 
due  course  of  time  the  expedition  sailed  for  Virginia.  It 
landed  safely  on  the  southern  side  of  the  James  Eiver  and 
a  settlement  was  commenced  in  what  is  now  the  county 
of  Nansemond,  then  known  as  "  Southampton  Hundred," 
a  patent  of  200,000  acres  granted  several  years  be 

No  records  of  this  colony  have  been  discovered,  and  its 
fate  is  a  matter  of  conjecture.  Says  Colonel  E.  L.  Maury, 
who  has  carefully  examined  the  Virginia  records,  l  i  I 
have  not  been  able  to  learn  further  of  this  colony  ;  mani 
festly  it  did  not  flourish,  and  must  have  soon  dispersed, 
having  left  no  enduring  memorial." 

The  place  chosen  for  this  abortive  attempt  at  coloniza 
tion  was  perhaps  the  worst  that  could  have  been  selected 
in  all  Virginia.  In  1698,  Col.  William  Byrd,  in  helping  the 
government  to  locate  the  band  who  finally  settled  at  Man - 
akin  Town  (  about  twenty  miles  above  Eichmond,  on  the 
James  Eiver),  wrote  of  u Southampton  Hundred,"  "that 
part  is  according  to  its  name,  for  the  most  part  low 
swampy  ground,  unfit  for  planting  and  Improvement  and 
ye  air  of  it  very  moist  and  unhealthy  so  that  to  send 
French  thither  that  came  from  a  dry  and  serene  Clymate 
were  to  send  them  to  their  death,  and  that  would  very 
ill  answer  his  Maj'tys  charitable  intentions." 

The  settlers  did  not  all  perish,  however,  for  Huguenot 
names  became  frequent  in  the  records  of  Norfolk 



"  As  the  seventeenth  century  waxed  so  did  the  Hugue-   Virginia 

_  ,,       _,         Hospitable  to 

not  emigration  to  Virginia  continuously  increase."  The  settlers 
refugees  came  singly,  or  in  isolated  groups  and  families. 
Among  the  colonial  legislatures  that  of  Virginia  was 
foremost  in  encouraging  applications  for  naturalization. 
In  1659,  or  thereabouts,  it  was  enacted,  "That  all  aliens 
and  strangers  who  have  inhabited  the  country  for  the 
space  of  four  years,  and  have  a  firme  resolution  to  make 
this  countrey  their  place  of  residence  shall  be  free  deni 
zens  of  this  collony."  In  1661  the  General  Assembly  of 
Virginia  passed  an  act  admitting  all  strangers  desirous  of 
making  their  homes  in  Virginia,  to  the  liberties,  privi 
leges  and  immunities  of  natural  born  Englishmen,  upon 
their  petition  to  the  Assembly,  and  upon  taking  the  oaths 
of  allegiance  and  supremacy.  New  York  adopted  a  sim 
ilar  measure  in  1783,  and  South  Carolina  fourteen  years 
later.  The  colonies  were  in  this  ahead  of  the  home  gov 
ernment,  which  had  not  sanctioned  such  acts. 

Among  the  Huguenots  who  took  advantage  of  these  Family 
laws  were  John  Battaille,  Eichard  Durand,  De  la  Mun- 
dayes,  Durant,  de  Hull,  De  Bar,  D'Aubigne  (Dabney), 
De  la  Nome,  De  Young,  De  Bandy,  De  Berry,  Roger 
Fontaine,  Stephen  Fouace,  Hillier,  Jordan,  Jourdan,  La 
Furder,  Lines,  Louis,  Lassall,  La  Mont  (Lamont), 
Moyses,  Martian,  Mountery,  Michael,  Mellaney,  Mille- 
chops,  Moyssier,  Morel,  Norman,  Noel,  Poythers,  Perin, 
Poleste,  Paule,  Perrot,  Place,  Pluvier,  Pensax,  Peron, 
Pere,  Pettit,  Pruett,  Pallisder,  Robins,  Ravenell,  Rab- 
nett,  Rosier,  Regault,  Roden,  Roye,  Rue,  Regant,  Revell, 
Royall,  Sully,  Sabrell,  Sorrel,  Sallis,  Tollifer  (Tallia- 
ferro),  Therrialt,  Toton,  Tranier,  Vicomte,  Vasler, 
Vaus,  Vallentine,  Vaulx,  Vardie  and  Vodin. 

Major  Moore  Faunt  Le  Roy,  founder  of  a  "  very  ancient  Faunt  LeRoy 
and  numerous  family  of  Virginia,"  owned  a  large  tract 
of  land  on  the  banks  of  the  Rappahanuock  prior  to  1651. 
In  1683  the  Huguenot  Relief  Committee  in  London  "  Paid 





Marquis  de  la 
Muce  the 

A  Noted 

Mr.  David  Dashaise,  Elder  of  the  French  Church  in 
London,  for  fifty-five  French  Protestants  to  go  to  Virginia, 
Seventy  pounds  sterling."  In  1687  Stephen  Fouace  came 
from  London  with  letters  from  the  Archbishop  of  Can 
terbury.  He  became  rector  of  a  church  near  Williams- 
burg,  was  prominent  among  the  colonial  clergy  and  was 
later  made  a  trustee  of  William  and  Mary  College.  In 
1689  came  another  Huguenot  rector,  the  Rev.  James 


In  the  last  decade  of  the  seventeenth  century  at  least  a 
thousand  French  Protestants  came  to  America,  receiving 
transportation  from  the  Relief  Committee  in  London.  A 
few  of  these  settled  in  Florida,  a  number  in  South  Caro 
lina,  but  not  less  than  700  of  them  landed  in  Virginia,  to 
establish  a  settlement,  according  to  the  earlier  idea  of 
Jesse  de  Forest.  In  1700  four  fleets  sailed  from  Graves- 
end,  bringing  all  told  more  than  seven  hundred  of  the 
French  refugees,  with  ' l  the  brave  and  devoted ' '  Marquis 
de  la  Muce  at  their  head,  and  Charles  de  Sailly  as  his  as 
sociate.  There  were  with  the  expedition  three  ministers 
and  two  physicians.  Various  sites  had  been  considered 
for  a  settlement,  but  on  arrival  in  Virginia  the  colonists 
were  directed  to  a  spot  about  twenty  miles  above  Rich 
mond,  on  the  James  River,  where  they  were  given  ten 
thousand  acres  of  land  which  had  belonged  to  the  extinct 
tribe  of  Manakin  Indians.  Thus  the  name  of  the  settle 
ment  became  Manakiutown.  Baird  says  no  more  in 
teresting  body  of  colonists  than  that  conducted  by  Oliver 
de  la  Muce  had  crossed  the  ocean.  Many  of  them  be 
longed  to  the  persecuted  Waldeusian  race,  who  had  taken 
refuge  in  Switzerland  when  driven  from  their  Pied- 
inontese  homes  by  the  troops  of  Louis  XIV.  Their  num 
ber  being  too  large  for  the  Swiss  Cantons  to  support,  Eng 
land  responded  liberally  to  the  appeal  for  aid,  and  they 
were  given  transportation  to  America,  together  with  the 
Huguenots.  Three  thousand  pounds  were  appropriated 


for  "the  transportation  of  five  hundred  Vaudois  and 
French  refugees  designed  for  some  of  his  Majesty's  plan 
tations."  Of  individual  accounts  the  records  show  the 
sum  of  £38  given  "  out  of  the  collection  to  Mons  Benja 
min  DeJoux,  Minister,  appointed  to  go  to  Virginia  ;  be 
sides  £24  for  the  providing  of  himself  with  necessities 
for  the  voyage."  In  August,  1700,  the  Bishop  of  London 
writes  to  the  city  chamberlain,  "  Sir  :  the  bearer,  Mon 
sieur  Castayne,  is  going  out  Surgeon  to  ye  French  now 
departing  for  Virginia.  He  wants  £20  to  make  up  his 
Chest  of  Drugs  and  instruments.  It  is  a  very  small  mat 
ter  for  such  a  voyage  ;  but  if  you  have  in  your  hands  to 
supply  that  sum,  I  will  answer  for  my  Lord  of  Canter 
bury,  that  he  shall  allow  of  your  so  doing. ' '  Six  pounds 
per  head  was  allowed  for  transportation.  The  names  of 
the  other  ministers  were  Claude  Philippe  de  Eichebourg 
and  Louis  Lataue.  They  and  the  two  surgeons  had 
plenty  of  occupation  in  caring  for  the  large  company 
under  their  charge. 

Among    the    list  of  the  expenses  of  the  journey  to  items  01 
"Manicanton"  appear  the  following  items:  "for  one  Expense 
distiller  and  one    Kettle,    3£  2s ;  To  Mr.    Stringer  for 
fusils,  coutlas,  bayonetts,  blunderbushes,  flints,  etc.,  41£ 
Is,  for  several  Coates,  waist  coates,  briches,  etc.,  10£;  for 
blew  Cloth  handkerchieffs,  cravats,  etc.,  26£  ;  for  a  great 
Black  Trunck  to  put  ye  goods  in,  10s  ;  for  Brandy,  Sugar, 
figgs,  raisons  and  sugar  buiscuits  for  the  sick,  5£ ;  to  ye 
ship's  crew  for  brandy  15s  ;  for  a  boat  to  put  some  people 
ashoare,  and  to  goe  to  Mr.  Servant  for  a  Certificate  how 
he  saw  Capt.  Hawes  abuse  us  and  our  goods,  and  to  bring 
ye  salt,  3s ;  To  Capt.  Hawes  for  Hamacks,  brandy,  and 
other    extraordinary s    21£  8s;  To   Cuper  for  his  sabre  Saitand 
broken  by  ye  sentry  upon  the  Shippe,  2s  6d  ;  for  great  Brandy 
nailes  for  the  Pares  (  parish  )  doors,  9d  ;  To  ye  Miller  to 
suffer  our  people  by  his  fire  and  to  dispatch  them,  2s  6d  ; 
to  Corne  for  ye  Horse,  Is." 

In  connection  with  the  expenses  of  the  journey  it  is 


ship  Bin  of  interesting  to  note  the  bill  of  fare  which  was  set  before 
the  transatlantic  passengers  of  that  day.  From  the 
agreement  made  before  commencing  the  voyage  we  take 
the  following  :  "  To  every  passenger  over  six  years  to 
have  7  pounds  of  Bread  every  week,  and  each  mess,  8 
passengers  to  a  mess,  to  have  4  pounds  Porke  5  days  in  a 
week,  with  pease.  2  days  in  a  week  to  have  2  four 
pound  piece  of  Beefe  with  a  pudding  with  pease.  If  the 
kettle  cannot  be  boyled  for  bad  weather,  every  passenger 
to  have  1  pound  of  cheese  per  day."  Those  who  were 
sick  fared  better,  according  to  this  item  among  the  ex 
penditures  :  "for  Brandy,  Sugar,  figgs,  raisons  and  sugar 
busicuits  for  the  sick  .  .  .  £5."  While  fifteen  shil 
lings  were  presented  "To  ye  ships  crew  for  brandy," 
and  five  shillings  "To  ye  Cooke." 

All  the  Huguenots  who  came  over  with  la  Muce  did 
not  settle  at  Manakin  Town,  but  scattered  themselves 
through  the  province  along  the  banks  of  the  James  and 
Eappahannock  Eivers ;  some  even  pushing  southward 

Liberal  Treat-  into  the  Carolinas.     Those  who  joined  the  settlement  at 


Manakin  Town  were  treated  very  liberally  by  the  gov 
ernment  of  Virginia.  By  the  king's  orders  the  refugees 
were  to  be  taken  under  the  special  protection  of  the  gov 
ernor,  and  the  legislature  showed  every  intention  of 
making  their  settlement  as  easy  and  pleasant  for  them  as 
lay  within  its  power.  Public  subscriptions  were  taken 
for  the  purpose  of  relieving  their  most  pressing  necessi 
ties  for  food  and  shelter. 

Says  Beverly,  in  his  history  of  Virginia:  "The  As- 
Freed  from  sembly  was  very  bountiful  to  those  that  remained  at  this 
town,  bestowing  on  them  large  donations  of  money  and 
provisions  for  their  support.  They  likewise  freed  them 
from  every  tax  for  several  years  to  come,  and  addressed 
the  governor  to  grant  them  a  brief,  to  entitle  them  to  the 
charity  of  all  well-disposed  persons  throughout  the  coun 
try,  which,  together  with  the  king's  benevolence,  sup 
ported  them  very  comfortably  till  they  could  sufficiently 


supply  themselves  with  necessaries,  which  they  now  do 
indifferently  well,  and  have  stocks  of  cattle  which  are 
said  to  give  abundance  of  milk  more  than  any  other  in 
the  country.  In  the  year  1702  they  began  an  essay  of  «7oa  wine 
wine  which  they  make  of  the  wild  grapes  gathered  in 
the  woods,  the  effect  of  which  was  a  strong  bodied  claret 
of  good  flavour.  I  heard  a  gentleman  who  had  tasted  it, 
give  it  great  commendation.  I  have  heard  that  these 
people  are  upon  the  design  of  getting  into  the  breed  of 
buffaloes,  to  which  end  they  lay  in  wait  for  their  calves, 
that  they  may  tame  and  raise  a  stock  of  them,  in  which, 
if  they  succeed,  it  will  in  all  probability  be  greatly  for 
their  advantage ;  for  these  are  much  larger  than  the 
cattle,  and  have  the  benefit  of  being  natural  to  the  Buffalo 
climate.  They  now  make  their  own  clothes,  and  are 
resolved,  as  soon  as  they  have  improved  that  manufac 
ture,  to  apply  themselves  to  the  making  of  wine  and 
brandy,  which  they  do  not  doubt  to  bring  to  perfection. " 
But  the  endeavour  to  introduce  the  manufactures  of 
France  here  at  the  extreme  frontier  of  Virginia  was  a 
task  too  great  for  any  set  of  colonists,  and  was  doomed 
to  failure  from  the  first.  In  planning  as  they  did  they 
showed  the  characteristic  Huguenot  enterprise,  but  the 
necessities  of  life  drove  them  to  agriculture  as  the  only 
means  of  keeping  the  wolf  from  the  door. 

A  letter  from  William  Byrd  thus  described  the  settle-  Description  of 
ment  a  year  after  its  founding:  "We  visited  about  theSettlement 
seventy  of  their  huts,  being,  most  of  them  very  mean ; 
there  being  upwards  of  fourty  of  y'  m  betwixt  ye  two  creeks, 
w'ch  is  about  4  miles  along  on  ye  Eiver,  and  have  cleared 
all  ye  old  Manacan  ffields  for  near  three  miles  together, 
as  also  some  others  (who  came  thither  last  ffeb'ry)  have 
done  more  work  than  they  y't  went  thither  first.  .  .  . 
Indeed,  they  are  very  poor.  .  .  .  Tho'  these  people 
are  very  poor,  yet  they  seem  very  cheerful  and  are  (as 
farr  as  we  could  learn)  very  healthy,  all  they  seem  to  de 
sire  is  y't  they  might  have  Bread  enough. " 


A  French 




The  strict  parish  laws  of  the  province  were  relaxed  in 
favour  of  the  Manakin  Town  settlers.  In  1700  the  As 
sembly  enacted  as  follows  : 

Whereas  a  considerable  number  of  French  Protestant  refugees  have 
been  lately  imported  into  his  Majesty's  colony  and  dominions,  several 
of  which  refugees  have  seated  themselves  above  the  falls  of  James 
River,  at,  or  near  to  a  place  commonly  called  and  known  by  the  name 
of  Mauakin  towne,  for  the  encouragement  of  said  refugee  to  settle  and 
remain  together,  as  near  as  may  be  to  the  said  Manakin  towne,  and 
the  parts  adjacent,  shall  be  accounted  and  taken  for  inhabitants  of  a 
distinct  parish  by  themselves  ;  and  the  land  which  they  now  do  and 
shall  hereafter  possess,  at,  or  adjacent,  to  the  said  Manakin  towne, 
shall  be,  and  is  hereby  declared  to  be  a  parish  of  itselfe,  distinct  from 
any  other  parish,  to  be  called  and  known  by  the  name  of  King  Will 
iam  Parish,  in  the  county  of  Henrico,  and  not  lyable  to  the  payment 
of  parish  levies  in  any  other  parish  whatsoever.  And  be  it  further 
enacted  ;  That  such  and  so  many  of  the  said  refugees,  as  are  already 
settled,  or  shall  hereafter  settle  themselves  as  inhabitants  of  the  said 
parish,  shall  themselves  and  their  familyes,  and  every  of  them,  be 
free  and  exempted  from  the  payment  of  public  and  county  levies  for 
the  space  of  seven  years  next,  ensuing  from  the  publication  of  this  act. 

A  French 



Owing  to  such  liberal  treatment  the  colonists  were 
enabled  to  have  a  church  of  their  own,  and  at  the  first 
division  of  land  a  choice  plot  of  the  best  glebe  was  set 
apart  for  the  use  of  the  pastor.  The  church  which  was 
immediately  organized  (as  a  matter  of  fact  the  colonists 
had  come  as  one  united  church)  prospered  with  the 
growth  of  the  settlement.  According  to  Bishop  Meade, 
the  life  of  this  old  church  lasted  down  to  about  the 
middle  of  the  last  century,  services  being  held  in  the 
name  of  the  original  organization  until  1857.  Where 
harmony  and  quiet  prosperity  are  the  rule,  there  is  apt 
to  be  a  dearth  of  material  in  the  shape  of  records  and 
documents.  Such  is  the  case  with  the  church  at  Manakin 
Town.  The  peace  was  broken,  however,  in  the  year 
1707,  when  there  was  an  altercation  between  the  pastor 
and  the  vestry.  Abram  Salle,  vestryman,  deposeth  : 



and  Growth 

When  Mr.  Philipe  had  finished  the  service  of  the  ...  the 
first  thing  he  did  was  to  demand  the  Register  of  Christenings  to  be  de 
livered  up  to  him  .  .  .  and  in  case  he  (Salle  )  refuse  to  do  it  he 
would  excommunicate  him  ;  he  was  pleased  to  say  this  with  a  rage 
very  unbecoming  the  place,  which  made  me  intreat  him  to  have  a  lit 
tle  patience  .  .  .  upon  this  he  flew  out  into  a  greater  passion 
than  before  and  frankly  told  us  that  he  acknowledged  no  Vestry  there 
was,  neither  would  he  have  the  people  acknowledge  any.  Immedi 
ately  upon  his  uameing  the  People,  sevarol  of  his  party  .  . 
stood  up  ...  and  took  the  liberty  to  utter  many  injurious 
things  against  me  .  .  .  and  Michael  .  .  .  prest  thro'  the 
whole  congregation  to  get  up  to  where  I  was,  and  then  catching  me  by 
the  coat  he  threatened  me  very  hardly,  and  by  his  Example  sevarol  of 
the  crowd  were  heard  to  say,  we  must  assassinate  that  fellow  with  the 
black  beard.  The  said  Philipe  was  —  lowder  than  anybody. 


Eev.  "W.  H.  Foote  writes  of  the  colonists  in  Virginia  as  Enterpr 
follows  :  "The  colonists  that  remained  at  Manakin  town, 
disappointed  in  their  efforts  to  introduce  the  manufac 
tures  and  productions  of  France,  conformed  their  labours 
to  the  soil  and  climate  and  conditions  of  a  frontier  set 
tlement  ;  and  went  on  increasing  and  multiplying,  and 
subduing  the  earth,  according  to  the  command  of  God  in 
Eden.  The  ten  thousand  acres  were  soon  too  few  for  this 
enterprising  people.  They  lengthened  their  cords  and 
strengthened  their  stakes,  and  soon  began  to  emigrate  to 
portions  of  the  unoccupied  wilderness  of  Virginia. 
Goochland,  and  Fluvanna,  and  Louisa,  and  Albermarle, 
and  Buckingham,  and  Powhatan,  and  Chesterfield,  and 
Prince  Edward,  and  Cumberland,  and  Charlotte,  and 
Appomattox,  and  Campbell,  and  Pittsylvauia,  and  Hali 
fax,  and  Mecklinburg,  all  gave  these  emigrants  a  home. 
And  then  county  after  county  to  the  west  and  south 
beckoned  them  on;  and  they  went  on  and  grew  and 
multiplied  according  to  the  blessing  of  Jacob  on  Joseph's 
children.  Go  over  Virginia  and  ask  for  the  descendants 
of  those  Huguenot  families,  that  cast  their  lot,  on  their 
first  landing,  among  the  English  neighbourhoods,  and  as 



speedily  as  possible  conformed  to  the  political  usages  of 
the  colony,  and  adopted  the  English  language,  and  by 
intermarriage  were  soon  commingled  with  English  society  ; 
and  then  follow  the  colonists  of  Manakin  town,  as  they 
more  slowly  assimilated  with  the  English ;  and  number 
those  that  by  direct  descent,  or  by  intermarriage  have 
Huguenot  blood  in  their  veins,  and  the  list  will  swell  to 
an  immense  multitude.  The  influence  which  these  de 
scendants  of  the  French  refugees  have  had,  and  still  exer 
cise,  in  the  formation  and  preservation  of  the  character 
of  the  state  and  the  nation,  has  unostentatiously  and 
widely  extended." 

Happily  settled,  indeed,  were  the  French  refugees  in 
A  Garden  what  they  made  one  of  the  garden  spots  of  the  country. 
They  were  not  far  from  the  home  of  Pocahontas,  the  In 
dian  princess,  where,  a  little  more  than  a  century  before, 
Captain  John  Smith  had  found  his  brave  rescuer,  and  put 
a  touch  of  enduring  romance  into  the  first  days  of  the 
white  foreigner  on  American  soil.  The  Indians  were  not 
yet  gone,  and  sometimes  the  French  were  made  to  feel  a 
spirit  of  vengeance  that  classed  all  whites  as  alike 
enemies  of  the  red  men.  To  the  English  Cavaliers  and 
the  French  gentlemen  Virginia  owes  its  peculiar  type 
of  cultivation,  which  made  the  plantations  the  scene  of  a 
gallantry  and  courtliness  and  grace  not  yet  extinct. 
Where  other  nations  often  sent  their  poorest  classes  as 
emigrants,  France  had  driven  away  her  best  to  enrich 
the  life  of  another  and  freer  land. 

One  of  the  most  distinguished  of  the  Huguenot  families 
of  Virginia  was  that  of  the  Bufords,  a  corruption  of  the 
original  name  of  Beaufort,  meaning  ''beautiful  fort,"  or 
castle.  The  name  was  variously  spelled,  as  Beauford, 
Bufford,  and  Buford,  the  form  finally  common.  Some 
members  of  this  family,  which  was  royal  and  allied  to 
Henry  IV,  were  Huguenots,  and  emigrated  to  England 
after  the  Revocation.  From  England  some  came  to 
America,  and  in  both  countries  the  descendants  are  found 


to-day.  The  Virginia  ancestor  was  John  Beauford,  of 
Christchurch  Parish,  Middlesex  County.  From  him  came 
a  distinguished  line  of  soldiers,  who  served  their  country 
well,  some  of  them  conspicuously.  The  Third  Virginia 
Eegiment  in  the  Ee volution  had  Colonel  Buford  at  its 
head  ;  and  two  other  military  members  of  the  family  were 
Major-General  Napoleon  B.  Buford,  and  Major-General 
John  Buford.  General  James  H.  Wilson  unhesitatingly 
ascribes  to  General  John  Buford  the  distinction  of  mak 
ing  Gettysburg  possible.  General  Buford  fired  the  first 
gun  at  Gettysburg,  and  in  the  address  at  the  unveiling  of 
his  statue  General  Wilson  said  :  l  i  Strong,  courageous, 
and  generous,  as  they  (the  Bufords)  were  through  many 
generations,  the  very  flower  and  jewel  of  this  family  was 
the  gentleman  in  whose  name  we  gathered  to-day.  He 
selected  Gettysburg  for  the  field  of  battle." 

General  Buford  was  called  by  the  soldiers  "  Old 
Steadfast. ' '  He  himself  said  of  Gettysburg  :  "A  heavy 
task  was  before  us.  We  were  equal  to  it,  and  shall  remem 
ber  with  pride  that  at  Gettysburg  we  did  our  country 
much  service."  He  was  of  the  true  type  of  French  gen 
tleman  and  loyal  citizen. 


Xavier  1740 





OHN  SEVIEE,  "The  Commonwealth  builder,"  is 
among  the  notable  descendants  of  the  Huguenot 
stock  in  Virginia.  His  father,  Valentine  Xavier, 
came  from  London  in  1740  and  settled  in  Eockingham 
County  where  Sevier  was  born  in  1745.  John  received  a 
fair  education  until  he  was  sixteen  years  old,  and  the  fol 
lowing  year  he  married  and  founded  the  village  of  New 
market,  in  the  Shenandoah  valley,  thus  early  showing  his 
propensity.  He  was  a  young  man  of  exceptional  dash  and 
courage  and  soon  became  known  throughout  the  region 
as  an  invincible  Indian  fighter.  In  1772  he  was  made  a 
captain  in  the  Virginia  line  for  the  services  he  had  ren 
dered  in  the  Indian  wars,  and  that  same  year,  he  moved 
out  to  Watauga,  a  new  and  rude  settlement  on  the  west 
slope  of  the  Alleghanies,  now  eastern  Tennessee.  Through 
his  courage,  popular  address,  and  ability  as  a  commander, 
he  became  the  undisputed  leader  throughout  the  whole  of 
that  fertile  wilderness.  Space  does  not  permit  the  recital 
of  all  the  Indian  campaigns  he  engaged  in,  or  a  list  of  the 
victories  he  won.  In  this  manner  his  years  were  occupied 
until  the  breaking  out  of  the  Eevolution,  when  we  find 
him  petitioning  the  North  Carolina  legislature  on  behalf 
of  the  settlers  at  Watauga,  asking  to  be  annexed  to  that 
province  that  "  they  might  aid  in  the  unhappy  contest 
and  bear  their  full  proportion  of  the  expenses  of  the 
war."  The  request  was  granted,  and  under  the  title  of 
Washington  District  the  whole  of  that  territory  which  is 
now  Tennessee  was  added  to  North  Carolina  as  a  county. 
Sevier  was  active  in  the  local  government  of  this  vast  new 



county  and  under  the  title  of  l  i  clerk  of  the  county  ' '  he 
held  in  reality  entire  control  of  the  administration  of  the 

In  1784  North  Carolina  ceded  the  territory  to  the  Fed-   The  state  of 


eral  government  in  order  to  lighten  the  debts  of  the  state. 
When  the  settlers  heard  of  this  they  determined  to  found 
a  government  of  their  own  and  apply  to  the  Union  for 
admission.  Sevier  was  elected  governor  of  this  new 
state,  known  as  the  State  of  Franklin,  and  for  two  years 
— as  long  as  the  commonwealth  lasted, — retained  his  diffi 
cult  position.  Within  sixty  days  after  taking  office, 
Sevier  organized  a  court,  a  militia,  and  founded  Wash-  court  and 
ington  College,  the  first  school  of  a  liberal  nature  which 
was  established  west  of  the  Alleghanies.  At  last,  how 
ever,  a  proclamation  from  Governor  Caswell,  of  North 
Carolina,  pronounced  the  new  government  a  revolt  and 
ordered  it  to  be  abandoned.  In  the  face  of  superior  forces 
the  infant  state  was  compelled  to  submit,  and  Sevier  was 
captured  and  thrown  into  prison.  He  was  rescued  shortly  Sevier  - 
afterwards,  however,  by  his  incensed  followers,  took  the  Rebeited 
oath  of  allegiance  to  the  United  States,  and  was  made 
brigadier -general  of  the  territory.  As  a  delegate  to  Con 
gress  he  was  the  first  representative  to  that  body  from  the 
valley  of  the  Mississippi.  When  Tennessee  was  made  a  in  congress 


state  Sevier  was  elected  its   first  governor,  serving  for 

three  terms,  and  then  after  a  short  period,  serving  three 

more.     In  1811  he  served  in  Congress,  and  in  1815  he 

was  again  elected,  but  died  before  he  could  take  his  seat,   unique  Ruler 

His  biographer  says  of  him  :    "  A  rule  like  his  was  never 

before  nor  since  known  in  this  country." 


Captain  Sevier' s  wife  was  a  remarkable  woman,  a  her 
oine   of   the   pioneer   days,   whose   story  is  a  romance.   A  colonial 
Catherine  Sherrill  was  the  daughter  of  a  North  Carolinian 
who  pushed  his  way  into  Tennessee  in  the  Revolutionary 
days.     Samuel  Sherrill  and  his  family  were  in  that  com- 





in  1780 


Manager  and 

pany  of  pioneers  which  halted  in  the  Watauga  Valley, 
where  the  king  of  the  Cherokees  planned  to  exterminate 
them.  He  brought  his  whole  fighting  strength  against 
the  fort  defended  by  Captain  Sevier.  In  the  confusion 
of  the  battle,  it  is  told  that  the  French  captain  saw  a  tall, 
graceful  girl  running  towards  the  fort  pursued  by  a  pack 
of  savages.  Exposing  himself  above  the  walls,  heedless 
of  the  peril,  the  gallant  captain  shot  down  more  than  one 
Indian  who  had  raised  his  tomahawk  to  brain  the  girl, 
who  succeeded  in  leaping  the  palisades  and  fell  into  his 
arms.  It  was  in  that  exciting  manner  that  the  brave 
Frenchman  first  met  the  woman  who  was  to  be  for  forty 
years  his  companion  in  adventure,  hardship  and  success. 
They  were  married  in  1780,  four  years  after  that  Indian 
attack.  From  captain,  "  Nolichucky  Jack, "  the  idol  of 
the  pioneers,  had  risen  to  colonel  by  that  time,  and  his 
whole  regiment  rode  with  him  to  the  house  of  Mr.  Sherrill, 
and  held  a  ' i  barbecue ' '  in  honour  of  the  great  event  of 
their  leader's  wedding.  Not  long  afterwards  came  the 
stress  of  the  struggle  for  liberty,  with  its  demands  upon 
John  Sevier  and  his  wife.  The  few  steadfast  patriots  of 
North  Carolina  were  hard  oppressed  by  the  soldiers  of 
Tarleton  and  Ferguson,  and  appealed  to  Sevier  to  help 
them.  He  had  but  a  small  command  and  no  means  to 
equip  a  large  one  ;  but  in  this  extremity  the  wife  under 
took  to  provide  the  equipment,  while  he  immediately 
took  the  field.  The  result  was  that  when  Colonel  Sevier 
rode  away  at  the  head  of  his  famous  regiment,  the  "  ten 
hundred  and  forty,"  it  was  perhaps  the  best  equipped 
regiment  of  the  war.  It  was  with  that  regiment  Sevier 
stormed  King's  Mountain,  and  signally  aided  in  turning 
the  tide  of  the  Revolution.  And  through  all  the  time  that 
he  was  kept  in  the  field,  his  wife  provided  the  resources. 
She  had,  besides,  to  manage  the  large  estate  and  be  financier 
and  quartermaster  j  and  that  in  a  region  infested  by 
hostile  savages  and  equally  hostile  Tories,  many  of  whom 
she  met,  rifle  in  hand,  awing  them  by  her  determination. 


It  is  said  that  once  she  rode  boldly  into  a  carnp  of  out 
laws  who  had  stolen  her  horses,  told  the  leader  that  the 
penalty  of  his  crime  was  hanging,  and  promising  him 
speedy  execution  at  the  hands  of  her  husband  if  the 
property  was  not  returned.  The  horses  were  restored  to 
her.  Yet  this  woman,  who  knew  no  fear  and  could  be 
as  stern  as  her  husband,  was  all  gentleness  and  kindness 
to  those  in  distress,  a  model  housewife  when  peace  came 
and  she  was  mistress  of  her  happy  home. 

When  John  Sevier  was  induced,  by  his  loyalty  to  his 
Watauga  people,  to  become  governor  of  "the  Free  and 
Independent  State  of  Franklin,"  the  result  of  a  secession 
from  North  Carolina,  his  wife  supported  him,  though 
she  did  not  believe  in  the  futile  project.  She  kept  an 
open  "Governor's  House,"  from  which  no  one  was  turned  Governor's 
away,  and  the  people  were  as  proud  of  the  "Governor's  * 
lady  "  as  of  him.  Major  Elholm,  an  officer  of  Pulaski's 
Legion,  writing  to  the  governor  of  Georgia  at  this  time, 
said  :  "If  Colonel  Sevier  is  king  here,  his  gracious  lady 
is  certainly  queen  of  the  Franks.  She  is  gifted  with  great  Queen  of  the 
beauty  and  the  art  of  hospitality,  but  above  all  is  to  be 
esteemed  her  discreet  understanding."  After  stirring 
scenes,  including  the  kidnapping  of  Colonel  and  Governor 
Sevier  and  his  rescue  by  his  wife's  ingenious  plan,  Ten 
nessee  emerged  from  the  governmental  chaos,  the  charge 
of  treason  made  against  the  French  leader  was  dismissed, 
and  in  recognition  of  his  many  services  to  his  country  he 
was  appointed  general.  Near  Knoxville,  the  first  and 
new  capital  of  the  state,  he  built  another  home  ;  and  a 
little  later  his  wife  rode  with  him  to  witness  his  inaugura 
tion  as  the  first  governor  of  Tennessee.  Six  terms  was  First 
this  Huguenot  descendant  elected  governor,  and  his  wife  Tennesse"e°f 
was  noted  for  her  hospitality  as  much  as  for  her  beauty. 
It  is  an  interesting  sidelight  on  the  times  that  during  the 
first  term  as  governor  some  eastern  friend  presented  Mrs. 
Sevier  with  a  brace  of  silver  candlesticks  and  an  im 
ported  carpet — the  first  ever  spread  on  the  puncheon 


floor  west  of  the  Alleghanies,  and  never  used  save  on 
state  occasions.  Then  the  candles  were  lighted  and  the 
carpet  was  laid  in  the  reception-room,  and  there  Louis 
Philippe  and  his  brother,  Andrew  Jackson  and  many 
other  notables,  had  the  honour  to  rest  their  feet  upon  it. 

General  Sevier  died  in  1815,  while  engaged  as  com 
missioner  in  establishing  the  boundaries  between  Georgia 
and  the  Creek  Nation,  and  all  Tennessee  was  in  mourn 
ing  for  the  most  distinguished  leader  in  a  trying  period, 
one  of  the  truly  great  pioneers  and  commonwealth  build 
ers  of  America,  where  his  persecuted  forebears  had 
found  refuge.  And  ever  associated  with  him  in  memory 
is  his  heroic  and  accomplished  wife. 

,  «0«TH  SQUARE,  BOSTO» 



THE  Memoirs  of  a  Huguenot  Family,  by  Ann 
Maury,  one  of  its  descendants,  throw  an  inter 
esting  sidelight  upon  the  sufferings  and  triumphs 
of  a  Huguenot  family  in  entering  upon  their  life  in  the 
New  World.  When  all  the  manuscripts  in  the  possession 
of  Huguenot  descendants  in  America  shall  have  been 
brought  equally  into  the  light,  the  history  of  the  French 
blood  in  this  country  can  be  written  from  a  far  more  in 
timate  point  of  view  than  this  present  history  can  hope 
to  take.  The  extracts  we  make  from  this  most  interest 
ing  but  not  generally  accessible  volume  begin  with  the 
autobiographical  introduction  by  the  head  of  the  Fon 
taine  family,  who  reveals  at  once  his  deep  piety. 

"1,  James  Fontaine,  have  commenced  writing  this  his-   introduction 
tory,  for  the  use  of  all  my  children,  on  the  26th  day  of 
March,  1722  ;  being  sixty-four  years  old. 

"My  dear  Children— Whenever  I  have  related  my  own 
adventures  to  you,  or  given  you  details  of  the  incidents 
that  befell  your  ancestors,  you  have  evinced  so  deep  an 
interest  in  them,  that  I  feel  I  ought  not  to  neglect  mak 
ing  a  record  of  the  past  for  your  use  ;  &  I  am  determined 
to  employ  my  leisure  time  in  this  way.  I  would  fain 
hope  that  the  pious  examples  of  those  from  whom  we  are 
descended  may  warm  your  hearts  and  influence  your 
lives.  I  hope  you  will  resolve  to  dedicate  yourselves 
wholly  and  unreservedly  to  the  service  of  that  God  whom 
they  worshipped  at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  and  that  you, 



and  those  who  come  after  you  will  be  stedfast  in  the  pro 
fession  of  that  pure  reformed  religion  for  which  they  en 
dured,  with  unshaken  constancy,  the  most  severe  trials. 
You  cannot  fail  to  notice,  in  the  course  of  their  lives,  the 
watchful  hand  of  God's  Providence,  supporting  and  pre 
serving  them  thro  hardship  and  suffering. 

"For  my  own  part,  I  trust  that,  while  recording  the  past 
mercies  of  God  for  the  benefit  of  my  descendants,  I 
may  derive  personal  advantage  from  the  review.  The 
frailties  and  sins  of  the  different  periods  of  my  life,  thus 
brought  to  mind,  ought  to  cause  me  to  humble  myself  be 
fore  the  throne  of  grace,  and  tremblingly  implore  pardon 
for  the  past,  through  the  mediation  of  my  blessed 
Saviour  ;  and  the  assistance  of  the  Holy  Spirit  to  make 
me  watchful  and  circumspect  for  the  time  to  come. 
When  I  look  back  upon  the  numberless,  uncommon,  and 
unmerited  mercies  bestowed  upon  me  during  the  whole 
course  of  my  life,  I  hope  that  my  gratitude  will  be  in- 

Gratitude  and  creased  towards  my  Almighty  Benefactor,  and  my  con 
fidence  in  Him  so  strengthened  that  I  may  be  enabled 
for  the  future  to  cast  all  my  care  upon  Him.  Great  as  is 
my  debt  of  gratitude  for  the  things  of  this  life,  its  mani 
fold  comforts  and  conveniences,  how  incalculably  greater 
is  it  for  the  mercy  to  my  immortal  soul,  in  God  having 
shed  the  blood  of  His  only  begotten  Son  to  redeem  it ! 
Oh,  my  God !  I  entreat  Thee  to  continue  Thy  fatherly 
protection  to  me  during  the  few  days  I  have  yet  to  live, 
and,  at  last,  to  receive  my  soul  into  Thine  everlasting 
arms.  Amen." 

soul  window  This  is  like  looking  through  an  opened  window  into 
the  soul  of  the  good  man  and  seeing  his  beautiful  charac 
ter.  The  following  synopsis  of  the  story  is  given  because 
it  discloses  both  the  Huguenot  character  and  the  suffer 
ings  for  faith's  sake,  at  the  same  time  proving  the  care  of 
God  for  His  children. 


De  la  Fontaine  was  the  original  name,  as  on  record  in 


Rochelle,  where  Juquos  de  la  Fontaine,  grandfather  of  Erasing  sign 
James  the  autobiographer,  held  some  command  in  the 
Tower.  From  motives  of  humility  the  father  of  James 
cut  off  De  la,  the  indication  of  the  ancient  nobility  of  the 
family.  This  commonly  happened  among  the  French 
refugees  in  the  foreign  parts.  John  de  la  Fontaine,  great 
grandfather  of  James,  was  born  in  1500  in  the  province 
of  Maine,  near  the  borders  of  Normandy.  His  father  Protestant  in 
procured  him  a  commission  in  the  household  of  Francis 
I,  and  he  became  conspicuous  in  the  king's  service.  He 
became  a  convert  to  Protestantism  on  the  first  preaching 
of  the  Reformed  religion  in  France,  about  1535.  He  re 
mained  in  royal  service  for  a  time  because  this  was  a  safe 
guard  from  persecution  on  account  of  his  religion.  Be 
sides,  he  was  thus  able  to  show  much  kindness  to  his 
Protestant  brethren,  whom  he  often  shielded  from  op 
pression.  He  had  four  sons.  When  Charles  IX  issued 
the  Edict  of  Pacification  in  1561,  the  Protestants,  believ 
ing  this  to  be  in  good  faith,  generally  laid  down  their 
arms,  and  at  this  time  John  de  la  Fontaine  resigned  his 
commission,  thinking  himself  protected  by  the  Edict  in 
the  exercise  of  his  religion.  He  retired  to  his  paternal 
estates,  hoping  to  end  his  days  peacefully  in  the  bosom 
of  his  family,  worshipping  God  according  to  the  dictates 
of  his  conscience. 

But  the  change  was  for  the  worse,  instead  of  better, 
after  the  Edict ;  now  all  was  secrecy,  and  any  wretehed 
vagabond,  imbued  with  the  spirit  of  bigotry,  could  at 
once  exercise  the  functions  of  judge  and  executioner. 
Armed  miscreants  broke  into  the  houses  of  the  Protes 
tants  at  midnight,  robbed  and  murdered  their  inmates  Persecution 
with  a  cruelty  at  which  humanity  shudders,  and  were  en 
couraged  in  their  atrocities  by  priests,  monks  and  bigots. 
The  Protestants  were  again  driven  to  recourse  to  arms. 
John  de  la  Fontaine  was  hated  because  of  his  piety  and 
zeal  for  the  pure  worship  of  God.  In  1563  his  house  was 
attacked  at  night,  he  was  surprised,  dragged  out  of  doors, 



James  a  Hero 

A  Ministerial 

A  Model 

and  his  throat  cut.  His  wife,  rushing  after  him  in  hopes 
to  soften  the  hearts  of  their  midnight  assassins,  was  also 
murdered.  The  lives  of  the  three  younger  boys  were 
preserved — the  oldest,  about  eighteen,  perished.  The 
second  son,  James,  grandfat\er  of  our  autobiographer, 
was  about  fourteen,  Abraham  about  twelve,  and  the 
youngest  nine.  They  fled  from  the  scene  of  horror,  with 
no  other  guide  save  Providence,  and  found  their  way  to 
Eochelle,  then  the  stronghold  of  Protestantism  in  France. 
These  poor  boys,  deprived  at  one  blow  of  parents  and 
property,  plunged  from  affluence  into  poverty,  were 
taken  in  by  the  inhabitants,  who  gave  them  food  and 
shelter  for  little  services  they  could  render.  A  shoe 
maker,  a  charitable,  God-fearing  man,  received  James  into 
his  own  house,  treated  him  with  affection,  and  taught  him 
his  trade.  Before  long  he  was  earning  wages  which  en 
abled  him  to  support  his  younger  brothers.  When  he 
reached  manhood  he  engaged  in  commerce  and  was  com 
paratively  prosperous.  He  had  three  children  who  grew 
to  maturity,  two  daughters  and  one  son.  The  latter, 
father  of  James,  was  born  in  1603.  Henry  IV  called 
the  grandfather  the  handsomest  man  in  his  kingdom. 

His  son  James,  delicate,  fond  of  books,  early  evinced  an 
inclination  for  the  ministry,  was  afforded  college  advan 
tages,  and  became  a  Protestant  pastor  over  the  churches 
of  Vaux  and  Eoyan.  He  married  an  English  lady  named 
Thompson,  in  1628,  and  they  had  five  children,  two  of 
whom  became  ministers.  By  a  second  wife  he  had  five 
children  more,  two  of  whom  were  sons  and  both  became 
ministers,  so  that  this  was  emphatically  a  ministerial 
family,  and  we  do  not  wonder  to  find  descendants  contin 
uing  to  follow  in  the  clerical  line. 

James,  our  author,  was  the  youngest  child  of  all.  He 
says  his  father  was  a  man  of  fine  figure,  pure  red  and 
white  complexion,  of  very  dignified  deportment,  com 
manding  the  respect  of  all.  He  was  remarkably  abste 
mious,  living  chiefly  upon  milk,  fruit  and  vegetables. 


He  was  never  seen  among  his  flock  at  feasts  or  entertain 
ments,  but  made  it  an  invariable  rule  to  visit  each  family 
twice  in  the  year.  He  hastened  to  the  sick  and  afflicted 
as  soon  as  their  sorrows  were  made  known  to  him.  When 
it  was  known  he  was  praying  with  any  sick  person  crowds 
would  flock  to  hear  him.  He  was  zealous  and  affection 
ate,  of  unusual  attainments,  having  great  learning,  quick 
and  ready  wit,  clear  and  sonorous  voice,  and  always  used 
the  most  chaste,  elegant  and  appropriate  language.  He 
was  invited  to  take  charge  of  a  church  at  Eochelle,  with 
salary  twice  as  large  as  that  he  was  receiving,  but  refused 
decidedly.  He  had  not  the  heart  to  abandon  a  flock  who 
loved  him  so  much. 


James  was  born  April  7,  1685.  A  nurse's  carelessness  1685 
lamed  him  for  life.  When  only  four  he  was  so  taken  Early  Life 
with  hearing  his  father  read  the  Scriptures  and  pray  with 
the  family,  that  he  called  together  the  servants  and  his 
sisters  and  made  them  kneel  while  he  prayed.  He  was 
rather  precocious,  and  early  at  six  was  placed  in  school. 
When  he  came  of  age  at  twenty-five,  after  many  trying 
school  experiences,  he  was  possessed  of  the  family  estate, 
and  had  an  apparently  prosperous  outlook.  First  came  Prosperity 
the  tribulations  of  his  ministerial  brother-in-law,  who 
was  thrown  into  prison  on  a  false  charge  of  proselyting, 
and  was  persecuted  until  finally  he  made  his  escape  to 
England.  Then  his  brother  Peter,  who  had  succeeded 
his  father  in  the  pastorate  at  Yaux,  was  seized  and  con 
fined  in  a  prison,  without  charge  or  trial,  while  the 
church  was  levelled  to  the  ground.  James  now  was  sur 
rounded  by  neighbours  who  had  no  church  privileges, 
and  he  invited  them  to  join  him  in  his  family  devotions. 
They  came  until  the  number  reached  150.  Then  they  A  Benefactor 
came  two  or  three  times  a  week,  and  he  preached  and 
expounded  the  Scriptures  to  them.  All  possible  was 
done  to  escape  observation  which  should  draw  persecu 
tion  upon  the  people  ;  but  at  length  a  rumour  got  abroad 


Arrest  and 

Boldness  and 

1685  The 

An  Exile 

that  ineetiDgs  were  held  in  the  parish  and  that  he  was  the 
preacher.  He  was  advised  by  friends  to  stop  the  meet 
ings,  but  believed  he  was  in  the  path  of  duty  and  kept  on 
leading  the  services. 

In  1684  at  Easter  the  open  attacks  began.  On  deposi 
tion  of  a  lawyer  M.  de  la  Fontaine  was  arrested  on  a 
charge  of  leading  in  unlawful  assemblies.  He  advised 
all  the  Protestants  to  remain  steadfast,  and  willingly  went 
to  jail  to  test  the  rights  of  citizens.  In  prison  he  offered 
prayer  aloud,  and  established  a  daily  prayer  circle,  by 
this  means  confirming  in  their  faith  the  many  Protestants 
who  were  brought  there  for  no  other  crime  than  meeting 
together  quietly  to  worship.  The  people  had  become  so 
determined  through  this  bold  stand  of  their  leader  and 
his  willingness  to  suffer  imprisonment  for  the  truth,  that 
they  no  longer  fled  from  the  provost  and  his  archers  who 
were  sent  out  to  arrest  them,  but  indeed  seemed  to  be 
eager  to  show  their  courage.  When  M.  de  la  Fontaine 
came  to  trial,  charged  with  having  taught  in  prison, 
given  offense  to  the  Roman  Catholics  who  were  in  prison, 
and  interrupted  the  priest  in  his  celebration  of  divine 
worship,  suborned  evidence  was  produced  ;  but  acting  in 
his  own  defense,  the  able  minister  turned  the  tables  on  his 
persecutors,  and  was  triumphantly  acquitted  in  the  end 
by  Parliament,  to  which  he  appealed  his  case. 

But  the  spirit  of  persecution  became  more  and  more 
bitter,  and  in  1685  the  dragoons  appeared.  Then  James 
de  la  Fontaine  left  the  home  of  his  childhood,  never  to 
return  to  it.  He  had  500  francs,  two  good  horses,  on  one 
of  which  his  valet  was  mounted,  and  was  well  armed. 
From  his  amply  furnished  house  he  removed  nothing, 
and  within  two  hours  after  he  quitted  it  the  dragoons 
came  and  lived  there  till  they  had  consumed  or  sold 
everything  they  could  lay  hands  on,  even  to  the  locks 
and  bolts  of  the  doors.  If  one  would  abjure  his  religion 
he  would  be  let  alone,  if  not,  death  or  torture  was  his 
fate.  Riding  rapidly  forward,  he  visited  the  homes  of 


his  relatives,  and  found  many  of  them  had  recanted,  to 

escape  the  dragoons  ;  but  as  soon  as  possible  they  left 

France  for  countries  where  they  could  be  free  to  worship 

according  to  their  faith.     He  did  all  he  could  to  stem  the 

tide  of  abjuration,  and  failure  to  do  so  made  him  sick 

and  careless  of  life.     For  three  months  did  this  heroic 

man  travel  about  the  country  endeavouring  to  encourage 

the  Protestants.     He  rode  by  night,  resting  by  day,  to  Heroic  Effort 

avoid  detection  ;  and  would  be  six  and  seven  days  at  a 

time  without  chance  to  undress.     And  his  anxiety  was 

increased  by  fear  lest  evil  befall  "  that  worthy  and  pious 

woman  whom  God  gave  to  me  afterwards  for  my  beloved 

partner  and  helpmate,  and  my  greatest  earthly  comfort 

— your  dear  mother. '? 

The  Eevocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes  (October,  1685), 
left  no  hope  save  in  flight,  and  M.  de  la  Fontaine  made  Thrilling 


preparations  in  good  earnest,  His  escape  was  most 
thrilling.  He  arranged  with  an  English  captain  to  take 
him  and  four  or  five  persons  to  England,  but  as  the  coast 
was  guarded  to  prevent  emigration,  which  was  made  a 
crime,  it  was  only  after  several  days  of  distressing  experi 
ences  that  the  party  was  able  to  board  the  ship  and  leave 
forever  the  shore  of  France.  It  should  be  realized  here 
that  this  jeopardy  of  life  and  this  loss  of  a  comfortable 
fortune  and  pleasant  home,  together  with  an  influential 
position  as  country  nobleman,  was  undergone  without  a 
murmur  all  for  the  sake  of  religion,  for  the  right  to 
worship  God  according  to  conscience,  when  a  word  of 
recantation  would  have  made  exile  and  hardship  unneces 
sary.  Of  such  stuff  were  these  Huguenots  made. 

Bead  his  brave  words:  "A  blessed  and  ever-memo 
rable  day  for  us,  who  then  effected  our  escape  from  our  cheerful 
cruel  enemies,  who  were  not  so  much  to  be  feared  because 
they  had  power  to  kill  the  body,  but  rather  from  the 
pains  they  took  to  destroy  the  souls  of  their  victims.  I 
bless  God  for  the  multitude  of  His  mercies  in  earthly  en 
joyments  also.  He  allowed  me  to  bring  to  England  the 




New  Start  in 

dear  one  whom  I  loved  better  than  myself,  and  she  will 
ingly  gave  up  relations,  friends,  and  wealth  to  be  the 
sharer  of  my  poverty  in  a  strange  land.  I  here  testify  that 
we  have  fully  experienced  the  truth  of  the  promise  of  our 
blessed  Saviour,  to  give  a  hundredfold  more,  even  in  this 
present  life,  to  those  who  leave  all  and  follow  Him. 
Certain  it  is  that  a  man's  life  consisteth  not  in  the  abun 
dance  of  the  things  that  he  possesseth,  but  in  the  enjoy 
ment  he  has  of  them  and  it  is  in  this  sense  that  I  would 
be  understood,  when  I  say  that  we  have  received  the  hun 
dredfold  promised  in  the  Gospel ;  for  we  have  had  in 
finitely  more  joy  and  satisfaction  in  having  abandoned 
our  property  for  the  glory  of  God,  than  they  can  have 
had  who  took  possession  of  it." 


Few  stories  are  more  interesting  in  detail  than  that  of 
this  French  family,  as  they  sought  to  make  a  living  in 
England,  where  ready  hospitality  was  afforded.  When, 
however,  through  his  superior  commercial  ability,  he  be 
came  a  manufacturer  of  worsteds,  jealousy  was  aroused 
that  led  him  to  give  up  business  and  leave  Taunton  and 
England.  He  also  discovered  that  while,  if  he  would 
join  the  Church  of  England  he  could  secure  ready  pre 
ferment,  as  a  Presbyterian  he  had  no  hope  of  favour. 
He  felt  that  the  Episcopalians  were  not  much  different  in 
spirit  in  England  from  the  Eoman  Catholics  in  France, 
though  the  persecution  was  not  of  the  same  outrageous 
character.  And  as  he  held  to  the  simplicity  of  the  Ee- 
formed  worship  in  which  he  had  been  trained  from  boy 
hood,  he  preferred  exile  again  to  further  persecution  of 
any  sort.  He  gave  up  once  more  his  means  of  livelihood 
and  went  to  Ireland,  where  he  expected  to  become  pastor  of 
a  church  of  French  refugees.  He  had  now  six  children, 
five  sons  and  one  daughter.  In  1694  he  became  pastor  in 
Cork,  and  started  another  manufactory,  making  broad 
cloth.  Here  he  was  happy  and  prosperous,  and  the  church 


increased  daily.  But  his  cup  of  happiness  was  dashed 
to  the  earth  through  the  coming  to  the  church  of  one 
Isaac  de  la  Croix,  who  had  already  caused  dissensions  in 
two  other  churches,  and  now  did  the  same  thing  at  Cork. 
As  a  result  the  pastor  resigned,  to  the  great  grief  of  his 
people.  "Thus  you  see,"  says  he,  "how  much  injury 
may  be  done  by  one  quarrelsome,  malicious  individual  in 
a  church.  The  poor  minister  is  under  the  necessity  of 
sacrificing  his  own  comfort  for  the  peace  of  the  church. 
I  was  certain  that  if  I  did  not  resign  a  schism  would  be 
created,  and  did  my  best  to  prevent  it." 

After  this  M.  Fontaine  was  ready  to  leave  Cork,  and 
made  a  venture  in  the  fishery  line,  which  led  him  to  be-  Philanthropic 
come  famous  as  a  defender  of  an  exposed  point  on  the 
Irish  coast  against  French  privateers.  For  his  services, 
which  were  of  a  most  romantic  character,  recalling  the 
most  exciting  pirate  stories,  he  received  recognition  and 
a  pension  from  the  British  government.  He  finally 
settled  in  Dublin,  establishing  a  school  there,  and  main 
taining  relations  with  many  notable  people. 

In  1714  his  sons  visited  Virginia  and  became  owners  of 
a  plantation,  and  gradually  the  children  settled  on  this  sons  go  to 
continent.  The  daughter  married  a  Frenchman  named 
Maury,  and  the  editor  of  this  Memoir  is  a  great-grand 
daughter  of  that  branch  of  the  family ;  while  the 
Fontaines  are  among  the  honoured  names  of  the 


John  Fontaine,  son  of  James,  who  wrote  the  Memoir, 
desired  to  be  a  soldier  and  saw  service  in  Spain.     Plan-  John 
ning  for  the  good  of  his  brothers  and  sisters  he  took  ship  j0u"naine 
at  Cork  for  Virginia,  sailing  December  3,  1714.     These  I?I4 
notes  are  taken  from  his  Journal  : 

Struck  by  a  tempest,  for  days  there  seemed  little  hope,  the  vessel  toss 
ing  at  the  mercy  of  wind  and  overwhelming  waves.  In  these  condi 
tions  this  prayer,  recorded  in  the  journal,  must  be  regarded  as  remark- 



Prayer  at  Sea 

in  Storm 

Virginia  1715 

The  First 

able,  indicating  the  strength  of  character  and  faith  that  marked  this 
family  : 

We  are  almost  wasted  by  the  violent  motion  of  the  ship,  being  with 
out  masts ;  but  we  still  trust  in  Thee,  O  God,  and  wait  patiently  for 
our  deliverance  by  Thy  almighty  hand.  Stretch  forth  Thine  arm  to  us, 
O  Lord,  and  bear  us  up  in  this  our  distress,  lest  we  sink  and  fall  un 
der  the  weight  of  our  sins.  Suffer  us  not  to  repine  against  Thee  in  our 
trouble,  but  let  us  confess  that  we  merit  to  be  afflicted.  Thou  hast,  O 
Lord,  given  for  us  Thy  only  Sou,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ :  to  His  merits 
we  fly,  and  through  Him  we  hope  for  salvation.  Do  Thou  pardon  us, 
O  Lord,  and  accept  of  these  our  imperfect  prayers,  and  if  Thou  seest  fit 
to  take  us  to  Thyself,  do  Thou  also  cleanse  us,  that  we  may  be  worthy 
of  appearing  before  Thee.  All  these  thoughts  came  now  before  us,  be 
cause  we  see  death  as  if  it  were  playing  before  our  eyes,  waiting  for 
the  sentence  of  Almighty  God  to  destroy  us.  Nothing  makes  this 
sight  so  terrible  as  our  sins,  and  it  is  our  weakness  and  ignorance  that 
makes  us  think  more  of  death  now  than  when  we  are  at  our  homes, 
and  in  our  accounted  places  of  security.  If  we  rightly  considered,  we 
should  think  ourselves  safer  here  than  if  we  were  in  prosperity  at 
home,  for  it  is  the  devil's  greatest  cunning  to  put  in  our  hearts  that  we 
are  in  a  safe  place,  that  we  have  long  to  live,  and  that  a  final  repent 
ance  will  be  sufficient  for  our  salvation.  O  God,  give  us  grace  that 
while  we  live,  we  may  live  unto  Thee,  and  have  death  always  before 
our  eyes,  which  most  certainly  will  not  cheat  us,  but  come  at  last  and 
take  us  out  of  this  troublesome  life,  and  if  we  are  prepared  for  it, 
then  shall  we  have  our  recompense  for  past  watchfulness  ;  therefore,  let 
us  cast  off  this  world,  so  far  as  it  may  be  prejudicial  to  our  everlasting 
inheritance,  and  seek  after  Thy  laws,  expecting  mercy  through  the 
merits  of  our  blessed  Saviour  and  Redeemer.  Amen. 

For  six  weeks  the  ship  was  tossed  about  in  almost  con 
tinuous  storms,  before  she  could  again  make  the  English 
coast,  the  idea  of  crossing  the  Atlantic  having  been 
abandoned  on  account  of  the  loss  of  sails  and  masts.  In 
another  month  the  vessel  was  repaired  and  sailed  again, 
and  this  time  the  voyage  was  made  in  three  mouths. 

At  nine  of  the  morning  on  May  26,  1715,  they  saw 
land,  and  that  night  entered  the  mouth  of  the  Potomac 
Eiver.  Here  is  the  record  of  his  first  Sunday  on  shore 
of  the  new  world  : 

29th,  Sunday. — About  8  of  the  clock  we  came  ashore,  and  went  to 



church,  which  is  about  four  miles  from  the  place  where  we  landed. 
The  day  was  very  hot,  and  the  roads  very  dusty.  We  got  to  church  a 
little  late,  but  had  part  of  the  sermon.  The  people  seemed  to  me  pale 
and  yellow.  After  the  minister  had  made  an  end,  every  one  of  the 
men  pulled  out  his  pipe,  and  smoked  a  pipe  of  tobacco.  I  informed 
myself  more  about  my  own  business,  and  found  that  Williamsburg  was 
the  only  place  for  my  design. 

This  design  was  to  establish  a  plantation  for  the  family. 
He  made  a  horseback  journey  to  Williamsburg,  became  TO  Establish  a 
acquainted  with  Governor  Spotswood,  and  later  formed  a 
solid  friendship  with  that  functionary,  going  in  his  com 
pany  on  a  number  of  long  journeys  of  inspection  through 
the  unsettled  country.  His  journal  of  their  experiences 
is  exceedingly  interesting,  and  as  historical  material 
valuable.  He  proves  how  carefully  the  Lord's  day  was 
observed  by  the  statement  that  on  Sunday  they  saw  a 
number  of  deer  and  two  bears,  but  did  not  shoot  them 
because  it  was  the  Sabbath.  While  out  in  the  forest  on 
their  travels,  they  never  omitted  at  least  having  prayers  Observance 
read  on  Sunday.  He  decided  to  take  up  3,000  acres  of 
land,  and  thus  Virginia  became  the  home  of  the  Fontaine 
and  Maury  families — Miss  Fontaine,  the  only  daughter, 
having  married  M.  Maury. 



Before  returning  to  England,  John  Fontaine  sailed 
from  Hampton  for  New  York,  landing  on  Staten  Island,  journey 
of  which  he  says  :  "There  are  some  good  improvements  Y° 
here  ;  the  inhabitants  are  mostly  Dutch  ;  the  houses  are 
all  built  with  stone  and  lime  ;  there  are  some  hedges  as  in 
England."  From  Staten  Island  they  went  by  the  ferry 
to  Long  Island,  and  then  had  an  eight  mile  horseback 
ride  to  reach  Brooklyn  and  the  ferry  to  New  York.  "  As 
soon  as  we  landed  we  went  and  agreed  for  our  lodgings 
with  a  Dutch  woman  named  Schuyler,  and  then  I  went  to 
see  Mr.  Andrew  Freneau  at  his  house,  and  he  received 
me  very  well,  after  which  I  went  to  the  tavern,  and  about 



374        THE  FEENCH  BLOOD 


ten  at  night  to  my  lodgings  and  to  bed."  Next  day  he 
waited  upon  Governor  Hunter,  who  invited  him  to  dine  ; 
thence  to  see  the  mayor,  who  kindly  received  him. 
Next  day  he  rode  about  seven  miles  out  of  town  to 
Colonel  Morris's,  "Who  lives  in  the  country,  and  is 
judge  or  chief  justice  of  this  province,  a  very  sensible 
and  good  man."  Next  day  he  saw  the  town.  "There 
are  three  churches,  the  English,  the  French,  and  the 
Dutch  Church  ;  there  is  also  a  place  for  the  Assembly  to 
sit,  which  is  not  very  fine,  and  where  they  judge  all 
matters.  The  town  is  compact,  the  houses  for  the  most 
part  built  after  the  Dutch  manner,  with  the  gable  ends 
towards  the  street.'7  "The  French  have  all  the  privi 
leges  that  can  be,  and  are  the  most  in  number  here,  they 
are  of  the  Council  and  of  the  Parliament,  and  are  in  all 
other  employments."  He  was  dined  and  wined  with 
true  hospitality  by  the  Irish  Club,  the  French  Club,  and 
various  friends  he  made,  including  Mr.  Hamilton,  the 

From  New  York  he  went  to  Philadelphia,  going  to 
church  in  Amboy,  New  Jersey,  on  the  way.  Philadelphia 
he  found  built  very  regularly  upon  rising  ground  on  the 
Delaware  Eiver.  "The  inhabitants  are  most  part  Qua 
kers,  and  they  have  several  good  meetings,  and  there  are 
also  some  English  churches."  He  had  a  letter  to  Mr, 
Samuel  Perez,  but  says  "He  had  no  service  for  me." 
Then  they  continued  the  overland  journey  to  Virginia, 
much  of  the  way  through  wild  territory,  in  which  they 
had  some  exciting  experiences  with  robbers. 

Then  Peter  his  brother  arrived  from  England,  and  the 
work  of  establishing  the  plantation  in  King  William 
County  proceeded.  Peter  was  a  preacher,  and  was  soon 
presented  to  Eoauoke  parish.  Another  brother,  James, 
with  his  family,  arrived  in  the  autumn  of  the  same  year, 
1717,  and  the  next  year  his  brother-in-law,  Mr.  Matthew 
Maury,  with  his  family,  completed  the  party.  All  had 
to  go  through  chills  and  fever  in  the  process  of  acclima- 


tization,  and  Peter  suffered  greatly  from  this  cause.     He 
returned  to  England  in  1719  for  a  visit. 


After  the  Fontaines  emigrated  to  Virginia,  they  were 
in  the  habit  of  meeting  annually,  to  hold  a  solemn  re- 
ligious  thanksgiving,  in  commemoration  of  their  remark-  Reunion 
able  preservation  when  attacked  by  French  privateers  in 
the  south  of  Ireland.  A  sermon  preached  by  Eev.  Peter 
Fontaine,  on  one  of  these  occasions,  is  preserved,  bearing 
date  of  1st  June,  1723,  text,  Eom.  15 : 5,  6.  His  three 
points  are  :  Firstly,  The  duty  here  enjoined,  that  is,  to 
glorify  God.  Secondly,  The  manner  of  performing  it, 
that  is,  with  one  mind  and  one  mouth.  And  Thirdly, 
Put  you  in  mind  of  your  high  obligations  to  comply  with 
this  duty,  not  only  because  of  the  signal  deliverance 
which  we  are  met  to  celebrate,  but  by  reason  of  that 
infinite  number  which  God  hath  vouchsafed  to  favour  us 
with  at  other  times,  no  less  worthy  of  our  remembrance 
and  thanks. 

A  distinguished  son  of  this  famous  family  was  Matthew 
Fontaine  Maury,  "The  Pathfinder  of  the  Seas."  He 
was  born  in  Spottsylvania  County  in  1806.  He  became  a 
midshipman  in  the  navy  at  nineteen,  but  his  career  as  an 
active  officer  was  cut  short  by  an  accident  which  lamed 
him  for  life.  After  that  he  devoted  himself  to  study,  and 
his  contributions  to  useful  knowledge  have  been  excelled 
by  those  of  no  man  of  his  time.  He  was  the  founder  of 
the  modern  science  of  hydrography.  His  great  work, 
i 'The  Physical  Geography  of  the  Sea,"  published  in 
1856,  made  him  at  once  world  famous ;  it  was  the  pio 
neer  venture  in  a  new  field,  and  though  new  facts  have 
been  and  will  be  added  to  our  store  of  knowledge  of  ocean 
winds  and  currents,  it  will  always  be  remembered  that 
Maury  "  blazed  the  trail."  He  was  the  first  to  plot  out 
the  path  of  the  Gulf  Stream  ;  he  originated  the  system  of  Deep  sea 
deep  sea  sounding  ;  he  was  the  first  to  suggest  the  laying  SoundlDg 

376        THE  FEENCH  BLOOD 


Ocean  Cables  of  oceanic  cables  ;  he  organized  the  system  of  crop  obser 
vation  which  has  proved  of  such  countless  value  ;  and  in 
a  hundred  other  ways  that  are  not  sensational  did  he 
labour  to  benefit  mankind.  If  sheer  usefulness  were  the 
universal  test  applied  to  greatness,  Matthew  Fontaine 
Maury,  next  to  George  Washington,  would  be  the  great 
est  Virginian. 




WHILE  in  one  sense  not  strictly  germane  to  our 
subject,  it  is  certainly  fitting  to  recognize  here  A  Most 
the   immeasurable    debt  of   gratitude  which  Val 
America  owes  to  France  for  the  aid  given  to  the  young 
Eepublic  in  its  War  for  Independence.     This  aid  it  was 
that  undoubtedly  enabled  us  to  gain  the  victory  that  put 
a  new  nation  on  the  world's  map  ;  a  nation  that  was  to 
be  the  first  to  set  the  example  of  true  democracy,  and  to 
start  that  great  idea  of  political  equality  which  during 
the  nineteenth  century  brought  the  people  of  nearly  every 
nation  in  Europe  to  a  consciousness  of  their  power,  and 
largely  to  their  rightful  place  in  government.     It  is  the 
judgment  of  most  historians  that  France  turned  the  scale 
in  favour  of  the  colonies  in  their  unequal  struggle.     It 
was  when  the  American  cause  was  seemingly  hopeless, 
when  there  was  no  national  credit,   that  France  gave 
recognition  and  espousal  to  our  cause.     It  matters  not 
what  were  the  controlling  motives  which  led  the  French 
government  to  take  the  American  side.     The  result  was 
in  the  interest  of  humanity  and  of  right. 

Not  only  did  the  French  government  give  recognition  Lafayette  the 
and  financial  aid  at  a  time  when  these  were  invaluable,    uSSiy f 
but  some  of  the  best  blood  of  France  came  over  to  render 



personal  assistance  in  the  field.  As  for  the  motives  that 
impelled  the  foremost  among  them,  the  young  and  gallant 
Marquis  de  Lafayette,  to  leave  courtly  luxury  and  ease 
for  camp  life  in  a  strange  land,  no  one  questions  their 
purity  and  unselfishness.  He  is  taken  at  his  own  words 
when  he  tells  us  his  u heart  was  enlisted"  when  he 
" heard  of  American  independence."  We  shall  not  for 
get  what  a  comfort  this  young  French  nobleman  was  to 
Washington,  who  needed  just  such  inspiration  and  com 
panionship  as  Lafayette  could  give.  Washington,  who 
was  not  given  to  overpraise,  said  of  him,  ' l  This  noble 
soldier  combines  all  the  military  fire  of  youth  with  an 
unusual  maturity  of  judgment."  The  American  com- 
mander-in-chief  relied  upon  this  French  officer  as  upon 
few  men,  and  the  friendship  between  them  was  one  of  the 
fine  outgrowths  of  the  war.  On  Lafayette's  side  there 
was  the  deference  and  courtesy  not  only  born  of  his  ex 
quisite  breeding,  but  of  an  intense  admiration  for  a  char 
acter  whose  greatness  he  appreciated  from  the  first ;  while 
Washington  also  found  much  to  admire  in  the  brilliant 
young  soldier  and  true  gentleman  who  was  as  devoted  as 
himself  to  the  cause  of  human  freedom.  More  than  once 
the  American  commander  had  reason  to  be  out  of  humour 
with  some  of  the  French  officers,  who  assumed  too  much 
by  reason  of  their  rank  at  home  ;  but  Lafayette  was  his 
comfort  and  dependence,  always  to  be  counted  upon  in 
an  emergency. 

thaefaFreenchn  After  the  war  Lafayette  continued  to  render  all  the  aid 
Revolution  in  his  power  to  the  Republic  he  had  helped  establish.  A 
man  of  influence  in  his  own  country,  he  co-operated  with 
the  American  diplomats,  and  was  a  steadfast  friend  until 
France  came  to  her  Revolution,  and  his  hopes  for  such 
liberty  there  as  the  American  Republic  knew  seemed  for 
ever  blasted.  A  recent  writer l  gives  an  account  of  the 
later  years  of  Lafayette's  life,  and  of  the  honours  paid  to 

1  Augustus  E.  Ingram,  deputy  consul  of  the  United  States  in  Paris. 


his  memory  by  Americans.  "  When  we  visit  the  grave 
of  Lafayette  in  the  remote  and  obscure  little  burying 
ground  of  the  Dames  Blanches,  in  the  eastern  fringe  of 
Paris,"  he  says,  "  we  are  reminded  of  the  sad,  dark 
years  that  came  later  in  his  life,  and  the  unpretentious 
tomb  of  his  wife,  close  beside  her  husband's,  tells  of  her 
heroic  share  in  his  sufferings. ' ' 


Soon  after  Lafayette's  return  to  France,  the  Revolution 
broke  forth,  and  he  took  an  active  part  in  it.  But  he 
was  too  republican  to  suit  the  aristocrats  and  too  moder 
ate  to  suit  the  revolutionists.  Denounced  by  the  Jacobins, 
he  was  obliged  to  flee  from  France,  but  was  captured  by 
the  Austrians,  and  confined  in  the  damp,  dark  dungeons 
of  Olmutz.  Meanwhile  in  Paris  the  Eeign  of  Terror  was 
running  its  course.  Among  its  victims  was  Madame  de  Heroism  of 
Lafayette,  who  was  thrown  into  prison,  partly  because 
she  was  the  daughter  of  the  Duke  d'  Ay  en,  partly  because 
she  refused  to  disown  her  husband.  Still  more  terrible 
was  the  fate  of  her  mother  and  sister,  who  perished  under 
the  guillotine.  The  scene  of  their  execution  is  not  far 
from  the  spot  where  Lafayette  lies  buried. 

After  the  downfall  and  death  of  Eobespierre,  Madame 
de  Lafayette  was  released  and  soon  succeeded  in  finding 
her  husband's  Austrian  prison.  Refused  permission  to 
see  him  unless  she  shared  his  captivity,  she  accepted 
heroically  these  harsh  terms.  The  damp,  unwholesome 
dungeon  soon  seriously  affected  her  health,  but  as  she 
could  only  escape  at  the  cost  of  separation  from  her  hus 
band,  she  declined  to  leave,  preferring  to  sacrifice  her 
life.  When  the  devoted  pair  had  endured  five  years 
of  imprisonment,  Napoleon  secured  their  release,  but 
Madame  de  Lafayette  was  liberated  only  in  time  to  die  a 
free  woman.  In  1815  Louis  XVIII  granted  to  the 
families  of  the  victims  of  the  Revolution  the  right  to  be 
buried  near  their  martyred  relatives.  Thus  the  little 



Tribute  of 

cemetery  of  the  Dames  Blanches  came  into  existence,  since 
it  was  near  the  old  quarry  where  thirteen  hundred  vic 
tims  were  buried,  and  there  Madame  de  Lafayette's  body 
was  placed.  Later  her  noble  husband  was  laid  by  her 
side,  and  their  son,  George  Washington  Lafayette,  is 
buried  near  by. 

America  does  not  forget  Lafayette.  His  name  lives  in 
our  history  closely  associated  with  that  of  the  great 
American  chief  whom  he  venerated.  As  Decoration  Day 
rolls  around  each  year,  Americans  in  Paris  make  a  pil 
grimage  to  the  little  cemetery  and  place  flowers  upon  the 
tomb  of  the  hero,  and  words  of  appreciation  are  spoken. 
In  our  own  country  there  are  statues  of  him  in  the 
public  squares  of  many  of  our  large  cities.  Nor  are 
there  wanting  tokens  of  American  appreciation  in  the 
French  capital  itself.  In  the  quiet,  picturesque  little 
Place  des  Mats-  Unis  (Place  or  Square  of  the  United 
States),  under  the  shady  chestnut  trees,  stands  a  beautiful 
bronze  group  by  Bartholdi,  the  same  French  sculptor  who 
designed  the  colossal  statue  of  "  Liberty  Enlightening 
the  World,"  which  graces  New  York  harbour,  represent 
ing  Washington  and  Lafayette,  hand  in  hand,  with  the 
flags  of  the  two  republics  entwined,  and  an  inscription 
reading : 

"  Hommage  a  la  France,  en  reconnaissance  de  son  genereux 
concours  dans  la  lutte  du  peuple  des  Mats-  Unis  pour  V  Inde- 
pendance  et  la  Liberte." 

(Homage  to  France,  in  recognition  of  her  generous  aid 
in  the  struggle  of  the  people  of  the  United  States  for  in 
dependence  and  liberty.) 


Some  years  ago  some  five  million  school  children  of 
America  contributed  their  pennies  for  the  erection  of  an 
other  statue  of  Lafayette  in  Paris.  The  French  govern 
ment  gave  a  site  in  the  gardens  of  the  Louvre,  and  during 
the  summer  of  the  exposition  of  1900  the  unveiling  of  a 


staff  model  of  the  proposed  statue  was  made  the  occasion 
of  great  rejoicing  and  the  manifestation  of  friendship 
between  the  sister  republics.  Paul  Waj^land  Bartlett, 
an  American  sculptor,  was  commissioned  to  design  the 
statue,  and  most  effectively  he  has  executed  his  work. 

While  Lafayette  was  by  no  means  the  only  Frenchman 
who  served  in  the  Rebellion,  his  is  the  conspicuous  name, 
as  his  was  the  most  consecrated  spirit,  and  it  is  not  nec 
essary  to  particularize  concerning  others.  They  were  all 
brave  and  competent  men,  who  were  astonished  at  the 
quality  of  manhood  they  found  in  the  little-trained  and 
half -equipped  colonials,  every  one  of  whom  had  imbibed 
the  spirit  of  independence,  and  was  able  to  fight  on  his 
own  initiative  when  necessary,  instead  of  being  military 
puppets  like  the  ordinary  European  soldier. 

It  is  one  of  the  strange  providences  of  history  that  the 
nation  which  thrust  forth  its  Protestant  citizens  and  thus 
weakened  itself  immeasurably  among  the  world  powers, 
should  have  been  the  means  of  materially  assisting  in  the 
establishment  of  the  greatest  Protestant  nation  and  one 
of  the  foremost  world  powers.  Roman  Catholicism  could 
drive  out  of  France  her  best  people,  but  it  could  not 
plant  successful  and  permanent  colonies  in  America,  nor 
long  keep  advantages  momentarily  gained.  Nor  is  the 
day  far  distant,  if  the  signs  of  the  times  count  for  any 
thing,  when  France  will  read  the  lessons  of  her  own  his 
tory,  and  secure  her  own  future  by  becoming  a  land 
where  religious  liberty  shall  be  as  dearly  prized  as  in  our 
own.  That  will  mean  a  Protestant  nation  as  the  only 
progressive  one. 

While  the  noble  Lafayette,  who  rendered  such  ines-   Lafayette  a 
timable  service  to  the  cause  of  American  liberty,  was  not 
of  Huguenot  blood  or  creed,  he  was  nevertheless  in  sym-  ants 
pathy  with  the  cause  of  religious  liberty,  and  became  its 
advocate  at  a  critical  period.     When  he  had  returned  to 
France,  crowned  with  the  laurels  he  had  won   in  the 
American  struggle  for  independence,  and  imbued  with 


the  spirit  of  the  American  people,  he  was  stirred  at  the 
condition  of  affairs  in  the  homeland,  and  at  once  became 
a  zealous  pleader  for  the  oppressed  Huguenots.  He  ar 
gued  with  all  his  eloquence  the  right  of  the  Protestants 
at  least  to  be  permitted  to  marry  and  to  die  according  to 
their  faith.  His  efforts  were  not  successful  at  that  time, 
but,  true  to  his  high  character,  he  cared  nothing  for  the 
obloquy  which  his  stand  brought  upon  him  from  the  ec 
clesiastics.  It  is  probable  that  he  would  have  gained  the 
amount  of  liberty  he  sought  for  the  Protestants  had  not 
the  clergy  exhorted  the  king  in  opposition.  Not  daunted 
at  this  failure,  Lafayette  again  in  the  Assembly  of  Nota 
bles  pleaded  for  the  heretics,  and  was  now  more  favourably 
listened  to.  He  was  even  seconded  in  his  just  and  fair 
propositions  by  the  Bishop  de  Langres,  and  a  petition  was 
civil  Rightp  presented  to  the  king.  As  a  result  an  edict  was  regis 
tered  which  secured  the  Protestants  in  their  civil  rela 
tions,  after  nearly  two  centuries  of  bloodshed.  The  bigots 
of  course  denounced  the  bishop  as  anti- Christ,  and  spared 
no  abuse  or  defamation  of  Lafayette  for  using  his  domi 
nant  influence  to  secure  this  act  of  simple  justice.  After 
the  Eevolution,  which  was  the  inevitable  outcome  of  con 
ditions  that  had  made  such  continued  persecution  of  the 
Huguenots  possible  in  France,  Napoleon  granted  religious 
toleration,  although  Roman  Catholicism  remained  as  the 
State  Church.  After  another  century,  in  which  the 
church  has  been  as  of  old  the  enemy  of  political  and  re 
ligious  liberty,  the  French  government  has  broken  with 
Eome,  and  the  Eepublic  will  probably  see  to  it  that  re 
ligious  liberty  shall  henceforth  be  actual,  and  every  form 
of  religious  persecution  cease. 


NEXT  to  the  debt  America  owes  France  for  her  A  Rich  and 
aid  in  the  Revolution  is  the  gratitude  due  her 
Emperor  Napoleon  for  the  sale  of  the  Louisiana 
territory  to  the  United  States.  While  the  first  aid  helped 
us  put  a  new  nation  on  the  map,  it  was  the  second  that 
enabled  us  to  own  territory  that  was  indispensable  to  the 
United  States  if  she  was  to  be  the  predominant  power  on 
the  American  continent.  Until  that  purchase  our  gov 
ernment  was  hemmed  in  on  all  sides.  England  had  Can 
ada  on  the  north,  and  was  likely  very  soon  to  take  from 
France  the  Louisiana  territory  just  as  she  had  taken 
from  France  her  Canadian  possessions.  With  England 
in  possession  of  this  great  section  on  our  western  boun 
dary,  with  Spain  still  on  the  south  and  in  the  far  west,  it 
would  have  been  easy  for  England  to  gain  the  ascendancy 
on  the  continent  after  all,  and  the  United  States  would 
have  covered  but  a  small  portion  of  the  North  American 

We  must  realize  this  in  order  to  estimate  what  vast 
service  Napoleon  rendered  us  when  for  his  own  selfish 
purposes  he  consummated  the  Louisiana  Purchase  for  a 
sum  amazingly  small  in  comparison  with  the  value  of  the 
territory.  He  needed  money,  it  is  true,  and  twenty-two 
millions  were  something.  The  amount  indeed  loomed 
large  to  the  American  commissioners,  who  were  not  au 
thorized  to  enter  into  any  such  financial  engagement. 
But  it  was  not  the  money  that  chiefly  influenced  Napo 
leon.  He  had  good  reason  to  believe  that  England  would 
soon  drive  out  the  French  and  seize  the  territory,  and  he 
desired  to  have  the  United  States  rather  than  England 



The  Greatest 
Land  Sale  in 

The  Field 

enter  into  possession  of  it.  It  is  an  interesting  fact  that 
he  was  doubtless  influenced  in  his  decision  by  Marbois, 
one  of  the  two  commissioners  whom  he  appointed  to  treat 
with  the  American  representatives.  Marbois  had  an 
American  wife,  and  he  radically  favoured  the  sale  ;  while 
Talleyrand  as  vigorously  opposed  it. 

By  this  purchase,  the  most  stupendous  land  transfer  in 
history,  the  United  States  was  placed  in  position  subse 
quently  to  acquire  the  Spanish  region,  and  thus  to  gain 
its  present  territorial  proportions.  There  are  now  four 
teen  populous  and  prosperous  states  of  the  Union  com 
prised  within  this  section,  which  includes  a  large  part  of 
the  world's  granary.  Jefferson  did  buy  a  wilderness,  but 
it  has  been  made  to  blossom  as  the  rose.  Prosperous  and 
populous  cities  and  towns  exist  where  in  1803  nature  and 
the  savage  held  sway,  and  the  "  wilderness ' ?  contains 
nearly  one-fifth  of  the  80,000,000  of  our  people.  There 
are  three  times  as  many  people  in  the  Louisiana  Purchase 
now  as  there  were  in  the  whole  United  States  when  the 
sale  was  completed,  and  the  centre  of  population  as  of  po 
litical  and  industrial  power  is  fast  moving  towards  the 
Mississippi.  The  state  of  Missouri  alone  has  more  peo 
ple  than  the  thirteen  colonies  had  when  they  won  their 
independence.  St.  Louis,  a  single  city,  has  more  inhab 
itants  to-day  than  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Boston,  and 
all  other  cities  of  the  country  put  together  in  1800.  Then 
think  of  such  centres  of  wealth,  industry  and  culture  as 
Denver,  Omaha,  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis,  Sioux  City, 
Kansas  City,  with  the  host  of  smaller  but  not  less  pro 
gressive  cities  and  towns. 

Such  has  been  the  field  opened  up  to  commerce  and  in 
dustry.  Under  the  homestead  laws  a  vast  number  of 
immigrants  swept  into  this  region,  in  addition  to  the 
thousands  attracted  from  the  eastern  section.  When  we 
realize  that  other  nations  have  furnished  us  with  22,000,- 
000  of  their  people  since  1820,  and  16,000,000  of  these 
since  1862,  the  year  in  which  President  Lincoln  signed 


the  significant  homestead  act,  we  shall  see  what  a  complex 
population  has  to  be  dealt  with  in  the  Louisiana  Pur 
chase,  as  well  as  in  the  great  cities  of  our  land.  But  for 
tunately,  the  assimilation  of  foreign  elements  is  far  easier 
and  quicker  on  the  prairies  than  in  the  cities.  While  it 
is  true  that  in  the  Louisiana  Purchase  there  is  the  great 
est  number  of  languages  heard  anywhere,  and  that  a  large 
percentage  of  the  population  in  the  various  states  had  its 
nativity  in  other  countries,  it  is  also  true  that  nowhere 
else  could  be  found  such  rapid  Americanization  of  all 
these  diverse  elements. 

And  here  once  more  we  note  the  overrulings  of  Provi-   Protestantism 

^ Dominant 

dence.  This  Louisiana  Purchase  was  opened  up  to  civ 
ilization  by  the  Jesuit  missionaries  who  made  their  way 
down  the  Mississippi,  bent  on  converting  the  Indians  and 
establishing  a  new  France,  Roman  Catholic  and  free  from 
any  Protestant  taint,  in  America.  Many  of  these  pioneers 
were  brave  and  self-sacrificing  men,  who  gave  their  lives 
for  the  cause.  But  every  attempt  to  keep  out  the  Protes 
tants  failed  :  and  it  was  with  the  opening  of  the  region  to 
the  same  religious  light  and  liberty  enjoyed  in  the  older 
states  that  progress  came  and  a  new  civilization.  As 
with  Eoman  Catholic  France,  so  with  Eoman  Catholic 
Spain.  Neither  nation  found  it  possible  to  keep  the 
advantage  gained  by  priority  of  possession ;  both  were 
gradually  conquered  and  compelled  to  withdraw  before 
the  Anglo-Saxon,  who  represented  in  religion  the  very 
antipodes  of  the  spirit  of  the  Latin  and  Eoman  Catholic 
peoples.  In  this  he  who  will  may  see  the  hand  of  God, 
working  out  human  destiny  along  the  lines  of  true  relig 
ious  and  political  liberty.  Since  Protestantism  is  demo 
cratic  in  its  essential  principles,  it  must  prevail  in  a 
democracy.  Autocracy  in  America  is  no  more  possible 
in  religion  than  in  government. 


Patriots  in         T  T  was  perhaps  natural  that  the  French  Protestants 
who  came  to  America  should  be  favourable  to  Free- 


masonry,  this  being  an  institution  that  had  been  put 
under  the  ban  by  the  same  Eoman  Catholic  Church  which 
had  so  bitterly  oppressed  them  and  driven  them  into 
exile.  Aside  from  this,  there  was  everything  in  the  spirit 
of  the  ancient  fraternity  that  would  appeal  to  them. 
Hence  there  are  many  names  of  distinguished  Huguenot 
families  in  the  Masonic  rolls  of  the  period  of  the  Eevolu- 
tion,  as  in  the  rolls  of  later  days. 

Freemasonry  in  this  country  early  took  high  rank  from 
the  character  of  the  leaders  who  wore  the  lambskin  apron. 
It  was  enough  to  establish  its  worth  in  the  estimation  of 
multitudes  that  George  Washington  was  a  Freemason  and 
was  proud  of  the  fact.  He  was  not  alone  in  this  regard 
among  the  leaders  during  the  Eevolutionary  period. 
Albert  Gallatin,  Paul  Eevere,  the  Boston  patriot,  General 
Joseph  Warren,  who  fell  at  Bunker  Hill,  Francis  Marion, 
the  intrepid  South  Carolina  cavalryman,  DeSaussure,  and 
many  others  of  equal  patriotism  and  loyalty,  were  mem 
bers  of  the  order.  The  French  officers,  who  came  to  aid 
in  our  struggle  for  Independence,  under  the  lead  of  the 
noble  Lafayette,  in  most  instances  became  Freemasons 
while  here.  General  Lafayette,  with  his  son,  George 
Washington  Lafayette,  and  his  companion,  Colonel  La 
Vasseur,  all  Freemasons,  visited  Fredericksburg,  Vir 
ginia,  November  27,  1824.  This  visit  was  made  the  oc 
casion  of  a  grand  reception.  The  general  was  escorted 
into  the  town  by  hundreds  of  mounted  militia,  with  mar- 



tial  music,  amid  the  greatest  display  and  wildest  enthusi 
asm  on  the  part  of  the  people.  On  the  following  day, 
Lafayette  was  made  an  honourary  member  of  the  Freder- 
icksburg  Lodge,  which  was  organized  in  1752.  This 
lodge  has  the  honour  of  being  General  George  Washing 
ton's  "  Parent  Lodge,"  and  the  records  state  that  on  the 
fourth  day  of  November,  A.  L.,  5752,  the  "  light  of 
Freemasonry  "  first  burst  upon  his  sight.  Visitors  to  the 
library  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts,  A.  F.  & 
A.  M.,  in  the  Masonic  Temple,  Boston,  look  with  deep 
interest  upon  the  Masonic  relics  treasured  there.  Among 
them  is  a  Masonic  apron  worn  by  the  Marquis  de  Lafay 
ette  at  the  laying  of  the  corner-stone  of  the  Bunker  Hill 
Monument,  June  17,  1825.  Thus,  among  the  other  at 
tachments  which  bound  the  gallant  Frenchman  so  closely 
to  Washington  were  the  ties  of  Masonic  brotherhood. 
Another  apron  to  be  seen  in  the  Temple,  is  one  that  was 
worn  by  General  Oliver,  of  Boston,  at  a  lodge  meeting 
when  General  Washington  was  present. 

It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  the  French  Lodge,  Lodge 
UAmenite,  in  Philadelphia,  was  the  first  to  hold  a  lodge 
of  sorrow  in  this  country,  and  did  so  upon  the  death  of 
Washington  in  December,  1799.  This  French  Lodge  was 
chartered  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania,  and  in 
cluded  in  its  membership  a  large  number  of  Huguenot 
descendants,  one  of  whom,  Simon  Chaudron,  delivered 
before  the  lodge  a  funeral  oration  on  George  Washington, 
on  January  1,  1800.  He  said  in  part : 

A  new  spectacle  bursts  on  the  eye  of  philosophy.     The  whole  uni-    oration  on 
verse  perhaps,  for  the  first  time,  will  unite  in  offering  a  tribute  of    Washington 
gratitude  to  the  memory  of  a  mortal     .     .     .     the  modest  Hero, 
whom  impartial  truth  this  day  proclaims  the  defender  of  the  human 
race.     .     .     .     He  took  up  arms  only  for  the  defense  of  the  soil  that 
gave  him  birth,  and  only  to  prevent  its  devastation.     It  was  without 
doubt  that,  then  fighting  against  Frenchmen,  he  learnt  what  powerful 
aid  might  be  derived  from  that  brave  and  generous  nation  for  the  es 
tablishment  of  liberty  in  the  new  world.     ...     To  us  Frenchmen, 


who  have  been  so  kindly  received  on  these  peaceful  shores,  it  belongs 
to  pay  distinguished  respect  to  the  wisdom  of  the  Hero  whom  we  de 
plore  ;  we,  whom  cruel  fate  has  torn  from  our  homes,  without  suffer 
ing  us  to  carry  away  anything  but  tears  and  our  innocence,  to  interest 
the  pity  of  mankind,  should  ever  hold  him  in  grateful  remembrance. 


Modern  Freemasonry  owes  more  than   is  commonly 
known  to  the  Huguenot  blood.     The  records  show  that 
the  four  "  Immemorial  Lodges,"  which  established  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  England,  June  24,  1717,  had  for  their 
Grand  Lodge     leading  spirits  James  Anderson,  a  Scotch  Presbyterian 
1717  minister  of  London,  and  John  Theophilus  Desaguliers, 

LL.  D. ,  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  a  French  Huguenot,  and 
the  son  of  a  clergyman.  He  was  a  Fellow  of  the  Eoyal 
Society,  and  engaged  so  earnestly  in  the  "revival"  and 
promotion  of  Freemasonry  that  he  deserves  the  title  of 
"  The  father  of  modern  speculative  Freemasonry."  The 
present  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  which  was  instituted  in 
London  in  1717,  is  largely  indebted  to  him  for  its  exist 
ence.  In  1719  Desaguliers  was  elevated  to  the  throne  of 
the  Grand  Lodge.  He  did  much  to  make  Freemasonry  a 
living  institution  for  the  good  of  humanity,  and  his  learn 
ing  and  social  position  gave  a  prominence  to  the  order 
which  brought  to  its  support  noblemen  and  other  men  of 
influence.  With  others  he  instituted  the  l '  Plan  of 
Charity,"  which  was  subsequently  developed  into  what  is 
now  known  in  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  as  the  "Fund 
of  Benevolence."  It  was  from  the  union  of  these  four 
lodges  that  the  Fraternity  spread  into  Scotland  and  Ire 
land  and  then  to  the  Continent — France,  Germany  and 
Italy.  In  Germany,  Frederick  the  Great  became  Grand 
Master  and  constituted  lodges.  In  Italy,  the  affiliation 
with  Freemasonry  of  the  great  leaders,  Garibaldi,  Cavour, 
Mazzini  and  Victor  Emmanuel,  who  were  active  in  the 
abolition  of  the  temporal  power  of  the  papacy  and  the 
establishment  of  the  kingdom  of  Italy,  was  one  of  the 


facts  which  caused  a  renewal  of  the  attacks  of  the  Eoman 
Catholic  Church  upon  Freemasonry. 


America  was  frontiered  and  bulwarked  with  the  spirit  The  order  in 
of  Freemasonry.  A  recent  writer  says  :  i  l  Out  from  its  Am 
living  heart  sprung  those  principles  and  sentiments  of 
true  liberty  and  impartial  laws  which  led  to  the  formula 
tion  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  Our  Eevolu- 
tionary  fathers  held  Freemasonry  as  their  Egeria.  Its 
fires  purified  their  patriotic  hearts.  Franklin  shed  the 
luster  of  his  glowing  name  upon  it.  It  actuated  the 
spirit  of  Paul  Eevere  on  his  midnight  ride,  and  its  im 
passioned  voice  swelled  from  Bunker  Hill  to  Mount 
Vernon  in  links  of  fraternal  patriotism.  Very  many  of  Freemasons 
the  generals  of  the  American  Eevolution  were  Brothers  of 
the  Mystic  Tie.  Many  of  those  distinguished  men  who 
signed  the  Declaration  of  Independence  and  the  Constitu 
tion  of  the  United  States  were  members  of  the  Fraternity. 
The  important  part  Freemasonry  played  in  the  struggle 
for  liberty,  and  the  debt  of  gratitude  our  glorious  Ee- 
public  owes  to  the  Fraternity,  are  to-day  little  known  out 
side  the  Craft,  and  but  vaguely  comprehended  by  the 
rank  and  file  within  it.  Its  principles  were  woven  into 
the  warp  and  woof  of  our  Constitution.  The  name  of 
Washington  stands  out  in  bold  relief  on  the  Masonic 
roster  of  the  United  States.  He  was  a  type  of  the  order 
which  numbers  among  its  members  the  best  and  noblest 
in  the  world." 

One  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  Freemasonry  is  Freemasonry 
that  of  religious  liberty.  Out  of  this  principle  grows  the 
absolute  separation  of  Church  and  State  which  is  a  fun 
damental  principle  of  our  government.  It  is  this  prin 
ciple  which  has  called  down  upon  Freemasonry  the  papal 
decrees,  which  forbid  any  Eoman  Catholic  to  join  this 
Fraternity  on  penalty  of  excommunication.  The  spirit  of 
Freemasonry  is  exactly  that  of  the  French  Protestants  and 


In  Defense  of 


Liberty  of 
Conscience  a 

the  English  Puritans  and  Pilgrims — the  spirit  that 
founded  our  free  Eepublic,  in  which  freedom  of  conscience 
is  recognized.  Here  there  is  not  merely  toleration  for  the 
varying  religious  views,  but  in  matters  of  opinion  all  are 
free  and  equal.  Hence  there  has  been  a  close  union  be 
tween  Protestantism  and  Freemasonry— both  standing  for 
civil  and  religious  liberty  and  the  rights  of  man. 

One  of  the  strong  defenses  of  Freemasonry  was  called 
forth  by  the  Encyclical  Letter  of  Pope  Leo  XIII  against 
u  Freemasonry  and  the  Spirit  of  the  Age,"  dated  April 
20,  1884.  The  unwarranted  charges  made  in  this  official 
letter  against  Freemasonry  were  answered  by  "  A  Eeply 
of  Freemasonry  in  behalf  of  Humanity,"  from  the  Su 
preme  Council,  thirty-third  degree,  of  the  Ancient 
Accepted  Scottish  Eite  of  Freemasonry,  for  the  Southern 
Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  of  America,  through 
Albert  Pike,  Grand  Commander.  We  quote  from  his 
Allocution  these  forcible  words  : 

If  the  Encyclical  Letter  of  Leo  XIII,  entitled,  from  its  opening 
words,  Humanus  Genus,  had  been  nothing  more  than  a  denunciation  of 
Freemasonry,  I  should  not  have  thought  it  worth  replying  to.  But 
under  the  guise  of  a  condemnation  of  Freemasonry,  and  a  recital  of 
the  enormities  and  immoralities  of  the  order,  in  some  respects  so  ab 
surdly  false  as  to  be  ludicrous,  notwithstanding  its  malignity,  it 
proved  to  be  a  declaration  of  war,  and  the  signal  for  a  crusade,  against 
the  rights  of  men  individually  and  of  communities  of  men  as  organ 
isms  ;  against  the  separation  of  Church  and  State,  and  the  confinement 
of  the  church  within  the  limits  of  its  legitimate  functions  ;  against 
education  free  from  sectarian  influences ;  against  the  great  doctrine 
upon  which,  as  upon  a  rock  not  to  be  shaken,  the  foundations  of  our 
Republic  rest,  that  "men  are  superior  to  institutions  and  not  institu 
tions  to  men  " ;  against  the  right  of  the  people  to  depose  oppressive, 
cruel  and  worthless  rulers  ;  against  the  exercise  of  the  rights  of  free 
thought  and  free  speech,  and  against,  not  only  republican,  but  all  con 
stitutional  government. 

In  the  eye  of  the  Papacy  it  is  a  crime  to  belong  to  an  Order  thus 
constituted  requiring  only  belief  in  God  and  immortality,  and  allow 
ing  full  liberty  of  conscience  in  religious  belief ;  and  this  the  letter  of 
Pope  Leo  preaches  to  Roman  Catholics  living  in  a  Republic,  the  very 


corner-stone  of  which  is  religious  toleration,  and  which  was  peopled  in 
large  measure,  at  first,  by  Puritans,  Quakers,  Church  of  England  men, 
and  Huguenots. 

The  gist  of  the  Pope's  charge,  and  the  reason  for  chief  dread  of  its 
spread  among  Roman  Catholics,  may  be  found  in  the  statement  of  the 
Encyclical,  that  Freemasonry  exerts  itself  for  this  purpose,  that  the 
rule  of  the  Church  should  be  of  no  weight,  that  its  authority  should  be 
as  nothing  in  the  State ;  and  for  this  reason  they  everywhere  assert 
and  insist  that  sacred  and  civil  ought  to  be  wholly  distinct.  By  this 
they  exclude  the  most  wholesome  virtue  of  the  Roman  Catholic  relig 
ion  from  the  laws  and  administration  of  a  country ;  and  the  conse 
quence  is  that  they  think  whole  States  ought  to  be  constituted  outside 
of  the  institutes  and  precepts  of  the  church. 

In  other  words,  the  Roman  Church  protests  against  that  fundamen 
tal  principle  of  constitutional  government,  dear  above  almost  all  else 
to  the  people  of  the  United  States,  that  Church  and  State  should  act 
each  within  its  proper  sphere,  and  that  with  the  civil  government  and 
political  administration  of  affairs  the  Church  should  have  nothing  to 
do.  The  people  of  the  United  States  do  not  propose  to  argue  that  with 
the  Church  of  Rome. 


The  first  permanent  foothold  of  Freemasonry  in  North   First  Lodge  in 
America  was  made  in  the  town  of  Boston,  Mass. ,  in  the  l 
year  1733.     It  was  then  that  under  a  dispensation  issued 
by  the  Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  to 
Henry  Price,  Esq.,  of  Boston,  the  First  Lodge  of  Boston 
and  the  Saint  John's  Grand  Lodge  were  instituted. 

The  records  of  the  First  Lodge — now  called  St.  John's 
Lodge — and  of  the  other  early  lodges  in  Boston,  disclose 
a  large  number  of  Huguenot  names.  The  following 
names  of  brethren,  evidently  of  Huguenot  blood,  are 
drawn  from  the  lists  of  members  of  St.  John's  lodge,  with 
the  year  of  taking  membership  affixed. 

Philip  Audibert,  1741.  Nicholas  Faucon,  1805. 

Belthazar  Bayard,  1748.  Thomas  J.  Gruchy,  1742. 

Francis  Beteilhe,  1734.  Francis  Johonot,  1742. 

Nathaniel  Bethune,  1736.  William  Joy,  1742. 

John  Boutin,  1743.  Gabriel  Johonot,  1780. 

Samuel  Cazeneau,  1800.  John  Joy,  1762. 


Lewis  DeBlois,  1753. 

Stephen  DeBlois,  1737. 

Alexander  Delavoux,  1739. 

Lewis  Dolobartz,  1744. 

Philip  Duraaresque,  1764. 

Thomas  Durfey,  1740. 

Peter  Fabre,  1780. 

Nicholas  Farritoe,  1748. 

Louis  A.  Lauriat, 
James  Montier, 
John  Nappier, 
John  Odin, 
Andrew  Oliver, 
Francis  J.  Oliver, 
Peter  Oliver, 
Thomas  Vavasour, 


Luke  Vardy,  1734. 

Lodge  of 
St.  Andrew 
Boston  1756 

Francis  J.  Oliver,  1800,  was  a  Harvard  graduate,  an 
eminent  merchant  and  banker,  a  member  of  the  Legisla 
ture,  and  president  of  the  American  Insurance  Company 
and  of  the  City  Bank.  He  was  M.  W.  Grand  Master  of 
Masons  in  Massachusetts  during  three  years,  1817-1819. 

The  Lodge  of  St.  Andrew,  in  Boston,  was  chartered  by 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  Scotland  in  1756.  The  lists  of  mem 
bers  of  this  Lodge  present  the  names  of  many  members 
of  Huguenot  blood,  among  whom  are  the  following  : 

Isaiah  Audibert,  1777. 

John  Boit,  1780. 

Gibbons  Bouv6,  1773. 

Edward  Cailleteau,  1763. 

Isaac  DeCosta,  1756. 

John  DeCosta,  1768. 

William  Darracott,  1766. 

Moses  Deshon,  1761. 

George  DeFrance,  1782. 

Philip  Lewis,  1757. 

Philip  Marett,  1762. 

Benjamin  Mayhew,  1769. 

Robert  Molineux,  1793. 

Peter  Nogues,  Jr.,  1766. 
Israel  Obear,  1761. 

James  Oliver,  1782. 

Thomas  Oliver.  1776. 

William  Palfrey,  1761. 
St.  DeMertino  Pry,  1779. 
Col.  Henry  Purkitt 

(Purruquet),  1799. 

Paul  Revere,  1761. 

Rev.  James  Sabine,  1823. 
Andrew  Sigourney,  1766. 
Andrew  Sigourney,  1794. 
Elisha  Sigourney,  1",89. 


In  this  Lodge's  records  appears  the  name  of  Fosdick, 
1768,  which  links  the  author's  family  with  the  Huguenot 
exiles,  and  in  some  measure  explains  his  personal  interest 
in  the  subject  of  which  this  volume  treats. 

It  is  a  noteworthy  fact  that  Andrew  Sigourney,  1794, 
was  the  founder  of  the  first  benevolent  fund  of  its  kind 


established  by  Freemasons.  When  he  was  Grand  Treas 
urer  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts,  1810-19,  he 
gave  his  last  year's  salary,  amounting  to  one  hundred 
and  seventy  dollars,  to  found  a  Charity  Fund  for  the 
Fraternity,  to  be  used  for  the  benefit  of  its  members,  or 
of  widows  and  orphans,  in  case  of  need. 

The  name  of  Paul  Revere  is  as  familiar  to  the  Paul  Revere 
present  generation  as  household  words.  His  Masonic 
career  began  in  the  Lodge  of  St.  Andrew  in  1761.  In 
1782  he  was  a  charter  member  of  a  new  Lodge  which 
took  the  name  of  "  Rising  States."  He  was  Grand  Mas 
ter  of  Masons  in  Massachusetts  for  three  years,  1795-1797, 
during  which  time  he  signed  the  charters  of  twenty- 
three  new  Lodges,  all  of  which  are  now  in  existence  ex 
cept  two. 

Of  Paul  Revere  as  a  Freemason,  this  is  said  by  Charles 
Ferris  Gettemy,  in  The  True  Story  of  Paul  Revere,  just 
issued  :  "  In  none  of  the  civic  activities  of  the  time  was 
he  more  prominent  than  in  the  affairs  of  the  Masonic  fra 
ternity.  One  of  the  most  eminent  and  widely  known 
Masons  of  the  Revolutionary  era,  he,  in  the  lan 
guage  of  a  Masonic  eulogist  (G.  Ellis  Reed,  W.  M.  of 
Revere  Lodge),  t  served  his  country  and  his  beloved  Fra 
ternity  with  a  spirit  that  should  inspire  every  Brother  ; 
a  spirit  composed  of  the  three  great  essentials,  freedom, 
fervency,  and  zeal.'  i  In  the  Green  Dragon  Tavern/  says 
E.  Bentley  Young  in  his  oration  at  the  Centennial  cele 
bration  of  Columbian  Lodge  in  1895,  i  where  he  first  saw 
Masonic  light,  he  met  his  patriotic  Brethren  in  secrecy  to 
devise  means  for  impeding  the  operations  of  the  British, 
then  in  possession  of  the  city.  Masonry  and  patriotism 
were  identified  in  his  person  and  in  those  of  his  compa 
triots  who  met  him  in  retirement.' 

"  Entering  Masonry  through  St.  Andrew's  Lodge,  Sep 
tember  4,  1760,  he  maintained  a  zealous  interest  in  the 


affairs  of  the  fraternity  for  the  remainder  of  his  life,  fill 
ing  the  high  office  of  Grand  Master  of  the  Massachusetts 
Grand  Lodge  in  1795,  1796,  and  1797.  One  of  the  most 
picturesque  ceremonials  of  his  career,  and  indeed  of  the 
early  years  of  the  constitutional  history  of  Massachusetts, 
occurred  during  the  first  term  of  his  grand  mastership  : 
the  laying  of  the  corner-stone  of  the  new  State  House — 
the  l  Bullfinch  front '  as  it  was  called  in  later  years — on 
Beacon  Hill.  The  authorities  having  requested  the 
Masonic  Order  to  participate  in  the  dedication  exercises, 
the  various  lodges  assembled  in  the  Bepresentatives'  Hall 
of  the  Old  State  House  on  State  Street,  and,  with  the 
state  officials,  marched  to  the  Old  South  Meeting  House, 
where  an  oration  appropriate  to  the  occasion  was  deliv 
ered  by  George  Blake.  These  exercises  over,  the  proces 
sion  re-formed  and  marched  to  Beacon  Hill.  Arriving 
at  the  site  of  the  new  capitol,  the  stone,  being  duly 
squared,  levelled,  and  plumbed,  Governor  Samuel  Adams 
made  a  brief  address,  to  which  Grand  Master  Bevere  for 
the  Masons  responded  : 

"  '  Worshipfull  Brethren.  I  congratulate  you  on  this  auspicious  day; 
— when  the  Arts  and  Sciences  are  establishing  themselves  in  our  happy 
country,  a  Country  distinguished  from  the  rest  of  the  World,  by  being 
a  Government  of  Laws,  where  Liberty  has  found  a  safe  and  secure 
abode,  and  where  her  sons  are  determined  to  support  and  protect  her. 
Brethren,  we  are  called  this  day  by  our  honourable  &  patriotic  Gov 
ernor,  his  Excellency  Samuel  Adams,  to  assist  in  laying  the  corner 
stone  of  a  building  to  be  erected  for  the  use  of  the  Legislative  and 
Executive  branches  of  Government  of  this  Commonwealth.  May  we, 
my  Brethren,  so  square  our  actions  thro  life  as  to  show  to  the  World 
of  Mankind,  that  we  mean  to  live  within  the  compass  of  Good  Citi 
zens,  that  we  wish  to  stand  upon  a  level  with  them,  that  when  we 
part  we  may  be  admitted  into  the  Temple  where  Reigns  Silence  and 
Peace.'  " 

"  It  is  utterly  impossible,"  commented  the  unenterpris 
ing  Columbian  Centinel,  u  to  do  justice  to  the  scene  which 
presented  itself  on  this  brilliant  occasion." 

When  Washington  retired  to  private  life  the  Grand 


Lodge  of  Massachusetts  sent  him  a  fraternal  greeting 
signed  by  Grand  Master  Revere,  and  upon  his  death  the 
Massachusetts  Masons  arranged  a  mock  funeral  parade, 
Eevere  being  one  of  the  pall -bearers.  A  memorial  urn 
carried  in  the  procession  was  cared  for  many  years  by 
Revere  at  his  home.  Revere,  with  John  Warren  and 
Josiah  Bartlett,  sent  a  letter  on  behalf  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  dated  January  11,  1800,  to  the  widow  of  Washing 
ton,  requesting  a  lock  of  the  dead  statesman's  hair,  to  be 
kept  as  an  "  invaluable  relique  of  the  Hero  and  Patriot.'7 
The  request  was  granted,  and  the  memento  has  remained 
to  this  day  one  of  the  cherished  possessions  of  the  Grand 
Lodge,  preserved  in  a  golden  urn  made  by  Paul  Revere. 

Friendship  Lodge,  instituted  in  Boston  in  1793,  con-   Friendship 
tained  a  considerable  French  element.     One  of  the  Mas-   1793 ge 
ters  of  the  Lodge  was  Le  Barbier  Du  Plessis,  whose  name 
revives  memories  of  that  great  Huguenot  Prime  Minister 
who  would  have  saved  France  from  shame  and  loss  had 
the  King  but  followed  his  advice  instead  of  that  given  by 
the  ecclesiastics.     Other  members  of  Friendship  Lodge 
were  Le   Charles  Descard,   Preslin  Janeau,   George  de 
France,    M.    D.,   Sy.    Prea,    John  Beteau,    and  Messrs. 
Truene,  D' Amour  and  Jeaureau. 

John    Jutau    became    the    Master  of   Perfect  Union    perfect  union 
Lodge,    instituted  in   1781,    which  was  distinctively  a   Jj??*6  B°8ton 
French  Lodge.     In  1785,   Mr.  Jutau  was  Senior  Grand 
Warden  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts,  in  which 
were  enrolled  also  the  names  of  William  Truan,  Andrew 
Demarest,  Dr.  St.  Medard,  Peter  La  Mercier,  and  others. 

There  was  still  another  Lodge,  the  Harmonic,  instituted 
December  8,  1792,  but  it  was  not  exclusively  French. 
The  first  Master  was  George  Gideon. 

Lewis  Frederick  Delesdernier  was  a  member  of  Warren 
Lodge  in  Machias,  Maine.  The  Lodge  was  instituted 
September  10,  1778.  His  parents  were  Huguenots.  He 
was  visited  by  Albert  Gallatin  in  1780. 

The  Huguenots  who  settled  in  Boston,  as  earlier  chapters 


have  made  clear,  became  citizens  of  influence  and  much 
respectability.  Some  of  them  were  leaders  in  the  mercan 
tile,  social  and  religious  circles.  Here  they  entered  into 
an  atmosphere  of  liberty  and  opportunity  which  they 
wisely  used.  They  established  themselves  so  firmly  and 
well  in  this  community  that  their  descendants — men  of 
integrity  and  influence — remain  to  this  day.  In  the  town 
of  Boston,  and  later  in  the  city,  as  well  as  in  the  Masonic 
Lodges,  to  which  so  many  of  them  belonged,  they  were 
active  and  useful,  being  ever  outspoken  and  zealous  on 
the  side  of  toleration,  liberty  and  equality. 


February  22,  1800,  was  a  day  set  apart  by  Congress  as 
a  " Washington  Day"  throughout  the  United  States.  It 
was  observed  in  Philadelphia  by  the  Freemasons.  Nine 
lodges  participated  in  the  exercises  at  Philadelphia. 
L'  Amenite"  Lodge,  No.  73,  held  a  special  open  lodge  of  its 
own  and  Brother  Simon  Chaudron  was  the  orator.  The 
lodge  was  appropriately  draped,  and  a  catafalque  in  the 
centre  of  the  lodge  room  was  surrounded  by  300  lights. 

L'Amenite'  Lodge  was  organized  by  French  refugees, 
and  chartered  May  20,  1797.  Its  first  officers  were : 
W.  M. — Tanguy  de  la  Beissiere ;  S.  W.—  Gabriel  De- 
combaz  ;  J.  W. — Armand  Caignet.  Among  the  members 
were  Abbe  La  Grange,  Belin  Gardette,  and  Simon 
Chaudron,  the  orator  of  February  22,  1800-  Chaudron 
delivered  his  address  in  the  presence  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  it  was  the  first  Masonic  eulogy,  in 
the  French  language,  that  was  ever  spoken  upon  Washing 
ton.  The  address  was  printed  in  the  French  and  English 
languages.  In  view  of  the  strained  relations  at  the  time 
between  France  and  the  United  States,  Chaudron' s  ad 
dress  had  much  political  significance.  L' Amenite  went 
out  of  existence  in  1823. 


IT  was  at  a  critical  juncture  in  affairs  that  the  Order 
of  the  Cincinnati  was  formed  for  a  specific  and  patri- 
otic  purpose.     Washington  himself  was  a  leader  in 
the  movement.     When  the  Eevolutionary  War  was  finally 
over  and  the  army  was  about  to  be  disbanded,  Washing 
ton  had  his  headquarters  at  Newburgh.  in  the  building  organization 

3    and  Object 

which  is  now  preserved  and  occupied  as  a  museum. 
General  Knox,  one  of  his  favourite  officers,  was  in  com 
mand  of  West  Point,  a  few  miles  below  on  the  Hudson. 
At  Newburgh  Washington  made  his  farewell  address  to 
the  army.  When  it  came  to  disbanding,  however,  there 
was  trouble,  because  Congress  had  left  the  officers  and 
men  without  pay,  and  the  spirit  of  mutiny  was  rife.  In 
flammatory  speeches  were  made  at  Newburgh,  and  the 
mutineers  threatened  to  band  themselves  together  and  go 
about  the  country  overawing  the  people,  as  a  means  of 
gaining  their  dues.  This  situation,  which  was  serious, 
led  Washington,  Kuox  and  others  to  conceive  the  Order 
of  the  Cincinnati  as  a  means  of  checking  this  mutinous 
movement.  A  meeting  was  held  at  the  headquarters  of 
General  Steubeu,  at  the  VerPlanck  homestead,  Mount 
Gulian — a  homestead  founded,  by  the  way,  by  the  Hugue 
not  Eoniboud,  of  whom  we  shall  speak  elsewhere.  At  May  13, 1783 
this  meeting  the  new  society  was  born,  May  13,  1783. 

From  an  interesting  history  of  the  Order,  written  by 
William  E.  Yer Planck,  a  descendant  of  an  ancient  family, 
we  derive  the  facts  which  follow.  Preliminary  meetings 
were  held  near  New  Windsor,  a  suburb  of  Newburgh,  by 
the  American  officers  who  were  in  sympathy  with  the 
principles  of  the  Order.  Kuox  was  perhaps  chiefly  iu- 



The  Name 



strumeutal  in  the  organization.  The  original  articles  are 
still  preserved.  The  object  of  the  society  was  "  to  com 
memorate  the  success  of  the  war  against  Great  Britain 
and  the  reciprocal  advantages  which  would  ensue  to  the 
colonies,  thereby  establishing  themselves  as  sovereign  and 
independent  states,  to  perpetuate  sentiments  of  patriot 
ism,  benevolence  and  brotherly  love  and  the  memory  of 
the  hardships  of  the  war  experienced  in  common."  The 
articles  also  declare  that  u  the  officers  of  the  American 
Army  do  hereby  in  the  most  solemn  manner  associate 
themselves  into  one  Society  of  Friends  to  endure  as  long 
as  they  shall  endure,  or  any  of  their  oldest  male  posterity, 
and  in  failure  thereof  the  collateral  branches  who  may  be 
judged  worthy  of  becoming  its  supporters  and  members." 

u  The  officers  of  the  American  army  having  been  taken 
from  the  citizens  of  America  possess  high  veneration  for 
the  character  of  that  illustrious  Eoman,  Lucius  Quintus 
Cinciunatus,  and  being  resolved  to  follow  his  example  by 
returning  to  their  citizenship,  they  think  they  may  with 
propriety  denominate  themselves  the  Society  of  the  Cin 

Then  follows  a  statement  of  their  principles  which  are 
of  an  exalted  and  patriotic  character.  Provision  was 
made  for  the  establishment  of  state  societies,  and  also  of 
district  or  local  societies.  In  order  that  relief  might  be 
immediately  extended,  it  was  provided  that  "  each  officer 
shall  deliver  to  the  treasurer  of  the  State  Society  one 
month's  pay,  which  shall  remain  forever  to  the  use  of  the 
State  Society,  the  interest  only  of  which,  if  necessary,  to 
be  appropriated  to  the  relief  of  the  unfortunate."  It  was 
also  provided  that  ' i  all  officers  of  the  American  army— 
as  well  as  those  who  have  resigned  with  honour  after 
three  years'  service  in  the  capacity  of  officers,  have  the 
right"  to  membership.  Provision  was  made  also  for  an 
Order  "  by  which  its  members  shall  be  known  and  dis 
tinguished,  which  shall  be  a  medal  of  gold  of  a  proper 
size  to  receive  the  emblems  and  suspended  by  a  deep 


blue  ribbon  two  inches  wide  edged  with  white  descriptive 
of  the  Union  of  America  and  France  ;  the  principal  figure : 
Cincinnatus — three  senators  presenting  him  with  a  sword. ' ' 
The  French  connection  came  from  the  fact  that  honour-   French 


ary  membership  in  the  new  Order  was  conferred  on  Lafay 
ette  and  the  other  French  officers  both  of  the  army  and 
navy  who  had  so  nobly  aided  in  the  struggle  for  Inde 
pendence.  This  number  included  "  His  Excellency,  The 
Chevalier  de  la  Luzerne,  Minister  Plenipotentiary,"  the 
Counts  D'Estaing,  De  Grasse,  De  Barras,  and  "  His  Ex 
cellency,  the  Count  De  Eochambeau." 

The  first  to  sign  the  articles  was  Washington,  the  sec 
ond  General  Heath,  the  third  General  Lincoln,  and  the 
fourth  General  Greene,  with  Generals  Knox,  Putnam, 
and  thirty  other  officers  following.  Thus  began  an  Order 
that  has  survived,  and  been  not  only  a  benevolent  or 
ganization,  but  one  deeply  interested  in  public  affairs. 
Washington  was  the  first  president-general  of  the  Society, 
and  held  the  office  until  his  death,  when  he  was  succeeded 
by  Hamilton.  Thus  the  second  president  was  of  Hugue 
not  blood.  Naturally  the  Society  was  a  warm  supporter 
of  Washington  in  his  terms  as  president,  and  in  conse 
quence  became  identified  politically  with  the  Federal 
party.  It  was  six  years  after  the  organization  of  the 
Cincinnati  that  the  Society  of  Tammany,  or  the  Colum 
bian  Order,  was  formed  in  New  York,  this  being  at  first 
a  benevolent  society,  but  soon  becoming  political,  and 
antagonizing  the  Order  of  the  Cincinnati. 

In  May,  1883,  the  Society  of  the  Cincinnati  celebrated  centennial 

J '  J  Celebration 

its  centennial  at  the  old  Gulian  mansion  where  it  was  1883 
born  a  hundred  years  before.  The  mansion  had  been 
enlarged,  but  the  original  part  remains,  and  the  room  in 
which  the  Order  was  organized  has  been  carefully  pre 
served  and  is  known  as  the  Cincinnati  room.  Newburgh 
and  West  Point  were  also  visited  by  the  celebrating  party. 
Five  or  six  of  the  original  state  societies  survive,  though 
the  work  of  the  Order  was  long  since  accomplished. 




Boy  of 

HOW  the  Huguenot  blood  has  diffused  itself 
through  the  country  is  illustrated  in  the  case  of 
Eobert.  Marion  LaFollette  of  Wisconsin,  one  of 
the  political  reformers,  who  conceived  it  to  be  his  mis 
sion  to  break  up  a  great  political  machine,  and  as  a  result 
met  and  defeated  an  imposing  array  of  hostile  forces  in 
his  party.  It  is  not  our  purpose  here  to  enter  into  his 
campaigns  or  decide  as  to  merit  in  disputed  cases.  But 
it  is  in  point  that  we  find  in  this  champion  of  the  people 
against  monopoly  a  descendant  of  the  same  refugee  stock 
that  in  almost  every  instance  was  on  the  side  of  liberty 
and  right. 

Governor  LaFollette  was  born  on  a  farm  in  Dane 
County,  Wisconsin,  June  14,  1855.  His  father  was  a 
Kentucky  bred  French  Huguenot ;  his  mother  Scotch- 
Irish.  Again  and  again  we  have  met  that  strong  combi 
nation,  the  same  that  shone  out  in  Alexander  Hamilton. 
The  family  moved  to  the  West,  where  the  son  was  to  find 
his  opportunity  and  make  his  mark  in  public  life.  The 
death  of  the  father  occurred  when  Eobert  was  less  than  a 
year  old,  but  the  resolute  mother  kept  her  little  family  of 
four  children  together,  and  at  fourteen  "Little  Bob,"  as 
his  followers  call  him,  became  the  working  head.  He 
remained  on  the  farm  till  he  was  nineteen,  then  sold  it 
and  moved  to  Madison,  where  the  State  University  at 
tracted  him.  The  French  blood  in  him  "  stirred  to 
sentiment  and  the  boy  thrilled  for  glory.'7  He  had  a 
decided  gift  of  oratory,  and  won  the  college  contests  and 



debates  with  ease.  After  graduation  he  went  to  work  in 
a  law  office,  and  in  five  months  was  admitted  to  the  bar, 
which  indicates  his  remarkable  mental  facility  and  grasp. 
In  1880  he  began  to  practice,  but  very  soon  was  running  in  Public  Life 
for  office.  Public  life  seemed  to  possess  for  him  irresist 
ible  attraction.  He  won  the  office — that  of  district  at 
torney — and  a  wife,  a  college  classmate,  one  result  of 
co-education  and  a  not  uncommon  one.  He  made  an 
excellent  record  in  his  first  office,  but  already  the  ma 
chine  politicians  did  not  like  him,  because  his  methods 
differed  from  theirs,  and  he  had  broken  into  politics 
without  asking  the  consent  of  the  party  powers.  He  de 
veloped  a  remarkable  talent  for  getting  at  and  getting  a 
hold  on  the  people,  so  that  they  would  vote  for  him 
whether  he  had  the  machine  endorsement  or  not.  By 
and  by  LaFollette  clashed  decidedly  with  the  State  party 
"boss,"  and  then  he  determined  to  stand  or  fall  for  him 
self,  and  to  stand.  That  was  the  Scotch  pertinacity,  and 
with  the  French  frankness  and  geniality  it  gained  the 
day  for  him.  The  story  of  his  successes  has  much  of  ro 
mance  and  strenuousness  in  it,  but  always  LaFollette 
won,  and  in  office  was  what  he  promised  the  people  he 
would  be,  their  friend,  honest  and  true.  He  went  to 
Congress,  because  he  made  up  his  Scotch  mind  and  set 
his  French  wit  to  work  to  do  it ;  and  then  he  determined 
to  be  governor  of  Wisconsin,  and  governor  he  became, 
although  the  machine  said  he  never  could  be  elected. 
From  that  high  place  he  passed  to  the  United  States 
Senate.  Whatever  his  future  may  be,  this  western  de 
scendant  of  the  Huguenots  has  made  his  name  known 
far  and  wide,  and  honourably  known  as  a  public  man 
engaged  in  doing  his  duty  in  every  office  to  which  the 
people,  who  believe  in  him,  called  him.  Certainly  the 
quality  of  reform  runs  in  the  Huguenot  blood  to  the  latest 


While  less  noted  publicly  than  the  statesmen  and  sol- 


A  Huguenot 

Inventor  of 
the  Eccentric 

diers  of  French  blood  who  rendered  such  signal  service 
to  America,  none  of  them  all  deserve  to  rank  higher  in 
the  scale  of  usefulness  and  benefaction  than  Thomas 
Blanchard.  His  ancestors  were  among  the  exiles,  known 
as  Gabriel  Bernon's  colony,  who  undertook  to  found  Ox 
ford,  in  what  is  now  Worcester  County.  This  county  is 
distinguished,  as  the  late  Senator  Hoar  wrote,  as  the 
very  home  and  centre  of  invention.  "  I  do  not  think  any 
other  place  in  the  world,  of  the  same  size,  can  boast  of  so 
many  great  inventions  as  the  region  covered  by  a  circle 
within  a  radius  of  twelve  miles,  of  which  the  centre  is  the 
city  of  Worcester. ' '  To  name  but  three  of  many,  in  that 
circle  were  born  Eli  Whitney,  inventor  of  the  cotton  gin 
that  doubled  the  value  of  every  acre  of  cotton  producing 
land  at  once,  and  revolutionized  one  of  the  leading  indus 
tries  of  the  world  ;  Elias  Howe,  inventor  of  the  sewing 
machine,  one  of  the  greatest  boons  ever  known  to  woman, 
which  made  a  new  household  economy  possible ;  and 
Thomas  Blanchard,  subject  of  this  sketch,  inventor  of 
the  machine  for  the  turning  of  irregular  forms.  Sena 
tor  Hoar  regarded  this  as  the  most  important  and  difficult 
of  all  the  inventions  named,  notwithstanding  the  vast 
value  of  the  other  two. 

The  story  of  Thomas  Blanchard,  Huguenot  descendant, 
has  recently  been  told  by  Hon.  Alfred  S.  Eoe,  author  of 
many  historical  monographs.  We  make  free  use  of  it  in 
this  connection,  glad  that  a  man  of  such  inventive  ability 
as  Thomas  Blanchard  can  find  the  wider  recognition  he 
deserves.  He  should  have  place  among  the  first  in 
ventors  because  he  is  credited  with  the  discovery  of  a  new 
principle  in  motion,  that  of  the  eccentric.  There  is 
scarcely  a  machine  shop  in  the  world  to-day  that  does 
not  in  some  shape  have  instances  of  this  French-Ameri 
can's  genius. 

After  the  disastrous  [ending  of  the  colonizing  attempt 
at  Oxford,  a  branch  of  the  Blanchard  family  settled 
finally  in  Sutton,  where  on  a  farm  Thomas  was  born, 


June  24,  1788.  But  he  had  no  liking  for  farming.  He 
was  a  born  mechanic,  and  the  despair  of  his  industrious, 
plodding  father.  Owing  to  an  unfortunate  impediment 
of  speech,  which  in  later  years  he  overcame,  the  lad  was 
thrown  much  upon  his  own  resources  as  a  child.  His 
ingenuity  was  early  shown,  as  when  he  secured  charcoal 
from  the  home  fireplace  for  his  experiments,  and  at  thir-  Apple-Paring 
teen  made  an  apple-paring  machine  which  revolutionized 
the  drying  of  that  much-valued  fruit.  At  eighteen,  a 
brother  having  established  a  tack  factory  in  Millbury, 
Thomas  was  transferred  from  the  farm  to  help  in  the  ex 
tremely  monotonous  occupation  of  heading  each  object 
by  the  blow  of  a  hammer.  It  did  not  take  his  ingenious 
mind  long  to  elaborate  a  machine  which  made  tacks 
more  rapidly  than  the  ticking  of  a  watch,  and  also  made 
them  better  than  those  made  by  hand — a  machine  in 
which  no  essential  improvements  were  made  in  more 
than  twenty  years.  Experts  declared  it  almost  perfect  Tmck  Machine 
from  the  start.  This  was  pretty  good  for  a  stuttering 
schoolboy,  so  long  the  butt  of  his  Sutton  associates. 
This  tack  machine  was  sold  for  $5,000,  only  a  fraction  of 
its  real  value  ;  and  from  the  proceeds  Thomas  established 
a  shop  in  which  he  was  able  to  continue  his  inventive 
work  unhindered. 

Up  to  this  time,  during  scores  of  years  there  had  been 
no  advance  in  the  polishing  of  gun  barrels.  The  rounded 
part  could  be  readily  reached,  but  the  flattened  portions, 
those  at  the  breech  where  the  stock  was  added,  had  to  be 
worked  by  hand,  and  it  cost  a  dollar  apiece  properly  to 
finish  them.  There  was  an  armory  in  Millbury,  and  the 
proprietor  learning  of  the  genius  in  the  confines  of  that 
very  town,  sent  for  him  and  let  him  know  the  needs  of 
the  occasion.  Glancing  along  the  lathe  and  beginning  a 
monotonous  whistle,  as  was  his  wont  when  in  a  study,  he  Gun-Barrel 
soon  evolved  a  simple  improvement  in  the  shape  of  a 
cam  motion,  and  the  making  of  gun-barrels  was  simpli 
fied  forever. 


"  Well  done,"  says  Mr.  Waters.  "  I  shouldn't  wonder 
if  you  yet  invented  a  machine  for  turning  gun-stocks." 

"  W-w-ell,  I'll  t-try,"  was  the  laconic  reply. 

A  train  of  thought  had  been  set  in  motion  which  in 
time  brought  out  the  machine  for  turning  irregular 
forms.  His  success  in  the  Millbury  armory  soon  secured 
a  call  for  him  to  the  government  establishment  in  Spring- 
field7  where  he  set  the  lathes  in  order,  all  the  time  appar 
ently  dwelling  on  the  words  of  Colonel  Waters.  When 
his  work  in  Springfield  was  done  and  he  was  driving 
back  to  his  Worcester  County  home,  he  much  sur 
prised  certain  people  by  exclaiming,  as  he  drove  along, 
"I've  got  it !  I've  got  it !  I've  got  it ! "  They  at  once 
pronounced  him  crazy,  as  no  doubt  those  Syracusans  did 
who  saw  the  naked  philosopher  coursing  through  their 
streets,  shouting  "Eureka!" 

For  two  years  the  world  saw  little  of  the  young  me 
chanic,  for  he  shut  himself  in  his  shop  and  there  pur 
sued  his  experiments  until  he  was  able  to  tell  Colonel 
Waters  that  what  the  latter  in  pleasantry  had  hinted  at, 
had  become  an  actuality.  To  be  sure,  it  was  only  a 
miniature  machine,  but  it  was  so  evidently  practical  that 
other  workmen  were  called  in  and  a  complete  lathe  was 
erected,  thus  giving  to  his  native  county  and  to  the  town 
of  Millbury  the  credit  of  the  first  machine  for  the  turning 
of  irregular  forms.  Meanwhile,  Washington  had  heard 
of  his  success,  and  he  was  requested  to  set  his  lathe  up  in 
the  Springfield  Arsenal,  a  request  with  which  he  com 
plied,  and  it  remained  there  long  enough  to  have  another 
similar  one  made,  when  the  original  was  returned  to  Mill- 
bury,  where  it  continued  in  constant  use  for  more  than 
twenty  years. 

England  heard  of  the  invention,  and  sent  over  repre- 
invention  sentatives  to  examine  and  report.  They  were  astonished 
at  what  they  saw,  and  reported  accordingly,  but  John 
Bull  could  not  be  convinced  so  easily,  and  a  second  mes 
senger  was  sent  with  tough  pieces  of  oak,  thinking  them 


too  hard  for  any  mere  machine.  Much  to  the  astonish 
ment  of  the  Englishman,  the  specimens  of  hard  wood 
were  transformed  at  once  into  the  most  perfect  of  stocks. 
The  report  was  accepted,  and  $40,000  worth  of  the  lathes 
were  forthwith  ordered.  As  is  usual  with  all  great  in 
ventions,  there  was  little  disposition  to  allow  Blanchard 
to  enjoy  any  great  results  from  his  labours,  and  he  him 
self  stated  in  Washington,  before  a  Congressional  com 
mittee,  when  he  applied  for  the  second  renewal  of  his 
patent,  that  thus  far  he  had  received  little  more  than  his 
board  and  clothes  for  what  he  had  done,  while  litigation 
had  cost  him  more  than  $100,000.  Fortunately  for  the  convincing 
inventor,  Eufus  Choate  was  then  in  Congress,  and  his  wit 
and  wisdom  coming  to  the  rescue  of  the  genius,  he  secured 
a  renewal  of  the  patent.  To  show  the  possibilities  of  his 
machine  to  turn  irregular  forms,  he  actually  set  up  in  the 
national  capitol  one  of  the  lathes,  and  there  in  the  pres 
ence  of  all  who  cared  to  look,  using  plaster  figures  as 
models,  he  turned  in  marble  the  heads  of  Webster,  Clay, 
and  others,  far  more  exactly  than  the  hand  of  an  artist 
could  fashion  them.  The  witty  Choate  said  Blanchard 
had  i  i  turned  the  heads  of  congressmen, ' '  and  so  he  had, 
and  they  were  sufficiently  appreciative  to  grant  him  what 
he  asked. 

The  foregoing  invention  alone  would  have  given  Blan 
chard  immortality,  but  he  did  not  stop  here.  He  made 
steamboats  of  such  light  draught  that  they  could  run 
over  rapids  and  shoals,  and  he  invented  methods  of  bend 
ing  wood  so  as  not  to  impair  in  the  least  its  native  strength. 
He  could  bend  a  shingle  at  right  angles  and  leave  it  as 
strong  as  before.  His  invention  was  particularly  valua 
ble  in  the  bending  of  timber  for  the  knees  of  vessels.  Be 
ginning  to  realize  on  the  many  inventions  he  had  made, 
he  took  a  house  in  Boston,  and  there,  in  comfort  and  dig 
nity,  spent  the  remaining  years  of  his  life.  Middle-aged 
people  can  remember  when  the  old-fashioned  right-angled 
slate  frames  gave  way  to  a  continuous  frame  with  rounded 


corners.  Many  such  people  may  now  learn  for  the  first 
time  that  each  and  every  frame  thus  employed  had  paid 
a  small  royalty  to  Thomas  Blanchard,  a  royalty,  how 
ever,  in  the  aggregate  amounting  to  many  thousands  of 
dollars.  It  is  said  that  the  manufacturer  for  whom  the 
invention  was  made  refused  to  pay  Blanchard  two  thou 
sand  dollars  outright  for  the  invention,  preferring  to  pay 
him  a  royalty  of  five  per  cent.  His  feelings  may  be 
imagined  when  he  paid  over  to  the  genius  more  than  two 
thousand  dollars  the  first  year. 
A  world  ne  improved  the  manner  of  making  the  handles  of 


shovels,  saving  material  and  making  a  stronger  handle. 
The  principle  of  his  inventions  was  applied  in  so  many 
ways  that  to-day  the  world  is  full  of  what  Blanchard  did. 
Millions  of  boot  and  shoe  lasts  are  made  every  year,  and 
every  one  is  a  tribute  to  the  Button  boy.  To  drop  out  for 
a  single  day,  from  the  factories  and  machine  shops  of  the 
world,  the  inventions  and  applications  of  Thomas  Blan 
chard,  would  throw  the  mechanical  world  into  inextricable 
confusion.  When  the  nation  gets  tired  of  erecting  statues 
to  soldiers,  perhaps  it  will  remember  the  men  who  helped 
to  make  life  worth  living. 

Blanchard  lived  till  April  16,  1864,  when  he  ceased 
from  earth,  and  his  mortal  remains  were  borne  to  Mount 
Auburn,  where  hero-worshippers  may  find  his  grave  on 
Spruce  Avenue ;  his  monument  being  surmounted  by  a 
bust  of  the  great  inventor,  while  upon  the  base  is  a  medal 
lion  or  relief  of  the  lathe  which  gave  him  his  world-wide 


THIS  subject  is  treated  in  a  very  interesting  man-  The  Art  of 
ner  by  Helen  Evertson  Smith  in  a  volume  en-  Happfiy 
titled  Colonial  Days  and  Ways.  We  make  such 
use  of  her  work  as  will  give  our  readers  a  picture  of 
the  home  life,  customs,  and  amusements  of  the  French 
in  New  Rochelle  and  at  other  points.  This  will  also  show 
the  influence  which  the  French  had  upon  their  neighbours. 
The  art  of  living  happily  seems  to  be  a  native  possession 
of  the  French,  while  it  is  not  so  with  the  Anglo-Saxon. 
His  disposition  is  to  take  himself  and  life  too  seriously. 
That  was  the  fault  and  defect  of  the  Puritan  ;  though  it 
must  be  said  that  this  is  a  fault  far  less  grave  in  its  con 
sequences  than  the  modern  one  of  not  taking  life  seriously 
enough.  The  Huguenots  hit  a  happy  mean  for  the  most 
part,  and  infused  joy  into  their  environment. 

Whether  they  had  been  rich  or  poor  in  France,  there  Gentle  and 
were  few  of  the  Huguenot  refugees  who  were  not  poor  c 
when  they  reached  America.  Notable  exceptions  have 
been  cited,  like  those  of  Gabriel  Bernon,  but  they  were 
the  exceptions.  Whatever  their  fortunes,  however,  the 
refugees  were  gentle,  trained  in  many  arts,  and  possessed 
of  the  keen  perceptions,  the  courtesy,  and  the  easy  adapta 
bility  of  their  race.  Home  life  among  them  was  different 
from  that  of  any  of  the  other  colonists,  because  they  came 
from  a  land  more  advanced  in  some  things  than  either 
Holland  or  England. 

The  Puritan  was  keen-witted,  with  rigid  notions  of 
morality,  and  a  harsh  spirit  towards  those  who  disagreed 
with  him,  particularly  in  religion.  The  conditions  of  his 



life  were  hard,  but  full  of  mental,  moral  and  physical 
health.  He  despised  no  handicraft,  neglected  no  means 
of  cultivation,  shirked  no  duty  (nor  did  he  permit  any 
one  else  to  do  so,  if  he  could  help  it),  and  fought  his  way 
upward,  unhasting,  unresting,  honestly,  persistently. 
The  Dutchman  was  milder  than  the  Puritan,  but  as  stiff- 
necked,  and  an  inborn  republican  as  well  as  an  educated 
Calvinist.  Slower,  narrower,  more  prejudiced,  he  was 
less  agressive.  To  his  commercial  and  industrial  in 
stincts  our  country  owes  much  of  its  prosperity. 

The  Huguenot — to  complete  the  comparison  between 
these  three  races  which  came  together  in  the  formation  of 
the  colonial  life  and  character — was  devout,  less  ambi 
tious,  affectionate  of  heart,  artistic,  cultivated,  adaptable 
and  also  highly  endowed  with  the  commercial  instincts 

cheer£fnessic  an(^  s^^^e^  capacities.  He  brought  to  America  the  arts, 
accomplishments  and  graces  of  the  highest  civilization 
then  known,  together  with  a  sweet  cheerfulness  all  his 
own.  Not  a  colony  or  a  class  but  was  ameliorated  by  his 
influence,  and  consciously  or  unconsciously,  we  all  love 
him.  His  was,  indeed,  essentially  a  lovable  nature.  No 
character  could  be  truer  or  nobler  or  at  bottom  prob 
ably  more  affectionate  than  the  Puritan,  but  the  mani 
festation  of  qualities  was  very  different.  The  French  did 
not  think  it  a  shame  or  crime  to  show  freely  the  love  they 
felt.  They  were  natural  where  others  were  restrained. 

It  is  certain,  from  the  nature  of  things,  that  the  home 
lives  of  all  these  different  bauds  of  colonists  must  have 

Differences  in    differed  widely.     None  had  luxuries  and  few  had  com- 

the  Home  Life  J 

forts,  as  we  now  understand  these  terms,  but  each  had 
some  possessions,  some  ways,  some  deficiencies,  and  some 
attainments  which  belonged  to  none  of  the  others.  Im 
proved  conditions  came  rapidly,  and  in  improvements 
one  would  be  sure  to  find  the  French  in  the  lead. 

As  we  have  intimated,  although  most  of  the  refugee 


Hugucuots  had  been  prosperous  in  France,  and  not  a  few  strong 
had  been  wealthy  and  influential  noblemen  and  citizens,  Qua 
not  many  had  been  able  to  take  much  money  away  with 
them — the  circumstances  of  their  flight  precluded  that ; 
but  they  had  all  brought  energy,  industry,  thrift,  and 
power  of  endurance,  as  well  as  that  truly  delightful 
birthright  of  their  nation,  an  invincible  lightness  of 
heart,  while  many  of  them  also  possessed  skill  in  some 
hitherto  peculiarly  French  handicraft,  or  in  mechanical 
methods  of  unusual  scope  ;  and  others  had  equally  high 
talent  in  the  professions,  in  trade,  and  in  civil  affairs. 

Like  the  Plymouth  Pilgrims,  the  Huguenots  came  with 
out  any  backing  of  national  trade  or  class  interest ;  but  A  Mixed 
while  the  first  came  to  preserve  civil  and  religious  rights, 
the  latter  were  exiles  who  had  lost  their  rights  and  fled 
for  life,  and  were  of  all  social  grades,  embracing  a  few 
noblemen,  a  larger  number  of  the  class  of  gentlemen,  or 
the  lesser  nobility,  and  professional  men,  merchants, 
bankers,  manufacturers  and  artisans.  In  spite  of  previ 
ous  social  conditions,  the  oneness  of  the  French  was  a 
wonder  to  the  English  and  Dutch,  who  kindly  welcomed 
them.  The  persecuted  were  bound  together  by  a  com 
mon  blood,  language,  peril  and  faith.  In  their  little 
settlement  at  New  Eochelle  there  was  for  many  years  as 
near  an  approach  to  apostolic  ways  of  living  as  has  been 
seen,  probably,  since  apostolic  days.  They  had  all  things 
in  common,  cared  for  their  own  poor,  and  formed  a 
brotherhood  such  as  Christianity  was  intended  to  produce 
the  world  over.  Every  household  became  a  little  indus 
trial  colony.  Those  who  had  never  before  laboured 
now  learned  to  do  so,  and  hardships  were  cheerfully 

Daily  life  in  the  Huguenot  household  was  probably  less 
toilsome  than  was  common  among  other  colonists.     In-  Thrift  and 
telligent,  industrial  and  resourceful,  there  was  a  kind  of 
co-operation  among  the  French.     Equality  of  living  and 
enjoyment    prevailed.     The   conditions  were  naturally 


trying  for  many  years  to  those  who  had  been  gently  born 
and  nurtured  in  France,  but  the  best  was  made  of  exist 
ing  circumstances,  and  the  people  of  New  Eochelle  soon 
were  distinguished  by  the  amount  of  comforts  and  even 
luxuries  they  gathered  about  them.  Their  homes,  to 
judge  by  the  specimens  which  remain  in  New  Eochelle, 
were  neither  large  nor  fine,  but  they  were  substantial  and 
as  comfortable  as  was  then  possible.  Tradition  says  that 
the  first  to  utilize  the  remnants  of  worn-out  garments  by 
cutting  them  into  strips  and  weaving  them  into  carpets 
were  the  French.  The  rag  carpet  was  in  its  day  an  ad 
vance  agent  of  comfort  and  culture ;  and  one  may  recall 
the  Connecticut  deacon  who  asked  Mrs.  Lyman  Beecher, 
who  was  the  first  to  introduce  a  carpet  into  Litchfield,  if 
she  thought  she  could  u  have  all  thet  an'  heaven  too  !  " 
Among  the  earliest  importations  of  the  French  settlers 
were  the  spinning  wheels  and  looms  of  better  quality 
than  were  previously  known  here.  Immigrants  from 
fruit-growing  and  wine-making  districts  of  France  brought 
grafts  and  roots,  and  naturalized  most  of  the  hardier  va- 
in  rieties.  A  few  were  able  to  import  hangings,  mirrors, 


china  and  furniture  of  rare  beauty  j  but  in  general  they 
possessed  only  those  articles  of  furniture  which  could  be 
made  here.  However  humble  these  might  be  in  them 
selves,  they  would  surely  be  made  decorative  by  little 
touches  which  only  the  French  hand  could  give,  just  as 
the  same  delicate  touches  would  be  seen  in  the  toilets  of 
the  women. 

Where  the  English  and  Dutch  dyed  linen  yarn  of 
heavy  quality  and  wove  it  into  ugly  stripes  and  checks 
for  bed  and  window  curtains,  the  French  used  either 
white  linen  or  that  with  but  one  colour,  dainty  shades  of 
light  blue  or  dusky  green  or  a  subdued  gold  colour  made 
by  dyes  of  which  they  had  brought  the  secret  with  them 
being  preferred.  These  linens,  made  into  hangings 
bordered  by  an  embroidered  vine  or  arabesque  design  in 
white  upon  the  gold,  or  of  varied  colours  upon  the  all 



white,  were  delicately  beautiful,  and  became  heirlooms  in 
many  a  family. 

"The  bedroom  of  my  mother's  grandmother  L'Es-  A  French 
trange,"  says  the  author,  "  has  often  been  described  to  Bedroom 
me.  The  floor  was  painted  as  nearly  as  possible  to  match 
the  subdued  gold  of  the  linen  hangings.  The  ceilings 
and  side  walls  were  whitewashed  with  lime.  The  win 
dows  and  dressing-tables  were  hung  with  tastefully  ar 
ranged  draperies,  bordered  with  a  grapevine  pattern  em 
broidered  in  white,  and  further  trimmed  at  the  edge  with 
a  knitted  fringe  of  white  linen  yarn.  The  tall  four-posted 
bedstead  of  carved  mahogany  was  provided  with  a  tester, 
with  long  draw- curtains.  Over  the  high  and  downy  bed 
lay  a  fringed  and  embroidered  coverlet  of  the  same  linen. 
An  immense  stuffed  chair,  running  easily  upon  wooden 
globes  the  size  of  billiard  balls,  which  were  the  precursors 
of  the  modern  caster,  had  a  very  high  back  and  side 
wings,  against  which  the  head  might  rest.  The  linen 
yarn  for  the  draperies  of  this  room  was  all  said  to  have 
been  spun  by  the  first  Mme.  L' Estrange  and  her  daugh 
ters,  and  it  was  afterwards  woven  under  their  direction 
and  embroidered  by  themselves.7' 

The  cultivated  taste  and  the  dainty  arts  brought  from  Home 
France  made  the  homes  of  the  Huguenots  much  more 
attractive  in  appearance  than  those  of  the  other  colonists, 
even  though  the  latter  might  have  far  more  wealth.  The 
same  difference  was  manifest  in  dress.  The  French 
woman's  fine  eye  for  colour,  and  her  delicate  skill  with 
brush,  needle  and  bobbin,  united  to  produce  more  attract 
ive  results.  Similar  touches  of  taste  and  skill  appeared 
everywhere,  and  gave  distinction  to  the  Huguenot  homes, 
whatever  the  owner's  social  standing  in  France.  As  neat 
as  their  Dutch  neighbours,  they  devised  labour-saving 
methods  to  maintain  perfect  cleanliness  without  being 
slaves  to  it.  As  liberal  as  the  English,  they  were  far 
more  economical,  and  by  their  skill  in  cooking  they  ren 
dered  palatable  and  digestible  the  coarsest  fare.  They 


A  Hard  Lot 
for  Loyal 

Change  of 

could  not  equal  the  Dutch  women  in  rich  dishes,  sweet 
cakes  and  preserves,  nor  the  English  in  roasts  and  pas 
tries,  but  in  wholesome  dishes  for  daily  consumption  they 
far  excelled  both,  and  particularly  in  bread  making. 
They  were  the  first  to  introduce  yeast,  where  leaven  was 
the  common  resort.  We  owe  to  them  delicately  flavoured 
soups,  the  light  omelettes,  and  the  delicious  entries,  be 
sides  the  rolls  and  buns. 


In  spite  of  temperamental  light-heartedness,  the  Hugue 
not  had  a  peculiarly  hard  lot.  He  was  not  a  voluntary 
colonist,  but  a  refugee.  Now  there  is  no  more  patriotic 
people  than  the  French.  They  love  their  country  and 
homes  and  customs.  The  Huguenot  was  ready  to  sacri 
fice  everything  but  his  religion  in  order  to  remain  in  his 
own  land.  An  exile,  his  feeling  towards  the  government 
and  Church  which  had  made  him  an  outcast  was  bitter. 
It  was  due  to  this  that  the  Huguenot  refugee  ceased  to 
speak  his  own  language  as  speedily  as  possible,  and 
sought  to  forget  France  and  the  past.  To  the  land  of 
their  adoption  the  Huguenots  transferred  to  the  full  all 
the  inborn  loyalty  of  their  characters.  During  Great 
Britain's  long  wars  with  France  the  Huguenot  descend 
ants,  in  England  or  the  colonies,  bore  their  part  in  the 
arm  service.  Many  of  the  best  families  in  New  Eochelle 
sent  representatives  to  fight  the  French  and  Indians. 
The  Huguenots  made  loyal  and  noble  American  citizens. 

The  abandonment  of  connection  with  France  is  shown 
clearly  in  the  change  of  names,  to  which  reference  has 
elsewhere  been  made.  The  spelling  was  apt  to  follow  the 
pronunciation  of  the  new  friends  and  neighbours.  Thus 
Bonne  Passe  (Good  Thrust,  a  name  of  honour  when  good 
swordsmen  were  valued)  became  shortened  to  Bon  Pas, 
then  changed  to  Bunpas,  followed  by  Bumpus,  and  finally 
contracted  to  Bump.  L'  Estrange  was  known  as  Streing, 
Strange,  Strang,  and  sometimes  Strong. 


Doctriually  the  Huguenots  and  Puritans  were  the  same,  The  Huguenot 
but  in  practice  they  differed  not  a  little.  The  Puritan 
was  a  very  strict  keeper  of  the  Sabbath,  beginning  at 
sunset  of  Saturday  a  twenty-four  hours'  abstinence  from 
any  avoidable  work,  as  well  as  from  any  pleasure  save 
that  which  his  devoutness  found  in  religious  services. 
The  Huguenot  Sunday  began  and  ended  as  now.  Like 
Calvin  himself,  the  refugees  did  not  think  it  necessary  to 
avoid  all  pleasant  things  on  Sunday  more  than  on  other 
days,  and  all  who  had  friends  living  near  the  wayside 
stopped  in  to  visit  them  as  they  returned  from  church  ; 
for  the  Sunday  time  that  was  not  devoted  to  church  serv 
ices  and  to  an  hour  of  catechizing  at  home  was  not  con 
sidered  as  ill  spent  in  cheerful  social  intercourse.  In 
Calvinistic  Switzerland,  as  in  Roman  Catholic  France,  it 
had  been  customary  to  indulge,  after  church  hours,  in  any 
form  of  innocent  amusement.  The  Huguenots  seem  to 
have  drawn  the  line  just  short  of  this.  But  on  week  days 
their  national  joyousness  and  light-heartedness  was  bound 
to  display  itself  in  as  many  ways  as  circumstances  would 
permit.  Tableaux  and  little  comedies  were  frequent, 
while  dancing  was  the  expected  amusement  in  most 
households  at  every  evening  gathering,  and  these  took 
place  as  often  as  possible.  This  made  the  pleasure  of  the 
home  life  in  marked  contrast  to  much  of  the  severer  life 
around  them,  and  drew  upon  the  Huguenots  many  re 
proaches.  Children  were  instructed  with  a  degree  of 
gentleness  and  consideration  quite  in  contrast  with  the 
sterner  ways  of  the  English  or  Dutch.  Cheerfulness  and 
even  gaiety  was  the  rule.  A  gloomy  Huguenot  was  an 
anomaly  to  be  pitied  and  apologized  for.  Such  happy 
dispositioDS  as  were  common  among  the  French  produced 
a  very  great  impression,  and  their  customs  did  much  to 
break  down  an  unnatural  restraint  that  could  not  exist 
permanently  without  defeating  the  high  ends  aimed  at  by 
zealous  and  godly  people. 

The  French  boarding  and  day  schools  for  young  ladies 


The  French 


which  were  established  in  New  Eochelle  were  eagerly  pat 
ronized  by  the  English  and  Dutch,  whose  daughters 
hitherto  had  possessed  few  educational  advantages. 
These  schools  were  the  originals  of  the  young  ladies' 
seminaries  and  fitting  schools,  or  finishing  schools, 
which  held  the  field  until  the  day  of  women's  colleges, 
which  was  ushered  in  by  a  Huguenot  descendant — Mat 
thew  Vassar,  founder  of  Vassar  College.  From  the  first 
the  French  language  was  taught,  and  all  the  i  i  ladylike 
accomplishments"  of  the  time  were  imparted.  English 
teachers  were  employed  to  teach  the  grammatical  use  of 
their  own  tongue,  written  and  spoken  ;  but  it  may  be 
imagined  that  this  was  not  considered  as  of  nearly  as  high 
importance  as  the  more  showy  accomplishments,  which 
could  be  acquired  at  these  schools  only.  These  accom 
plishments  included  enough  of  music  to  enable  a  young 
woman  to  play  a  little  for  dancing,  or  to  warble  a  few 
songs  in  her  fresh  sweet  tones  to  the  accompaniment  of 
the  spinet ;  enough  of  French  to  read  it  easily,  write  it 
fairly  well,  and  hold  a  not  too  monosyllabic  conversation. 
Then  much  was  made  of  instruction  in  the  arts  of  paint 
ing  and  embroidery,  and  more  of  that  truly  high  art, 
gentle  manners — the  manners  not  only  of  persons  of  gentle 
birth,  but  of  those  so  early  taught  by  precept  and  example 
that  their  graces  seem  to  have  been  born  with  them,  a  part 
of  their  very  selves.  The  pupils  were  taught  how  to  avoid 
all  awkwardness  of  movement  or  carriage  ;  how  to  bear 
themselves  gracefully  erect ;  how  to  enter  and  leave  a 
room,  to  greet  properly  all  ages  and  conditions,  to  ar 
range  and  preside  at  a  dinner  table  with  elegance,  to 
dress  with  taste  and  effect,  and  to  dance  gracefully.  In 
cidentally  with  all  these  things,  a  great  deal  of  valuable 
instruction  was  given  in  the  finer  graces  of  courtesy  and 
courteous  speech,  and  all  that  gentle  consideration  for 
others  which  is  at  once  the  flower  and  root  of  good  breed 
ing.  Who  shall  say  that  this  education  was  not  fitting, 
and  that  the  colleges  of  to-day,  with  their  niannishness, 


do  not  lack  some  of  the  feminine  elements  which  tend  to 
produce  rounded  womanhood  and  to  make  woman  a 
home  queen. 

The  Huguenots  endeavoured  to  transmit  to  their  chil 
dren  the  traditions  of  politeness  they  had  brought  from  Manners 

'P.  «,.»,«,_,:* 

France.  Even  in  their  games  and  amusements  good 
manners  were  taught,  and  certainly  the  delightful  traits 
of  courtesy  and  thoughtful  kindness  and  fine  breeding 
have  persisted  in  the  French  Protestant  blood,  and  are 
notable  in  the  fine  families  which  perpetuate  the  stock  in 
our  land. 


'CHpinaUy  the  PeLancej/  Homestet 


What  is  an 
American  ? 

Answer  by  a 



THE  American  character  is  a  composite,  repre 
senting  many  nationalities.  In  the  early  blend 
there  were  four  distinct  types — English,  Scotch, 
French  and  Dutch.  What  we  commonly  call  the  Amer 
icans,  with  reference  to  the  early  colonists  and  their  de 
scendants — using  the  term  thus  in  a  restricted  sense — 
came  from  the  intermixture  of  these  stocks  or  from  the 
unmixed  blood.  It  will  be  interesting  to  read  the  esti 
mate  which  a  French- American  colonist  gives  of  America 
and  the  Americans  in  the  last  decade  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  The  following  extract  is  taken  from  the  Letters 
from  an  American  Farmer,  published  in  London  in  1782, 
the  author  being  J.  Hector  St.  John  de  CreVecceur  : 

"I  wish  I  could  be  acquainted  with  the  feelings  and 
thoughts  which  must  agitate  the  heart  and  present  them 
selves  to  the  mind  of  an  enlightened  Englishman,  when 
he  first  lands  on  this  continent  (America).  .  .  .  Here 
he  sees  the  industry  of  his  native  country  displayed  in  a 
new  manner.  .  .  .  Here  he  beholds  fair  cities,  sub 
stantial  villages,  extensive  fields,  an  immense  country 
filled  with  decent  houses,  good  roads,  orchards,  meadows, 
and  bridges,  where  an  hundred  years  ago  all  was  wild, 
woody  and  uncultivated  !  .  .  .  He  is  arrived  on  a 
new  continent ;  a  modern  society  offers  itself  to  his  con 
templation,  different  from  what  he  had  hitherto  seen.  It 
is  not  composed,  as  in  Europe,  of  great  lords  who  possess 
everything,  and  of  a  herd  of  people  who  have  nothing. 
Here  are  no  aristocratical  families,  no  courts,  no  kings, 
no  bishops,  no  ecclesiastical  dominion,  no  invisible 



power  giving  to  a  few  a  very  visible  one  ;  no  great  man 
ufacturers  employing  thousands,  no  great  refinements  of 
luxury.  The  rich  and  the  poor  are  not  so  far  removed 
from  each  other  as  they  are  in  Europe.  Some  few  towns 
excepted,  we  are  all  tillers  of  the  earth,  from  Nova 
Scotia  to  West  Florida.  We  are  a  people  of  cultivators, 
scattered  over  an  immense  territory,  communicating  with  Pe°Ple 
each  other  by  means  of  good  roads  and  navigable  rivers, 
united  by  the  silken  bands  of  mild  government,  all  re 
specting  the  laws,  without  dreading  their  power,  because 
they  are  equitable.  We  are  all  animated  with  the  spirit 
of  an  industry  which  is  unfettered  and  unrestrained,  be 
cause  each  person  works  for  himself.  ...  A  pleas 
ing  uniformity  of  decent  competence  appears  throughout 
our  habitations.  The  meanest  of  our  log-houses  is  a  dry 
and  comfortable  habitation.  Lawyer  or  merchant  are 
the  fairest  titles  our  towns  afford  ;  that  of  a  farmer,  is  the 
only  appellation  of  the  rural  inhabitants  of  our  country. 
Here  man  is  free  as  he  ought  to  be  ;  nor  is  this 
pleased  equality  so  transitory  as  many  others  are.  Many 
ages  will  not  see  the  shores  of  our  great  lakes  replenished 
with  inland  nations,  nor  the  unknown  bounds  of  North 
America  entirely  peopled.  Who  can  tell  how  far  it  ex 
tends  ?  Who  can  tell  the  millions  of  men  whom  it  will 
feed  and  contain  f  for  no  European  foot  has  as  yet  trav 
ersed  half  the  extent  of  this  mighty  continent ! 

1  i  The  next  wish   of  this  traveller  will  be  to  know 
whence  came  all  these  people  !    They  are  a  mixture  of    A  eiood 


English,  Scotch.  Irish,  French,  Dutch,  Germans,  and 
Swedes.  From  this  promiscuous  breed,  that  race  now 
called  Americans  has  arisen. 

"By  what  invisible  power  has  this  surprising  meta-   Metamor- 
morphosis  been  performed  ?    By  that  of  the  laws  and  that  Snd8ub°efrtLyaw 
of  their  industry.     The  laws,  the  indulgent  laws,  protect 
them  as  they  arrive,  stamping  on  them  the  symbol  of 
adoption  ;  they  receive  ample  rewards  for  their  labours  ; 
these  accumulated  rewards  procure  them  land  j  those 


Melted  Into  a 
New  Race 

New  Man  of 
New  Ideas 

lands  confer  on  them  the  title  of  freemen,  and  to  that 
title  every  benefit  is  affixed  which  man  can  possibly  re 
quire.  This  is  the  great  operation  daily  performed  by 
our  laws.  From  whence  proceed  these  laws  f  From  our 
government.  Whence  that  government?  It  is  derived 
from  the  original  genius  and  strong  desire  of  the  people 
ratified  and  confirmed  by  the  crown.  This  is  the  great 
chain  which  links  us  all,  this  is  the  picture  which  every 
province  exhibits.  .  .  . 

"He  is  an  American,  who  leaving  behind  him  all  his 
ancient  prejudices  and  manners,  receives  new  ones  from 
the  new  mode  of  life  he  has  embraced,  the  new  govern 
ment  he  obeys  and  the  new  rank  he  holds.  He  becomes 
an  American  by  being  received  in  the  broad  lap  of  our 
great  Alma  Mater.  Here  individuals  of  all  nations  are 
melted  into  a  new  race  of  men,  whose  labours  and  poster 
ity  will  one  day  cause  great  changes  in  the  world.  Amer 
icans  are  the  western  pilgrims,  who  are  carrying  along 
with  them  that  great  mass  of  arts,  sciences,  vigour,  and 
industry  which  began  long  since  in  the  east ;  they  will 
finish  the  great  circle.  The  Americans  were  once  scat 
tered  all  over  Europe ;  here  they  are  incorporated  into 
one  of  the  finest  systems  of  population  which  has  ever 
appeared,  and  which  will  hereafter  become  distinct  by 
the  power  of  the  different  climates  they  inhabit.  The 
American  ought  therefore  to  love  this  country  much  bet 
ter  than  that  wherein  either  he  or  his  forefathers  were 
born.  Here  the  rewards  of  his  industry  follow  with 
equal  steps  the  progress  of  his  labour  ;  his  labour  is 
founded  on  the  basis  of  nature,  self-interest ;  can  it  want 
a  stronger  allurement  f  Wives  and  children,  who  before 
in  vain  demanded  of  him  a  morsel  of  bread,  now,  fat  and 
frolicsome,  gladly  help  their  father  to  clear  those  fields 
whence  exuberant  crops  are  to  arise  to  feed  and  to  clothe 
them  all  ;  without  any  part  being  claimed,  either  by  a 
despotic  prince,  a  rich  abbot,  or  a  mighty  lord.  Here 
religion  demands  but  little  of  him  ;  a  small  voluntary 


salary  to  the  minister,  and  gratitude  to  God  ;  can  he  re 
fuse  these  ?  The  American  is  a  new  man,  who  acts  upon 
new  principles ;  he  must  therefore  entertain  new  ideas, 
and  form  new  opinions.  From  involuntary  idleness, 
servile  dependence,  penury,  and  useless  labour,  he  has 
passed  to  toils  of  a  very  different  nature,  rewarded  by 
ample  subsistence.  This  is  an  American. ' ' 


[  The  most  imposing  fart  of  the  gorgeous  pageant  was  the  Federal  ship  on  wheels, 
with  Hamilton's  name  emblazoned  upon  each  side  of  it,  tfs  crew  going  through 
tvery  nautical  / reparation  and  movement  /or  storms,  calms,  and  squalls,  as  it 
moved  slowly  through  the  streets  of  New  York  City.  Whtn  opposite  the  Bowline. 
Green  a.  salute  of  thirteen  guns  wa*  fired  \ 




The  French 



Men  of 


N  attempting  to  estimate  the  influence  of  the  Hugue 
nots  in  America,  three  facts  must  be  taken  into  ac 
count  :  first,  that  they  were  Frenchmen  ;  second,  that 
they  were  Frenchmen  of  marked  ability  ;  and  third,  that- 
they  had  been  fitted  by  long  and  severe  persecution  for 
exceptional  influence. 

The  characteristic  Frenchman  is  a  marked  man  in  any 
zone.  In  physique  he  is  slender  and  supple  ;  in  intellect 
imaginative,  ingenious,  artistic.  As  a  man  he  is  remark 
ably  light-hearted,  inclined  to  hopefulness,  loving  mental 
and  moral  sunshine  ;  and  has,  withal,  a  passionate  devo 
tion  to  his  native  land  and  its  institutions.  In  addition, 
he  possesses  fine  moral  fibre,  together  with  an  intensely 
religious  nature.  The  Huguenots  who  came  to  America 
were  French  through  and  through.  The  national  blood 
flowed  strongly  in  their  veins ;  they  loved  France,  and 
because  they  loved  her  deeply  they  soon  became  intensely 
loyal  to  their  adopted  country.  In  suffering,  in  peril,  in 
the  face  of  death,  in  the  darkest  hours,  they  sang  songs 
and  ever  turned  their  faces  towards  the  brighter  side  of 
things.  Yet  they  did  not  lack  seriousness,  but  were 
thoroughly  religious  and  were  ready  to  die,  if  need  be, 
for  their  religious  convictions. 

The  Huguenots  were  Frenchmen  of  marked  ability. 
They  were  drawn  from  all  classes  and  from  all  occupa 
tions,  but  were  the  best  of  their  various  ranks  and  call 
ings.  It  is  the  uniform  testimony  of  unprejudiced  his 
tory  that  the  Protestants  of  France  were  her  strength  in 



agriculture,  in  manufacturing,  and  in  commerce,  and 
that  the  insane  policy  of  the  crown  in  lending  itself  to 
the  papal  determination  to  exterminate  them  bespoiled 
France  of  much  of  her  material  wealth  and  glory  and 
sank  her  into  the  depths  of  moral  degeneration.  And  of 
this  Protestant  body,  the  brain  and  heart  of  a  whole  race, 
it  was  the  exceptionally  strong,  vigorous  and  purposeful 
soul  who  succeeded  in  eluding  the  clutch  of  the  emissaries 
of  Rome  and  in  reaching  America.  Those  lacking  in 
physical  strength,  or  financial  resources,  or  unusual 
tenacity  of  purpose,  became  the  victims  of  their  relentless 
persecutors.  An  elect  race,  men  of  remarkable  ability, 
of  exceptional  mental  and  moral  worth,  of  deathless  alle 
giance  to  their  faith  and  to  the  rights  of  man,  were  the 
French  Protestants  who  shared  with  their  English 
brethren  the  perils  and  joys  of  founding  the  American 

Further  than  this,  the  long  years  of  harrowing  and  strong  in 
terrible  persecution  had  given  to  the  Huguenots  a  charac 
ter  of  peculiar  fibre  and  force.  The  close  surveillance 
which  their  persecutors  held  over  them  was  so  exacting 
and  minute  that  they  were  forced  into  the  most  careful 
scrutiny  of  their  every  act  and  of  the  whole  manner  of 
their  lives.  Thus  did  their  tormentors  instil  into  them 
foresight  and  prudence  and  a  deep  wisdom  in  the  conduct 
of  life.  In  addition,  persecution  drove  them  to  the 
Word  of  God  and  they  became  the  * i  direct  offspring  of 
the  Bible. "  Its  study  was  their  consolation,  and  came  to 
be  their  strength — proving  in  this  case,  as  it  has  proved 
in  countless  other  cases,  to  be  an  inspirer  of  vigorous 
minds  and  sturdy  moral  natures.  In  the  early  days  of 
the  persecution,  Clement  Marot  had  translated  the  Psalms 
of  David  into  French  rhythm,  and  the  singing  of  these  Marot's 
psalms  became  a  Huguenot  characteristic.  They  chanted  Hymi 
them  at  their  services,  in  their  homes,  at  their  work,  at 
social  gatherings,  on  the  streets,  in  dungeons,  on  board 
the  galleys,  at  the  stake  or  the  scaffold  :  and  the  influence 



A  High  Type 
of  Race 


Moral  and 
Religious  Life 

of  these  hymns  in  giving  the  Huguenots  comfort  and 
courage  and  strength  was  remarkable.  Engrafted  upon 
their  natures  as  Frenchmen  was  a  biblical  breadth  and 
depth,  and  a  manly  gentleness  of  character. 


It  was,  then,  a  high  and  peculiar  type  of  French  blood 
that  was  infused  into  the  English  colonial  life ;  and 
marked  results  followed.  First  of  all,  it  quickened 
material  prosperity.  By  the  addition  of  these  skilled 
artisans,  agriculture  and  commerce  and  the  mechanical 
arts  received  a  new  impulse.  They  brought  to  perfection 
the  cultivation  of  rice  and  tobacco,  improved  the  native 
vines,  introduced  new  fruits  such  as  the  quince  and  pear, 
and  added  greatly  to  the  variety  and  quality  of  American 
garden  products.  In  commercial  enterprise  they  were 
unequalled,  and  such  merchants  as  the  Faneuils,  the  Lis- 
penards,  the  Allaires,  the  Marquands,  the  De  Lanceys, 
the  Manigaults,  were  names  to  conjure  with.  The  share 
of  the  colonial  wealth  held  by  the  Huguenots  was  out  of 
all  proportion  to  their  numbers,  for  of  all  the  peoples 
who  enjoyed  the  bounties  of  the  New  World  they  were 
the  most  prosperous.  The  same  enterprise  which  caused 
the  settlers  of  the  Narragansett  colony  to  set  out  mul 
berry  trees,  for  the  purpose  of  silk  culture,  at  the  same 
time  they  planted  the  crops  which  were  to  serve  their 
immediate  needs,  found  an  outlet  in  the  improvement  of 
settled  manufactures  and  in  the  introduction  of  new  ones. 
In  the  weaving  and  dyeing  of  cloth,  in  the  manufacture 
of  felt,  gunpowder,  sugar,  etc.,  they  were  pioneers,  as 
they  were  likewise  in  the  development  of  American  min 
eral  resources. 

The  infusion  of  the  Huguenot  blood  had  a  second 
marked  result — it  produced  a  higher  type  of  moral  and 
religious  life.  It  modified  and  softened  the  harsher  and 
more  austere  views  of  the  Puritans  in  New  England  and 
thus  helped  to  produce  a  higher  and  more  efficient  type 

President  lames  A.  Garfield 

General  John  C.   Fremont 


Hannibal  Ilamlin 

General  Robert  Anderson 

Admiral  Uewey  U.  S.  Senator  Robert  La  Follette 



of  religious  manhood.  In  the  province  of  New  Nether- 
land  the  Huguenot  influence  was  felt  in  lending  a  greater 
spirituality  to  the  solid  worthfuluess  of  the  Dutch,  and 
in  Pennsylvania  the  result  was  the  same.  While  the 
fervour  of  the  Southerner,  outside  of  its  climatic  causes, 
is  directly  traceable  to  the  intermingling  of  the  Huguenot 
and  Cavalier. 

The  facility  and  adaptability  which  characterized  the 
Huguenot  emigrants  was  a  factor  of  great  strength  in  giv 
ing  the  new  race  its  peculiar  ability  to  work  out  the 
whole  scheme  of  American  government.  The  basis  and 
body  of  the  colonial  life  was  predominantly  English — a 
life  of  remarkable  vigour,  strength  and  genius.  But  the 
Englishman  after  several  years  on  American  soil  was  no 
longer  an  Englishman,  but  an  Englishman  Americanized. 
He  had  been  changed  into  a  radically  different  and  su 
perior  man.  In  producing  this  change  climate  and  en 
vironment  had  their  effects  ;  the  colonial  life  wrought 
out  its  disciplinary  and  modifying  results.  But  the 
change  in  character,  efficiency,  genius  and  power  were 
too  deep  and  radical  to  be  explained  in  this  way.  It  can 
be  understood  only  by  remembering  that  a  continuous 
stream  of  French  life  was  poured  into  the  larger  English 
current,  sweetening  and  purifying  its  waters  and  making 
them  more  healthy  and  life-giving.  This  commingling 
of  two  powerful  nations  produced  a  race  of  men  that 
neither  France  nor  England  could  possibly  have  pro 
duced  had  either  been  the  sole  possessor  of  American 
soil.  It  needed  both  Huguenot  and  Englishman  to  A  strong 
make  the  American.  This  new  race,  the  offspring  of  two  Blend 
great  nations,  faced  tremendous  responsibilities  and  as 
sumed  a  herculean  task.  It  undertook  to  transmute  into 
practical  and  enduring  shape  the  dream  of  statesmen  of 
all  ages.  It  undertook  to  build  a  nation  unlike  any  na 
tion  of  the  past  in  all  its  deeper  features ;  to  erect  a 
structure  that  should  not  only  endure  but  become  stronger 
with  the  passing  of  the  years.  Civil  and  religious  liberty 



Debt  to 

Links  in  the 

Debt  to  Calvin 

was  to  be  the  foundation  stone.  The  essential  thing  in  its 
accomplishment  was  the  race  of  men  who  were  to  under 
take  the  mighty  task.  The  foundation  was  laid  and 
steadily  the  building  went  up.  It  took  on  form  and 
beauty  and  realized  the  dream  of  sage  and  prophet. 
Time  has  tested  its  foundations  j  unlocked  for  strains 
have  come  to  its  walls,  but  foundations  and  superstructure 
endure,  so  wise  and  successful  was  the  work  of  the  build 
ers.  All  honour,  then,  to  the  persecuted  refugees  who 
lent  their  influence  and  their  lives  to  the  building  of  the 


America's  debt  to  France  is  not  likely  to  be  fully  recog 
nized,  so  deep  below  the  surface  does  it  reach.  Pointing 
out  how  Providence  deduces  the  greatest  events  from  the 
least  considered  causes,  Bancroft  instances  how  "  a  Geno 
ese  adventurer,  discovering  America,  changed  the  com 
merce  of  the  world ;  an  obscure  German,  inventing  the 
printing  press,  rendered  possible  the  universal  diffusion 
of  increased  intelligence ;  an  Augustine  monk,  denoun 
cing  indulgences,  introduced  a  schism  in  religion,  and 
changed  the  foundations  of  European  politics  ;  a  young 
French  refugee,  skilled  alike  in  theology  and  civil  law, 
in  the  duties  of  magistrate  and  the  dialectics  of  religious 
controversy,  entering  the  republic  of  Geneva,  and  con 
forming  its  ecclesiastical  discipline  to  the  principles  of 
republican  simplicity,  established  a  party,  of  which  Eng 
lishmen  became  members,  and  New  England  the  asylum." 
There  is  the  chain.  Not  only  the  Huguenots,  but  also 
the  Pilgrims  and  Puritans,  with  their  incalculable  influ 
ence  upon  the  life  of  the  nation,  are  under  deepest  obli 
gations  to  that  Frenchman,  John  Calvin. 

It  is  to  Calvin,  indeed,  far  more  than  to  Luther,  that 
America  owes  the  Protestantism  that  is  the  foundation 
of  its  liberties  and  life.  The  Dutch  brought  in  the  Luth 
eran  element,  but  their  influence  religiously  was  much 
less  in  the  development  of  the  national  character  than 


that  of  the  New  England  Puritans,  who  were  the  spiritual 
offspring  of  Calvinism.  It  must  be  remembered  that 
Henry  VIII  did  not  free  England  from  the  Roman  Cath-  wha*  Henry 

VIII  Did  for 

olic  church  by  substituting  a  reformed  religion  or  a  radical  Reform 
reform  in  morals.  He  only  set  himself  up  as  a  spiritual 
head  instead  of  the  Pope  at  Rome.  He  simply  "  became 
pope  in  his  own  dominions,  and  heresy  was  still  accounted 
the  foulest  of  crimes.  Almost  all  the  Roman  Catholic 
doctrines  were  asserted,  except  the  supremacy  of  the 
bishop  of  Rome.  The  Pope  could  praise  Henry  VIII  for 
orthodoxy  while  he  excommunicated  him  for  disobedi 
ence.  It  was  Henry's  pride  to  defy  the  authority  of  the 
Roman  bishop,  and  yet  to  enforce  the  doctrines  of  the 
Roman  church."  Thus  Luther  would  very  likely  have 
perished  by  fire  had  he  been  an  Englishman  instead  of 
German.  Henry  limited  the  privilege  of  reading  the 
Bible  to  merchants  and  nobles.  It  was  under  Edward  VI, 
England's  only  Puritan  kins:,  that  the  way  was  opened  Edward  vi 

f.,  .  &\  _       .       J.  the  Puritan 

to  changes  within  the  church  in  England ;  and  these 
changes  were  wrought  through  Calvinism.  In  the  regency 
the  reforming  party  had  the  majority,  and  Calvin,  burn 
ing  with  zeal  to  include  England  with  the  Reformers  of 
the  continent,  urged  a  uniform  confession  of  Christian 
doctrine.  * '  As  for  me, ' '  wrote  Calvin  to  Cranmer,  il  if  I 
can  be  made  use  of,  I  will  sail  through  ten  seas  to  bring 
this  about."  The  forty -two  articles  promulgated  as  the  The  Forty- 
creed  of  the  English  church  were  Calvinistic,  and  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer,  revised  by  Cranmer,  did  away 
with  most  of  the  Romish  superstitions.  Calvin  said  of  it : 
"The  Anglican  liturgy  wants  the  purity  which  was  to 
have  been  wished  for,  yet  its  fooleries  can  be  borne  with." 
So  much  had  been  gained  that  he  could  put  up  with  the 
unwillingness  of  the  English  Puritans  to  separate  them 
selves  altogether  from  the  Roman  usages.  Many  of  the 
English  people,  however,  demanded  a  more  complete  re 
form,  and  this  culminated  in  the  Puritan  revolt  which  led 
to  exile  and  colonization  in  America,  where  religious 



Luther  and 




liberty  was  to  be  a  foundation  stone.  It  was  the  sim 
plicity  of  worship  in  the  Eeformed  churches  of  France 
and  Switzerland  that  set  the  type  for  the  Puritans  of 

The  difference  between  the  Lutheran  and  Calvinistic 
types  of  reform  is  finely  brought  out  by  Bancroft, 1  in  one 
of  his  most  discriminating  passages  : 

"The  reform  had  made  great  advances  among  the 
French  and  the  Swiss.  Both  Luther  and  Calvin  brought 
the  individual  into  immediate  relation  with  God ;  but 
Calvin,  under  a  more  stern  and  militant  form  of  doctrine, 
lifted  the  individual  above  pope  and  prelate,  and  priest 
and  presbyter,  above  Catholic  Church  and  national 
church  and  general  synod,  above  indulgences,  remissions, 
and  absolutions  from  fellow -mortals,  and  brought  him 
into  the  immediate  dependence  upon  God,  whose  eternal, 
irreversible  choice  is  made  by  himself  alone,  not  arbi 
trarily,  but  according  to  his  own  highest  wisdom  and 
justice.  Luther  spared  the  altar,  and  hesitated  to  deny 
the  real  presence ;  Calvin  with  superior  dialectics,  ac 
cepted  as  a  commemoration  and  a  seal  the  rite  which  the 
Catholics  revered  as  a  sacrifice.  Luther  favoured  mag 
nificence  in  public  worship,  as  an  aid  to  devotion ;  Cal 
vin,  the  guide  of  republics,  avoided  in  their  churches  all 
appeals  to  the  senses,  as  a  peril  to  pure  religion.  Luther 
condemned  the  Eoman  Church  for  its  immorality ;  Cal 
vin  for  its  idolatry.  Luther  exposed  the  folly  of  super 
stition,  ridiculed  the  hair  shirt  and  the  scourge,  the  pur 
chased  indulgence,  and  dearly -bought,  worthless  masses 
for  the  dead  ;  Calvin  shrunk  from  their  criminality  with 
impatient  horror.  Luther  permitted  the  cross  and  the 
taper,  pictures  and  images,  as  things  of  indifference ; 
Calvin  demanded  a  spiritual  worship  in  its  utmost 
purity.  Luther  left  the  organization  of  the  church  to 
princes  and  governments ;  Calvin  reformed  doctrine, 

History  of  the  United  States,  Vol.  I,  p.  312fl. 

The  First  of  This  Family  in  New  York 



ritual  aud  practice  ;  and,  by  establishing  ruling  elders 
in  each  church  and  an  elective  synod,  he  secured  to  his 
polity  a  representative  character,  which  combined  au 
thority  with  popular  rights.  Both  Luther  and  Calvin  Religion  of  a 
insisted  that,  for  each  one,  there  is  and  can  be  no  other  I 
priest  than  himself ;  and,  as  a  consequence,  both  agreed 
in  the  parity  of  the  clergy.  Both  were  of  one  mind  that, 
should  pious  laymen  choose  one  of  their  number  to  be 
their  minister,  i  the  man  so  chosen  would  be  as  truly  a 
priest  as  if  all  the  bishops  in  the  world  had  consecrated 

This  clearly  shows  how  the  Protestantism  that  had 
become  distinctive  in  America  was  the  direct  result  of  Popular 
the  teaching  and  polity  of  the  French  reformer,  theolo-  Sovereignty 
giaii  and  statesman  who  has  been  one  of  the  foremost  and 
most  potent  agencies  in  human  civilization.  It  was  be 
cause  Eichelieu,  the  keen  statesman  of  France,  saw  that 
the  Huguenot  faith  was  in  its  very  nature  opposed  to 
royal  absolutism,  and  that  the  divine  right  of  kings  could 
not  exist  if  the  people  came  to  hold  the  divine  sovereignty 
taught  by  Calvin,  that  he  was  willing  to  go  to  all  lengths 
to  crush  it  out  of  France.  Thus  directly  and  indirectly 
the  French  have  contributed  to  America  the  principles 
of  religious  and  civil  liberty  upon  which  all  our  institu 
tions  are  founded.  Of  far  deeper  influence  than  that 
which  came  through  immigration  has  been  the  influence 
of  that  reform  in  religion  which  began  in  France  before 
the  day  of  Luther,  and  which  had  its  supreme  leader 
in  John  Calvin,  who  found  opportunity  to  do  through 
the  Swiss  Eepublic  what  he  could  not  do  in  Eome-bound 
France,  his  native  land. 




A  volume  published  in  Paris  in  1908,  entitled  Les  Combattants  Fran^ais 
de  la  Guerre  Arnericaine  gives  a  full  list  of  French  officers,  sailors  and  ves 
sels  engaged  in  the  War  of  the  Revolution,  together  with  a  list  of  the 
officers  and  men  who  aided  the  Army.  There  were  sixty-two  vessels 
armed,  manned  and  equipped  by  France  in  aid  of  the  American  colonies, 
and  there  were  thirteen  regiments  of  soldiers.  Both  vessels  and  troops 
were  officered  by  Frenchmen. 


The  Durand  family  of  New  Jersey,  which  numbered  several  members 
who  took  rank  among  the  remarkably  skillful  American  mechanicians 
and  artists,  was  descended  from  Huguenots  who  came  to  this  country 
early  in  the  eighteenth  century.  The  two  members  best  known  were 
Cyrus  Durand,  who  became  a  silversmith,  and  later  engaged  in  the  con 
struction  of  machinery  during  the  period  prior  to  the  War  of  1812 ;  and 
Asher  Brown  Durand,  who  began  as  engraver,  and  became  a  painter  of 
distinction.  He  was  called  "  one  of  the  fathers  of  American  landscape," 
having  for  nearly  fifty  years  devoted  himself  to  landscape  painting.  He 
produced  the  best  known  engraving  in  the  United  States,  that  of  John 
Trumbull's  famous  painting  of  "The  Declaration  of  Independence." 
His  portraits  of  Andrew  Jackson,  John  Quincy  Adams,  James  Madison, 
Edward  Everett,  and  Bryant  were  also  notable.  He  lived  to  be  ninety. 
He  died  in  South  Orange  in  1886. 


A  Huguenot  descendant  who  won  more  than  ordinary  distinction  as  an 
author  and  patriot  was  Judge  Albion  W.  Tourgee,  whose  book  of  the  re 
construction  period,  A  Poors  Errand,  had  a  sale  of  more  than  200,000 
copies,  unprecedented  in  that  day.  As  bearing  on  the  race  problem, 
the  KuKlux  Klan,  and  the  difficulties  of  sectionalism,  it  produced  a  pro 
found  effect.  Judge  Tourgee  served  in  the  army,  was  severely  wounded, 
and  never  wholly  recovered  from  the  effects  of  campaign  life.  He  was 
appointed  United  States  Consul  at  Halifax,  and  later  at  Bordeaux, 
France,  the  land  of  his  ancestors,  where  he  died  in  1905. 


We  must  be  at  the  helm  at  least  once  a  day  ;  we  must  feel  the  tiller 
rope  in  our  hands,  and  know  that  if  we  sail,  we  steer. 



How  vain  it  is  to  sit  down  to  write  when  you  have  not  stood  up  to  live. 

Silence  is  of  various  depths  and  fertility,  like  soil. 

Praise  should  be  spoken  as  naturally  and  simply  as  a  flower  emits  its 

All  fear  of  the  world  or  consequences  is  swallowed  up  in  a  manly 
anxiety  to  do  Truth  justice. 

We  are  all  pilots  of  the  most  intricate  Bahama  channels.  Beauty  may 
be  the  sky  overhead,  but  Duty  is  the  water  underneath. 

The  man  of  principle  never  gets  a  holiday.  Our  true  character  silently 
underlies  all  our  words  and  actions,  as  the  granite  underlies  the  other 


The  Paul  Revere  Memorial  Association  has  been  formed  in  Boston, 
with  purpose  to  purchase  and  preserve  the  old  home  of  Paul  Revere. 
This  is  believed  to  be  the  oldest  building  now  in  Boston.  It  was  erected 
between  1679  and  1681.  A  fund  of  $30,000  will  be  raised,  and  the  build 
ing  will  be  devoted  to  educational  and  historical  usefulness. 

Paul  Revere  engraved  the  plates,  made  the  press,  and  printed  the  first 
promissory  notes  of  the  State  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  when  the  exigen 
cies  of  the  struggle  for  independence  made  paper  currency  necessary. 
He  had  a  shop  on  what  is  now  Cornhill,  and  this  was  the  ample  sign  over 
the  door : 

Paul  Revere  and  Son,  at  their  bell  and  cannon  Foundry  in  the  North 
part  of  Boston,  Cast  Bells  of  all  sizes  ;  every  kind  of  brass  Ordinance,  and 
every  kind  of  composition  work  for  ships,  etc.,  at  the  briefest  notice. 
Manufacture  copper  into  Sheets,  Bolts,  Nails,  Spikes,  rivets,  etc.,  from 
Maleable  Copper. 

They  always  keep  by  them  every  kind  of  copper  Sheathing  for  ships. 
They  now  have  on  hand  a  number  of  Church  and  Ship  Bells  of  different 
sizes,  a  large  quantity  of  Sheathing  Copper  from  16  up  to  30  oz. ;  Bolts, 
Spikes,  Nails,  etc.,  of  all  sizes,  which  they  warrant  to  be  equal  to  English 

Cash  and  the  highest  price  given  for  old  Copper  and  Brass. 


It  is  interesting  to  remember  that  America  owes  the  noble  plan  of  the 
national  capital  to  a  French  engineer,  Major  Charles  Pierre  L'Enfant,  in 
whose  honour  it  is  proposed  to  erect  a  suitable  memorial  in  one  of  the 
parks  which  he  laid  out. 


Rev.  Edward  0.  Guerrant,  D.  D.,  a  descendant  of  the  Virginia  Hugue 
nots,  originated  a  most  interesting  work  among  the  mountain  people  of 
Kentucky,  Tennessee  and  North  Carolina.  The  religious  destitution  ap 
pealed  to  him,  and  in  1897  he  started  the  America  Inland  Mission,  with  one 
missionary  and  faith  for  capital.  The  work  grew,  support  came  from  un 
expected  sources,  until  the  receipts  for  1902  were  above  $7,000,  and  seventy 
faithful  men  and  women  were  employed  in  the  most  destitute  places, 


preaching,  distributing  Bibles  and  tracts,  teaching  Sunday-schools  and 
day  schools,  caring  for  the  sick  beyond  the  reach  of  physicians,  clothing 
the  poor,  building  churches,  and  in  every  way  blessing  the  thousands  to 
whom  they  ministered.  More  than  five  hundred  were  received  into  the 
church  that  year,  showing  the  results  of  the  Soul  Winners'  faithfulness. 
This  is  the  obligation  assumed  by  the  members  of  the  Soul  Winners' 
Society : 

"  By  the  help  of  God,  and  for  His  glory,  I  will  try  to  win  at  least  one 
soul  for  Christ,  my  Lord,  every  year  I  live,  and  give  what  I  am  able  to 
send  the  gospel  to  my  perishing  countrymen." 


The  Calvinist  ministers  who  came  to  Acadia  from  Geneva  in  1557  were 
the  first  Protestant  ministers  in  the  Western  Hemisphere.  Robert  was 
the  first  Protestant  minister  to  set  foot  on  the  continent  of  North 
America.  The  Huguenots  were  thus  in  the  lead  of  all  others. 


Deborah  Sampson,  named  the  "American  Heroine,"  who  served  as  a 
Revolutionary  soldier  for  nearly  three  years,  her  sex  never  being  sus 
pected,  was  a  descendant  of  Bathsheba  LeBroche.  She  enlisted  under 
the  name  of  Robert  Shurtleff,  and  served  under  Captain  George  Webb  in 
the  Fourth  Massachusetts  Regiment.  She  was  wounded  at  Tarrytown, 
and  fought  in  the  battles  of  White  Plains  and  Yorktown.  She  exhibited 
unusual  heroism,  was  esteemed  a  gallant  as  well  as  faithful  soldier,  re 
ceived  an  honourable  discharge,  and  was  granted  a  pension  by  the  govern 
ment.  She  was  as  modest  as  she  was  fearless,  and  was  impelled  to  her 
course  by  patriotism.  She  was  born  in  Plympton,  Massachusetts.  The 
story  of  her  career  has  been  written  by  Mrs.  Deborah  Sampson  Gannett. 


One  of  the  chapels  to  be  erected  as  a  part  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal 
Cathedral  of  St.  John  the  Divine  in  New  York  is  to  be  called  the  Hugue 
not  Chapel.  This  will  be  the  second  chapel  in  a  series  of  seven.  Mrs. 
Edward  King,  of  New  York,  gave  $100,000  for  the  building  of  this  memo 
rial  to  the  Huguenots  who  have  had  from  the  beginning  such  honourable 
part  in  the  making  of  the  Metropolis  of  the  New  World. 


From  a  study  of  the  names  contained  in  Appleton's  Encyclopedia  of 
American  Biography,  Hon.  Henry  Cabot  Lodge  finds  that  among  the  men 
in  America  prior  to  1789  who  were  of  sufficient  distinction  to  be  named 
in  the  Encyclopedia,  there  were  589  Huguenots,  they  holding  fourth 
place  in  the  list.  This  is  sufficient  testimony  as  to  the  character  and 
ability  of  these  Protestant  French. 

In  his  History  of  Independence  Hall  (published  by  James  Challon  & 


Son,  Philadelphia,  1859),  D.  W.  Belisle  says :  "  The  maternal  ancestor  of 
John  Adams  was  John  Alden,  a  passenger  in  the  Mayflower,  and  thus  he 
inherited  from  his  parentage  the  title  of  a  Son  of  Liberty.  The  last 
words  he  ever  uttered  were,  '  Independence  forever ! '  "  Thus  it  appears 
that  the  Huguenot  "  Priscilla  "  was  the  ancestress  of  one  of  our  Presi 


In  the  society  which  marked  the  early  days  of  the  Republic,  in  New 
York,  then  the  seat  of  the  Continental  Congress,  Mrs.  John  Jay,  wife  of  a 
Huguenot  descendant,  was  the  acknowledged  leader.  Her  talented  hus 
band  was  secretary  for  foreign  affairs.  Her  "  Dinner  and  Supper  list " 
for  1787-8  contains  the  names  of  the  men  and  women  prominent  in  that 
day.  General  Washington  was  among  the  honoured  guests  in  that 
hospitable  mansion.  Mrs.  Jay  was  a  Livingston.  Early  in  the  list  are 
the  names  of  Colonel  John  Bayard,  distinguished  member  of  a  Huguenot 
family,  and  his  wife.  Other  names  are  Alexander  Hamilton,  "  the 
vivacity  of  whose  French  blood  would  make  him  a  welcome  guest  at 
every  social  gathering  "  ;  Dr.  John  Rodgers,  Presbyterian  minister,  and 
his  wife,  who  was  of  the  Delaware  branch  of  the  Huguenot  Bayard 
family ;  and  Dr.  Provoost,  bishop  of  New  York,  a  chaplain  of  Congress,  of 
combined  Dutch  and  Huguenot  descent.  Two  other  names  of  note 
among  the  Huguenots  were  Elias  Boudinot  and  Daniel  Huger,  the  latter 
of  the  South  Carolina  family  so  honourably  represented  in  the  Revolution. 
The  DeLancey  family  was  represented,  as  were  the  Izards  of  South 
Carolina.  Both  in  Congress  and  society  the  Huguenot  families  were  at 
the  front. 


The  great  Washington,  in  his  early  life,  was  smitten,  according  to  well 
established  tradition,  by  the  charms  of  a  maiden  of  French  blood,  the  fair 
Mary  Philipse,  who  later  became  Mrs.  Morris.  Her  father's  mansion, 
still  standing  on  Harlem  Heights  and  known  as  the  Jumel  Mansion,  was 
subsequently  Washington's  headquarters. 


IT  is  not  assumed  in  the  case  of  the  names  here  given  that  a  French 
ancestry  is  certain ;  simply  that  there  is  fair  reason  for  believing  it.  No 
harm  will  be  done  if  the  genealogical  case  is  not  made  out. 

Backus.  Isaac  Backus,  Baptist  author  and  minister,  born  Jan.  9, 1724, 
at  Norwich,  Conn.,  died  in  1806  at  Titicut,  Conn.  Descendant  in  fifth 
generation  of  William  or  Stephen  Backus,  who  came  to  Norwich,  Conn., 
from  Norwich,  England,  in  1637.  Backus  doubtless  from  Beccues,  a  Wal 
loon.  DeSue  Beccues  was  witness  to  a  Walloon  baptism  in  Norwich, 
England,  as  the  records  of  the  Huguenot  Society  show. 

Deland,  DeLand,  Delane,  Delaune.  Philip  Delane  or  Deland,  probably 
a  Huguenot,  came  to  Newbury,  Mass.,  in  1694.  Rowland  Deland,  the 
probable  ancestor,  is  given  as  a  member  of  the  Walloon  Church  at  Nor 
wich,  England. 


Belmont,  Bellomont,  Beaumont.  Boaumonts  abound  in  Huguenot  liter 
ature.  LeSieur  de  Beaumont  was  a  refugee  in  Acadia  in  1604.  Richard 
Coot,  Earl  of  Bellomont,  governor  of  New  York  and  Massachusetts  in 
1696,  was  of  Flemish  origin.  Coot  is  a  Huguenot  name  in  Canterbury 
Church  records.  While  the  Belmonts  come  from  the  Palatinate,  Rhenish 
Prussia,  the  family  is  French  in  origin. 

Garrison.  William  Lloyd  Garrison's  grandfather  Joseph  was  an  Eng 
lish  settler  on  the  St.  John's  River  in  1767.  His  origin  is  obscure.  Gar 
rison  was  a  common  Walloon  name  in  England  after  the  Huguenot 
refugees  had  gone  thither.  Isaac  Garrison,  a  Huguenot  from  Montau- 
bon,  France,  became  a  citizen  of  New  York  in  1765.  It  is  not  at  all  im 
probable  that  the  great  Abolitionist  had  Huguenot  blood  in  his  veins. 

Eustis.  William  Eustis,  governor  of  Massachusetts  in  1825,  was  a  de 
scendant  of  William  Eustis  of  England.  The  family  is  of  Norman  blood, 
Eustace  the  Count  of  Boulogne  being  the  English  progenitor. 

Hale.  Nathan  Hale,  of  Connecticut,  who  was  executed  as  a  spy  in  the 
War  of  the  Revolution,  was  descended  from  the  Hales  of  Kent,  England, 
of  whom  Sir  Nicholas  de  Hales  was  the  Norman  ancestor. 

Fauntleroy.  Moore  Fauntleroy,  founder  of  the  Virginia  Fauntleroys, 
was  of  Huguenot  origin,  his  father  being  John  Fauntleroy  of  Southamp 
ton,  England.  Moore,  the  immigrant,  was  a  man  of  property,  member 
of  the  Virginia  House  of  Burgesses. 

Moultrie.  General  William  Moultrie,  who  defended  Sullivan's  Island 
from  British  attack  in  1776,  was  of  the  Huguenot  blood,  as  the  South  Car 
olina  records  show.  His  brother  John  was  governor  of  East  Florida  in 
1775.  The  family  is  one  of  the  first  in  South  Carolina. 

Lyon.  General  Nathaniel  Lyon,  of  Connecticut,  a  brave  commander  in 
the  Civil  War  who  died  at  Wilson's  Creek,  August  9,  1861,  was  a  descend 
ant  of  William  Lyons,  who  came  to  Roxbury  from  England  in  1635  in  the 
ship  Hopewell.  The  English  ancestor  was  Sir  Roger  de  Leonne,  a  native 
of  France. 

Legare.  Hugh  Swinton  Legare*,  born  in  Charleston,  S.  C.,  Jan.  2,  1789, 
died  in  Boston  June  20,  1843,  was  attorney-general  in  President  Tyler's 
cabinet,  and  was  attending  the  dedication  of  Bunker  Hill  Monument 
when  stricken  with  fatal  illness.  He  was  a  direct  descendant  of  Solomon 
Legare,  a  Huguenot  refugee  from  Bristol,  England,  to  Charleston,  S.  C., 
in  1686.  Solomon  Legare'  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Congregational 
Church — Circular  Church — in  Charleston. 

Ross.  Mrs.  Betsey  Ross,  who  made  the  first  United  States  flag,  very 
likely  had  French  blood  in  her  veins,  although  proof  positive  is  wanting. 
She  came  from  the  Griscom  family,  and  the  name  is  in  the  Huguenot 
records  frequently.  The  name  of  Ross,  also,  is  common  among  the 
Huguenots  as  Ros.  The  flag  was  made  upon  an  order  from  a  committee 
consisting  of  General  Washington  and  Colonel  George  Ross,  her  hus 
band's  uncle.  Her  ancestor,  Samuel  Griscom,  built  the  first  brick  house 
In  Philadelphia  in  1682. 

Russell.    This  family  is  of  Norman  origin,  and  Huguenot.    The  family 


of  Le  Rozel,  from  the  place  of  that  name  in  Lower  Normandy,  reaches 
back  into  the  eleventh  century.  In  England  the  Ilussells  have  been 
among  the  prominent  families  since  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century. 
The  name,  given  as  Rushell,  Rozel,  Rosel,  Roussello,  frequently  occurs 
in  the  Walloon  records  at  Canterbury.  Russell  and  Rousell,  Rouselle  and 
Roussel  were  in  the  list  of  "  Foreigners  resident  in  England  in  1618-1688." 
The  Russells  were  also  on  the  original  passenger  lists  to  America  in  the 
seventeenth  century,  at  least  a  dozen  entries  of  them  bound  for  New 
England.  In  the  New  World  as  in  the  Old,  the  family  has  won  distinc 
tion.  The  late  Governor  Russell  of  Massachusetts  belonged  to  the  best 
type  of  American  citizenship. 

Vasse.  Colonel  Joseph  Vasse,  or  Vose,  who  commanded  the  First 
Massachusetts  Bay  Regiment  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  was  a  direct  de 
scendant  of  Robert  Vose,  or  Vasse,  who  came  from  England  to  America 
in  1654  and  bought  174  acres  of  land  in  Milton,  including  a  portion  of  the 
famous  Brush  Hill.  In  England  the  name  was  spelled  Vaux,  retaining 
the  Norman  origin.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  the  name  Foss  comes  from 
the  same  source. 

8t.  Glair.  General  Arthur  St.  Glair  had  Norman  blood  in  his  veins. 
He  was  born  in  Scotland  in  1786,  died  in  Pennsylvania  in  1818.  He  was  a 
general  in  the  Revolutionary  War.  He  married  in  Boston  Phoebe 
Bayard,  daughter  of  a  Boston  Huguenot,  Balthazar  Bayard.  His  wife's 
mother  was  a  half-sister  of  Governor  James  Bowdoin.  The  St.  Glairs  or 
Sinclairs  of  Scotland  were  of  Norman  descent  from  Walderne,  Count  de 
Santo  Claro,  whose  wife  was  daughter  of  the  Duke  of  Normandy. 

Warren.  General  Joseph  Warren,  whose  name  will  live  as  long  as 
Bunker  Hill  is  remembered,  was  born  in  Roxbury,  Mass.,  June  11,  1741. 
The  origin  of  his  Boston  ancestor,  Peter  Warren,  is  obscure.  He  mar 
ried  Sarah  Tucker,  and  Tucker  is  a  Huguenot  name,  corrupted  from 
Tuttiett  or  Touchet.  The  father  of  General  Warren  married  in  1710 
Mary  Stevens,  daughter  of  Doctor  Samuel  Stevens,  who  first  produced 
the  russet  apple.  The  name  of  Stevens  is  found  as  Stiffens,  Steffens, 
Stephens,  in  Huguenot  annals.  So  also  the  name  Warren,  Warene  and 
Werene,  is  common  in  Walloon  records.  Very  probably  Peter  Warren, 
ancestor  of  General  Warren,  was  Pierre  Warrene,  a  Huguenot.  He  was 
first  known  in  Boston  in  1659. 

Reverdy.  Peter  Reverdy  and  his  son  Benoni  came  to  New  York  from 
London  with  Pastor  Peiret  on  the  ship  Robert  in  1687.  Peter  was  the 
reputed  author  of  certain  Memoirs  of  Sir  Edmund  Andros.  He  was 
chosen  coroner  of  Newcastle,  Delaware,  in  1693.  Reverdy  was  a  Poitou 
family,  Huguenot. 

Johnson.  Reverdy  Johnson,  of  Maryland,  the  son  of  John  Johnson  and 
Ghiselin,  daughter  of  Reverdy  Ghiselin,  of  Maryland,  was  a  Hugue 
not,  his  mother  being  a  descendant  of  Jan  Ghiseliu,  a  Huguenot  refugee 
to  England  in  1566. 



Some  English  Surnames  of  French  Derivation 

THE  following  names  of  families,  of  French  descent  and  derivation, 
have  been  selected  from  Barber's  British  Family  Names.  Many  of  our 
American  families  can  trace  through  this  source  French  blood,  in  very 
many  cases  known  to  be  Huguenot.  Names  given  in  the  various  chap 
ters  are  not  repeated  here.  The  list  will  be  of  interest,  whether  the 
American  connection  can  be  traced  or  not.  The  abbreviations  used  are 
these:  "H.,"  for  Huguenot;  "Prot.  Ref.,"  Protestant  Refugee;  "  L.," 

AGNEW  (from  Aigneau). 

Alexander  (originally  Alexandra). 

Allard ;  Huguenot. 

Alloth  (H.,  near  Vermeil,  1688). 

Ames  or  Games  (Prot.  Ref..  L.,  1618). 

Angler  (H.,  Auger). 

Annes,  or  Annls  (Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

Arch  (H..L.,  1618). 

Arnold  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Arnott  (H.,  Arnaud,  L.,  1657). 

Arundell  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Astor  (Norman,  1180). 

Avery  (H.,  Norwich,  1622). 

BAILEY  (H.,  Belley,  L.,  1688). 

Bain  (H.,  Norwich,  1622). 

Baird  or  Beard  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Baker  (Becke,  Prot.  Ref.,  Norwich, 

Ballinger  (Bellanger,  Prot.  Ref.,  L., 

Barr  (De  la  Barr,  H.,  L.,  1618). 

Barrel!  (H.,  Barill,  Canterbury,  1622). 

Barrett  (Norman,  Barette). 

Bassett  (H.,  Sandwich,  1622). 

Batchelder, or  Batchelor  (H.,  Batchelier, 
L.,  1682). 

Bean  (Prot.  Ref.,  Bienne,  Norwich,  1622). 

Beaumont  (Norman). 

Bellevv,  or  Bellows  (Norman,  Bellot). 

Bellin  (H.,  BeHn,  Belyn,  L.,  1618). 

Bence  (Benson,  H.,  Sandwich,  1662). 

Bendon,  or  Benton  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Benn,  Bennett,  Beuny  (EL,  Benedict,  L., 

Bevis  (from  Beauvais.  France). 

Bezant  (H.,  Beaussaint). 

Billyard  (H.,  Dover,  1622). 

Bissett  (H.,  Bissot,  L.,1618). 

Blewitt  (Norman,  LaBlouette). 

Boffin  (H.,  Bovin,  L.,  1685). 

Bogert  fH.,  Boygard,  L.,  1681). 

Bone  (H.,  Bohon,  L.,  1621). 

Bonehill  (H.,  Bonnel,  L.,  1618). 

Bonner  (H.,  Bonnard,  L.,  1618). 

Boosey  (H.,  Bussey,  L.,  1618). 

Bowcher,  Boucher,  Bowker  (H.,  L., 

Boyd  (II.,  Boyard,  L.,  1687). 

Brade  (II.,  Breda,  L..  1688). 

Brain,  or  Brine  (H.,  Breon,  L.,  1688). 

Brand  (Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

Brasier.  Brazier  (H.,  Bressuire,  Nor 
wich,  1622). 

Breeden  (H.,  Briden,  L.,  1681). 

Brett  ( French,  LeBret). 

Brewer,  (Brueriain  Normandy). 

Briggs  (H.  Bruges,  L.,  1618). 

Brill  (Prot.  Ref.,  Brille,  Sandwich,  1622). 

Brothers  (Brodder,  Prot.  Ref.,  Sand 
wich,  1622). 

Brown  (Norman-French,  LeBrun). 

Bruce  (Brousse,  from  Breux,  Nor 

Brunyee  (Brune,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

Bryan  (Brionne,  Normandy). 

Bryant  (from  Breaunt,  Normandy). 

Bubier  (Norman). 

Buck  (LeBuc,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

Buckett  (Bouquet,  Prot.  Ref.,  JL.,  1685). 

Bull  (Bole,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

Buller  (Bolen,  Prot.  Ref.,  L,.,  1618). 

Burden  (Fr.,Burdon). 

Burdett  (Bourdet,  H.,  L.,  1685).  Prob 
able  ancestry  of  Robert  J.  Burdett, 
the  humourist. 

Burgoyne  (Norman-French). 

Burr  (Bure,  Belgian,  Prot.  Ref.,  L., 

Burt  (Norman  French). 

Bush  (Bosch,  Flemish,  Prot.  Ref.,  L., 

Bushell  (H.,  L.,1618). 

Busick  (Boussoe,  H.,  L.,  1685). 

Butcher  (H.,  L.,  1685). 

Buttle  (Butel,  H.,  L.,  1685). 

Byles  (H.,  from  Bueil,  France). 

Byron  (Norman-French,  Biron). 

CADE(H.,  Cadet). 

Camp  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Campbell,    and     Gamble     (Norman- 

Campion  (Prot.  Ref.,  Norwich,  1622). 

Cautrell  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Capel  (LaChapelle,  H.,  L  ,  1618). 

Card  (H.,  Cardes,  L.,  1681). 

Caron  (H..  L.,  1687). 

Carry,  or  Carr  (H.,  L.,  1685). 

Carter  (Cartler,  H.,  L.,  1618). 

Cartwright  (Cauterets,  Norman). 

Case  (II.,  De  la  Cuse). 

Chaflfe  (H.,  LeChauve,  L.,  1682). 

Chamberlain  (Chambellan,  H.,  L.,1618). 

Chambers  (H.,  Chambray,  L.,  1618). 

Chaplin  (Norman-French,  Capelen). 

Chattin  (H.,  Chattaine,  L.,  1618). 

Cheney  (Fr.,  Chesnais). 

Choffin  (H.,  Chauvin,  L.,  1684). 

Churchill  (Nor.  Fr.,  DeCourcelle). 

Clark  (H.,  Norwich,  1622). 

Clements  (Flem.,  Clement,  Prot.  Ref., 
L.,  1618). 

Cloake  (H.,  Clocke,  L.,  1618). 

Close  (Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

Closson  (Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 



Cocker  (H.,  Norwich,  1622). 

Cockerell  (Fr.,  Coqueril). 

Cockle   (Cokele,    Prot.   Ref.,   Norwich, 


Codd  (H.,  L.,  1618). 
Cogger  (Coege,  Flem.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 
Cole  (Flem.  Kef.,  L.,  1618). 
Colley  (H..  Colleye,  1618). 
Collier,  Colwer  (Fr.,  Collioure). 
Coppinger  (Flem.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 
Corbett  (Fr.,  raven). 
Corbin  (Norman-French). 
Corke  (H.,  Corque,  L.,  1618). 
Courage  (H.,  Correges). 
Courteney,  or  Courtinay,  or  Courtney 

(H.,  name). 

Coward  (H.,  Chouard,  1(588). 
Cozens  (Cousin,  II.,  1688). 
Creamer  (Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 
Cross  (Prot.  Ref.,  St.  Croix,  1618). 
Crowley  (Fr.,  Crulai). 
Crudge  (Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1688). 
Cruso   (Creusot,  Prot.    Ref.,    Norwich, 


Culley  (Flemish  Couillet). 
Curtis  (H.,  Courtois,  Norwich,  1622). 
Cushing  (Nor.  Fr.,  LeCuchon). 

DAGG  (Dague,  H.,  Canterbury,  1622). 
Dagget  (Dackett,  Flem.  Ref.,  Norwich, 

Dams   (D'Ames,   Prot.   Ref.,  Norwich, 


Dangerfield  (Dangerville). 
Daniel  (H.,  L.,  1618). 
Danvers  (from  Anvers,  France). 
Dennis  (St.  Denis,  H.,  L.,  1682). 
Derlyn,  Darling  (H.,  Norwich,  1622). 
Derrick  (H.,  L.,  1622). 
Devine  (Desvignes,  H.,  Norwich,  1622). 
Dewey  (Belgian,  Prot.  Ref.,  Dhuy,  L., 


Dewfall  (Duval,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1687). 
Doubleday  (Doublet,  H.,  L.,  1685). 
Doughty  (Daude,  H.,  L.,  1687). 
Doy  (H.,  L  ,  1618). 
Drake  (Nor.  Fr.,  Fitz-Drac,  Prot.  Ref., 

L,.,  1618). 

Draper  (Drapier,  H.,  Dover,  1622). 
Drew  (Dreux,  H  ,  Norwich,  1622). 
Drewry,  or  Drury  (DeBouvray,  Nor. 


Driver  (DeRivers,  Nor.  Fr.). 
Drought  (H.,  Droart,  L.,  1618). 
Durrant,  or  Durant  (Durarid,  Fr.). 
Durrell  (Durell,  H.,  L.,  1687). 

EMERY  (H.,  L.,1685). 

Eve  (Prot.  Ref.,  L..  1618). 

Kverson  (Prot.  Ref.,  Flemish,  L.,  1618). 

Evving,  or  Ewen  (Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

FABB  (H.,  Fabri.  L.,  1678). 

Fairy  (Verry  or  Ferry  H.,  L.,  1618). 

Fanning  (Norman). 

Farjou  (Fargeon,  H.,  L.,  1685). 

Faulkner  (Fauconnier,  H.,  L.,  1681). 

Fawcett,  Fassett  (Fr.  Fossord). 

Fear  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Fellows,  Fellowes  (H.,  L.,  1687). 

Fenn  (Fene,  H.,  Norwich,  1622). 

Ferrett  (H.,  Dover,  1622). 

Filbert  (Fr.,  St.  Phllbert). 

Finch  (Fl.,  DeVinck,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1622). 

Flowers  (H.,  L.,1618). 

Fleury  (H..L..1687). 

Foggs,  Fogg  (H  ,  Foucat,  L.,  1685). 

Foljambe  (Nor.  Fr.,  Fulgent).     ' 

Forman,  Furch  (Forment,  H.,  L.,  1618). 

Fox  (Flemish,  H.,  L.,  1618). 

Foy,  Faith  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Freeman    (Fl.,    Freyman,    Prot.    Ref.. 

Norwich,  1622). 
Fremont  (Fr.,  Frimont). 
Fromant  (Fromeau,  H.,  L.,  1618). 
Frusher  (H.,  Fruchat,  L.,  1687). 
Fuller  (Fr.,  Fouleur). 
Furber  (H.,  Foubert,  L.,  1618). 

GABBETT  (H.,  Gabet,  L.,  1688). 
Caches  (H.,  Gauchez,  L.,  1688). 
Galley  (H.,  Gallais,  L,.,  1687). 
Gallyon  (H. ,  Gaillen,  L.,  1618). 
Galpin  (H.,  Galopin,  L.,  1684). 
Garrard  (H.,  L.,1618). 
Garret  (Fr.,  Garet). 
Garrick  (Fr.,  Garrigues). 
Gaskin   (Fr.,    DeGascoigge,   from   Gas- 

German  (H.,  Germon,  L.,  1618). 
Giddings,  or  Giddens  (H.,  Guidon,  L., 


Gifford  (Giffard,  full  cheeked). 
Gillot  (diminutive  of  Gill,  H.,  L.,  1618). 
Gilyard  (Gilliard,  H.,  L,.,  1687). 
Gimlett  (Gimlette,  H.,  L.,  1618). 
Glass  (H.,  Glace,  L.,1618). 
Goacher,  Goucher  (Fr.,  Goucher,  H.,  L., 


Goddard  (H.,  Godart,  L.,  1618). 
Godfrey  (Fr.,  Godefroy,  H.,  L.,  1681). 
Goding    (Fl.,    Godding,  Prot.  Ref.,  L, 

Goodenough,     Moodenow     (Fr.,    Godi- 


Goodfellow  (Fr.,  Bonenfant). 
Goodhew,  or  Gooehue  (Fr.,  Godeheu). 
Goss,  or  Goose  (HM  Norwich,  1622). 
Gosling  (Gosselm,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1622). 
Gower,  Gowers  (Fl.,  Prot.  Ref.,  Govaerts, 


Grant  (Fr.,  Grands). 
Grave,   or    Graves    (Nor.    Fr.,    De   la 


Gray  (H.,  L.,  1618). 
Gruel  (H.,  Gruelle,  L.,  1628). 
Gubbins  (H.,  DeGobion,  L.,  1618). 
Guerin  (H.,  Gueron,  L.,  1628). 
Gurner,  or  Gurney  (H.,  L.,  1618). 
Gye(H.,  Gay,  L.,  1684). 

HAGUE  (H.,  LeHague,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.f 
1621).  From  this  family  came  the 
eloquent  preacher,  Rev.  Wll>u>uj 
Hague,  D.  D.,  Baptist  historian  and 

Hall  (FL,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1699). 

Hamblett  (II.,  Hamlett,  L.,  1622). 

Hanchett  (Prot.  Ref.,  Hansett,  L.,  1618). 

Hardy  (Nor.  Fr.,  bold,  strong;  H.,  L., 

Harry  (Harrye,  H.,  L.,  1681). 

Harvey  (H.,  Herve,  L.,  1681). 

Hassatt  (Prot.  Ref.,  Sandwich,  1622). 

Hay  (De  la  Haye,  H.,  Dover,  1622). 

Hayes  (Hees,  H.,  L.,  1618). 

Ilebbert  (Hebart,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1685). 

Herbert  (Herbart,  Prot.  Ref,  Canter 
bury,  1622). 

Hewett  (H  ,  Huet,  L.,  1621). 

Hood  (H.,|Ude,  L.,  1618). 



Hook  (H.,  Hue.  L.,  1618). 

Hooppell  i  H.,  Dover,  1622). 


Howes  (Fl.,  Housse,  Prot.  Ref.,  Canter 
bury  1622). 

Howltt  (H.,  Canterbury,  1622). 

Hubbard,  Hubert  (H.,  Houbart,  L., 

Hidden,  or  Iddon  (Nor.,  Hidden,  Prot. 
Kef.,  L.,  1618). 

JACKMAN  (H.,  Jacquement,  Canterbury, 


Jacobs  (Fl.,  Prot.,  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 
James  tSt.  James,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1621). 
Jar  vis  (H.,  Gerveis,  L.,  1688). 
Jasper  (Fl.,  Jaspard,  H.,  L.,  1621). 
Jay  (Jeyen,  H.,  L.,  1621). 
Jolly  (H.,  L.,  1681). 
Joyce  (Nor.,  Joyeuse). 
Joy  (H.,  L.,  1685). 
Julian  (Fr.,  Julien). 
Juliet  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

KINO  (Fl.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

LACY,  or  Lacey  (Nor.,  Lessay,  DeLacey) 
Lambert  (Fr.,  St.  Lambert,  Fl.  Ref.,L., 

1618  ;  General  Lambert,  Governor  of 


Landers  (from  Landre  in  Burgundy). 
Lane  (Fr.,  Laigne). 
Larter  (LaTour,  H.,  L.,  1618). 
Lawrence,  Laurence  (Fr.,Laurentin,  H., 


Laws  (Prot,  Ref.,  Norwich,  1622). 
Lawson  (Nor.  Fr.,  Loison). 
Laycock  (H.,  Lecocq,  Dover,  1622). 
L'Amoreaux.  Lamoreau  (H.,  L.,  1687). 
Lepper  (H.,  Lepere,  L.,  1618). 
Lessey  (H.,  Lesee,  L.,  1621). 
Lewis  (DeLuis,  H.,  Norwich,  1622). 
Littlejohn  (Fr.,  Petitjean). 
Living  (Fl.;  H.,  Livain,  Norwich,  1622). 
Loe,  or  Low  (H.,  DeLoe,  L.,  1618). 
Lofting  ( Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1688). 
Long  (DeLonga,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1621). 
Longfellow  (H.,  Longueville,  L.,  1685). 
Luce,  Loose  (Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 
Lovebond  (H.,  Lovingsbone,  L.,  1621). 
Lovell  (H..  Louvel,  L.,  1618). 
Lower  (Fl.'Ref.,  L.,  1618). 
Lucy  (Louiset,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1634). 
Lumbard,  Lombard  (H.,  Lombuart,  L., 

Lyon  (Prot.  Ref.,  Norwich,  1662). 

MACE  (H.,  Mes,  L.,  1618). 

Mackley  (Fl.,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

Maitland  (H.,  Mattalent,  Nantes). 

Major  (H.,  L.,  1688). 

Male  (DeMaisle,  H.,  Dover,  1622). 

Marcon  (Marquent,  Prot.  Ref.,  Canter 
bury,  1622). 

Marlow  (Fr.,  Marlieux). 

Marr  (H.,  Marre,  L.,  1618). 

Marshall  (H.,  Marechal,  L.,  1618). 

Martin  (H.,  St.  Martin,  L.,  1688). 

Martineau  (Fr.,  Martigne).  Family  of 
famous  James  Martineau,  philoso 

Massey  (H.,  Macey,  L.,  1684). 

Mason  (H.,  Macon,  L.,  1618). 

Mate  (H.,  Mette,  L.,  1618). 

Maule,  or  Moll  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Mayhew,  or  Mayo  (H.,  Mahieu,  Mayeux, 
Norwich  1622). 

Mayne  (TI.,  Mayenne,  L.,  1687). 

Maynard  (H.,  Menard,  Dover,  1622). 

Means  (Prot.  Ref.,  Minnens,  L.,  1687). 

Mear  (H.,  L,,  1618). 

Meen  (H.,  Migne,  L..  1618). 

Merritt,  Merry  (Marit  and  Meret). 

Mercier(H.,  L.,1618). 

Meyrick  (DeMeric,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1621). 

Michell.  Mitchell  (H.,  L.,  1618). 

Miles  (Norman  French).  General  Miles 
is  of  this  blood. 

Mills  (Fl.,  Miles,  Prot.  Ref.,  Norwich, 

Minett  (Minet,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1688). 

Minter  (Minder,  Prot.  Ref.  L.,  1618). 

Molineux  (Moliner,  Prot.  Ref.,  L.,  1618). 

Money  (H.,  Monnaye,  L.,  1618). 

Munsey,  or  Monsey  (H.  L.,  1618). 

Montague  (Montaigu). 

Moon,  Moen  (Fl.,  Moine,  H.,  Sandwich, 

Moore  (Fl.,  Mor ;  H.,  More,  L.,  1618). 

Morrell  (H.,  Morel,  L.,  1618). 

Morriss,  Morris  (Meurisse,  H.,  Can